All 97 seats in the New Zealand House of Representatives
49 seats were needed for a majority
The 1990 New Zealand general election was held on 27 October to determine the composition of the 43rd New Zealand parliament. The governing Labour Party was defeated, ending its controversial two terms in office. The National Party, led by Jim Bolger, won a landslide victory and formed the new government.
The 43rd New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. Its composition was determined by the 1990 elections, and it sat until the 1993 elections.
The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism, while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance.
The New Zealand National Party, shortened to National or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand. It is one of two major parties that dominate contemporary New Zealand politics, alongside its traditional rival, the New Zealand Labour Party.
The Labour Party had taken office after defeating the National Party under Robert Muldoon in the 1984 election. David Lange became Prime Minister and Roger Douglas became Minister of Finance. The economic program outlined by Douglas was deeply unpopular with Labour's traditional supporters, however — deregulation, privatisation, and free trade, all opposed by the party's more left-wing members, were a key part of the so-called "Rogernomics" platform. This internal dissent was off-set somewhat by new social legislation and a strong stance against nuclear weapons.
Sir Robert David Muldoon, also known as Rob Muldoon, was a New Zealand politician who served as the 31st Prime Minister of New Zealand, from 1975 to 1984, while Leader of the National Party.
The 1984 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the 41st New Zealand Parliament. It marked the beginning of the Fourth Labour Government, with David Lange's Labour Party defeating the long-serving Prime Minister, Robert Muldoon, of the National Party. It was also the last election in which the Social Credit Party won seats as an independent entity. The election was also the only one in which the New Zealand Party, a protest party, played any substantial role.
David Russell Lange was a New Zealand politician who served as the 32nd Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1984 to 1989.
Labour was re-elected in the 1987 election with its parliamentary majority untouched, but the internal disputes continued. Eventually Lange forced Douglas to resign in December 1988, but the crisis had weakened Lange's position such that he resigned eight months later. He was replaced as Prime Minister by Geoffrey Palmer, but Palmer failed to revive Labour's falling popularity. Several months before the election, Palmer was replaced by Mike Moore. The National Party was performing strongly — its leader, Jim Bolger, spoke repeatedly of "the Decent Society", saying that the reforms were doing significant damage to the social fabric of the country. The government was also being challenged by the NewLabour Party, founded by renegade MP Jim Anderton.
The 1987 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the 42nd sitting of the New Zealand Parliament. The governing New Zealand Labour Party, led by Prime Minister David Lange, was re-elected for a second term, although the Opposition National Party made gains. The election also saw the elimination of the Democratic Party from Parliament, leaving Labour and National as the only parties represented.
Sir Geoffrey Winston Russell Palmer is a New Zealand lawyer, legal academic, and past politician, who was a member of Parliament from 1979 to 1990. He served as the 33rd Prime Minister of New Zealand for a little over a year, from August 1989 until September 1990, leading the Fourth Labour Government. As Minister of Justice from 1984 to 1989, Palmer was responsible for considerable reforms of the country's legal and constitutional framework, such as the creation of the Constitution Act 1986, New Zealand Bill of Rights, Imperial Laws Application Act, and the State Sector Act. He served as president of the New Zealand Law Commission, from 2005 to 2010.
Michael Kenneth Moore, commonly known as Mike Moore, is a former New Zealand politician and union organiser. In the Fourth Labour Government of New Zealand he served in several portfolios including Minister of Foreign Affairs, and became the Prime Minister for 59 days before the October 1990 general election. Following Labour's defeat in that election, Moore served as Leader of the Opposition until the 1993 election, after which Helen Clark successfully challenged him for the Labour Party leadership.
The date for the 1990 election was 27 October. 2,202,157 people were registered to vote, and 85.2% of these people turned out. The number of seats being contested was 97 — this was the same as in the previous election, which had the largest number of seats for any Parliament until that point.
The 1990 election eventually saw a victory for the National Party, then in opposition. National won nearly half (48%) of the vote and 67 (69%) of the seats, becoming the fourth National government. This was the highest number of seats the party had ever won, either in absolute terms or as a percentage. Four new (and young) National MPs: (Bill English, Tony Ryall, Roger Sowry and Nick Smith) were called the "brat pack" by Sir Robert Muldoon (himself one of the "Young Turks" of 1960).
The Fourth National Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 2 November 1990 to 27 November 1999. Following electoral reforms in the 1996 election, Jim Bolger formed a coalition with New Zealand First. Following Bolger's resignation, the government was led by Jenny Shipley, the country's first female Prime Minister, for the final two years.
Sir Simon William English is a retired New Zealand politician who served as the 39th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 2016 to 2017. He was the leader of the National Party from 2001 to 2003 and 2016 to 2018, also serving two terms as Leader of the Opposition.
Anthony Boyd Williams Ryall is a New Zealand former politician. He represented the National Party in the New Zealand Parliament from 1990 to 2014. Since November 2008, he served as a cabinet minister, holding the posts of Minister of Health, Minister of State Services and Minister of State Owned Enterprises. He served previously in the Shipley Cabinet between 1997 and 1999. He announced in February 2014 that he was to retire from politics at that year's general election. He is chief executive of BestStart Educare, an early childhood education provider.
The new Green Party gained the third-highest number of votes, but won no seats. The NewLabour Party won a single seat, due to Jim Anderton retaining the Sydenham seat he originally won as a Labour candidate.
The Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand is a left-wing political party in New Zealand. Like many Green parties around the world it has four organisational pillars: ecology, social responsibility, grassroots democracy, and nonviolence. It also accepts Te Tiriti o Waitangi as the founding document of Aotearoa New Zealand and recognises Māori as Tangata Whenua.
The NewLabour Party was a centre-left political party in New Zealand that operated from 1989 to 2000. It was founded by Jim Anderton, an MP and former President of the New Zealand Labour Party.
James Patrick Anderton was a New Zealand politician who led a succession of left-wing parties after leaving the Labour Party in 1989.
The governing Labour Party, by contrast, suffered its worst-ever electoral defeat since it first won power in the 1935 election, winning only 29 (30%) of the seats and 35% of the vote (its lowest percentage since 1931), and losing 27 seats. Initially it appeared that twelve ministers and the Speaker had lost their seats, but Fran Wilde scraped in on special votes. Many of Labour's talented "class of 84" were sent away, though four of them, Annette King, Jim Sutton, Trevor Mallard and Judy Keall, returned in 1993.
The 1935 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 25th term. It resulted in the Labour Party's first electoral victory, with Michael Joseph Savage becoming the first Labour Prime Minister. The governing coalition, consisting of the United Party and the Reform Party, suffered a major defeat, attributed by many to their handling of the Great Depression. The year after the election, United and Reform took their coalition further, merging to form the modern National Party.
Dame Frances Helen Wilde is a New Zealand politician, and former Wellington Labour MP, Minister of Tourism and Mayor of Wellington City. She was the first woman to serve as Mayor of Wellington. She was chairperson of the Greater Wellington Regional Council from 2007 until 2015.
Dame Annette Faye King is a former New Zealand politician. She served as Deputy Leader of the New Zealand Labour Party and Deputy Leader of the Opposition from 2008 to 2011, and from 2014 until 1 March 2017. She was a Cabinet Minister in the Fifth Labour Government of New Zealand, and was the MP for the Rongotai electorate in Wellington from 1996 to 2017.
The result was primarily due to intense anger at Labour and its policies (shown by it losing 12% of its vote) rather than love of National (which only increased its vote by 4%).
|Party||Candidates||Total votes||Percentage||Seats won|
|Minor parties and Independents||76||12,863||0.71||-|
The tables below shows the results of the 1990 general election:
National Labour Democrats NewLabour Mana Motuhake
|Albany||Don McKinnon||7,455||June Allen|
|Ashburton||Jenny Shipley||7,922||Basil Moskovis|
|Auckland Central||Richard Prebble||3,277||Kathryn Hill|
|Avon||Larry Sutherland||4,250||W Rush|
|Awarua||Jeff Grant||4,964||Heather Russell|
|Bay of Islands||John Carter||5,285||Bruce Raitt|
|Birkenhead||Jenny Kirk||Ian Revell||2,813||Jenny Kirk|
|Christchurch Central||Geoffrey Palmer||Lianne Dalziel||3,769||R Gluer|
|Christchurch North||Mike Moore||2,148||Peter Yarrell|
|Clevedon||Warren Kyd||4,732||Ann Batten|
|Clutha||Robin Gray||6,527||Jeff Buchanan|
|Coromandel||Graeme Lee||6,342||Margaret Hawkeswood|
|Dunedin North||Stan Rodger||Pete Hodgson||2,336||Gael Donoghue|
|Dunedin West||Clive Matthewson||1,779||Ian McMeeking|
|East Cape||Anne Collins||Tony Ryall||1,968||Dianne Collins|
|East Coast Bays||Murray McCully||5,216||Gary Knapp|
|Eastern Hutt||Trevor Young||Paul Swain||801||Rosemary Thomas|
|Eden||Richard Northey||Christine Fletcher||1,524||Richard Northey|
|Fendalton||Philip Burdon||4,993||Tony Day|
|Gisborne||Allan Wallbank||Wayne Kimber||449||Allan Wallbank|
|Glenfield||Judy Keall||Peter Hilt||2,958||Judy Keall|
|Hamilton East||Bill Dillon||Tony Steel||2,121||Bill Dillon|
|Hamilton West||Trevor Mallard||Grant Thomas||1,563||Trevor Mallard|
|Hastings||David Butcher||Jeff Whittaker||728||David Butcher|
|Hawkes Bay||Bill Sutton||Michael Laws||2,895||Bill Sutton|
|Heretaunga||Bill Jeffries||Peter McCardle||1,122||Bill Jeffries|
|Hobson||Ross Meurant||6,641||Howard Henry|
|Horowhenua||Annette King||Hamish Hancock||624||Annette King|
|Invercargill||Rob Munro||4,137||B G Rait|
|Island Bay||Elizabeth Tennet||3,635||Ann Nolan|
|Kaimai||Robert Anderson||8,147||Gordon Dickson|
|Kaipara||Lockwood Smith||8,610||Wayne Kingsley Sellwood|
|Kapiti||Margaret Shields||Roger Sowry||1,599||Margaret Shields|
|King Country||Jim Bolger||7,274||Cameron Gordon|
|Lyttelton||Peter Simpson||Gail McIntosh||68||Peter Simpson|
|Manawatu||David Robinson||Hamish MacIntyre||3,089||David Robinson|
|Mangere||David Lange||4,039||Bryan Archer|
|Manurewa||Roger Douglas||George Hawkins||1,143||Pat Baker|
|Maramarua||Bill Birch||7,670||Charles Chauvel|
|Marlborough||Doug Kidd||7,187||B Hutchinson|
|Matamata||John Luxton||8,501||Bill Pepperell|
|Miramar||Peter Neilson||Graeme Reeves||552||Peter Neilson|
|Mt Albert||Helen Clark||1,230||Larry Bellshaw|
|Napier||Geoff Braybrooke||1,265||Colleen Pritchard|
|Nelson||Philip Woollaston||John Blincoe||636||L Baigent|
|New Lynn||Jonathan Hunt||1,099||Martyn Athol Bishop|
|New Plymouth||Harry Duynhoven||John Armstrong||1,701||Harry Duynhoven|
|North Shore||George Gair||Bruce Cliffe||6,183||Graeme Ransom|
|Ohariu||Peter Dunne||783||George Mathew|
|Onehunga||Fred Gerbic||Grahame Thorne||612||Fred Gerbic|
|Otago||Warren Cooper||3,927||Tony Cooke|
|Otara||Colin Moyle||Trevor Rogers||1,226||Taito Phillip Field|
|Pahiatua||John Falloon||7,689||Margo Martindale|
|Pakuranga||Maurice Williamson||9,086||Paul Charles Grant|
|Palmerston North||Trevor de Cleene||Steve Maharey||349||P L Sherriff|
|Panmure||Bob Tizard||Judith Tizard||1,098||Gray Bartlett|
|Papakura||Merv Wellington||John Robertson||5,665||James Stubbs|
|Papatoetoe||Ross Robertson||510||Allan Brewster|
|Pencarrow||Sonja Davies||384||Ray Wallace|
|Porirua||Graham Kelly||3,453||P Faulkner|
|Raglan||Simon Upton||5,442||Olivia Scaletti-Longley|
|Rangiora||Jim Gerard||5,273||J A McLachlan|
|Rangitikei||Denis Marshall||6,127||P Barton|
|Remuera||Doug Graham||7,368||Carl Harding|
|Roskill||Phil Goff||Gilbert Myles||644||Phil Goff|
|Rotorua||Paul East||5,270||Bruce Raitt|
|St Albans||David Caygill||1,560||D Dumergue|
|St Kilda||Michael Cullen||1,886||Bruce Alexander|
|Selwyn||Ruth Richardson||5,441||Val Elley|
|Sydenham||Jim Anderton||1,443||Linda Constable|
|Tamaki||Robert Muldoon||7,592||Malcolm Johnston|
|Taranaki||Roger Maxwell||7,867||S Dalziel|
|Tarawera||Ian McLean||Max Bradford||5,152||Malcolm Moore|
|Tasman||Ken Shirley||Nick Smith||2,246||Ken Shirley|
|Tauranga||Winston Peters||9,314||Bill Delaney|
|Te Atatu||Michael Bassett||Brian Neeson||1,370||Dan McCaffrey|
|Timaru||Maurice McTigue||3,192||Gary Clarke|
|Titirangi||Ralph Maxwell||Marie Hasler||64||Ralph Maxwell|
|Tongariro||Noel Scott||Ian Peters||886||Noel Scott|
|Waikaremoana||Roger McClay||5,865||David Davies|
|Waikato||Rob Storey||6,172||George Middleton|
|Waipa||Katherine O'Regan||8,477||Mark Apiata-Wade|
|Wairarapa||Wyatt Creech||4,141||Pauline Morgan|
|Waitaki||Jim Sutton||Alec Neill||2,905||Jim Sutton|
|Waitotara||Venn Young||Peter Gresham||7,192||Dominic O'Sullivan|
|Wallace||Derek Angus||Bill English||8,886||David Soper|
|Wanganui||Russell Marshall||Cam Campion||409||Jill Pettis|
|Wellington Central||Fran Wilde||246||Pauline Gardiner|
|West Auckland||Jack Elder||252||Lawrence Wicks|
|West Coast||Kerry Burke||Margaret Moir||2,611||Kerry Burke|
|Western Hutt||John Terris||Joy Quigley||700||John Terris|
|Whangarei||John Banks||6,839||Edna Tait|
|Yaldhurst||Margaret Austin||42||John Connelly|
|Eastern Maori||Peter Tapsell||6,844||Wi Kuki Kaa|
|Northern Maori||Bruce Gregory||956||Matiu Rata|
|Southern Maori||Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan||7,614||Tikirau Stevens|
|Western Maori||Koro Wētere||5,466||Eva Rickard|
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