All 97 seats in the New Zealand House of Representatives
49 seats were needed for a majority
Results of the election
The 1990 New Zealand general election was held on 27 October to determine the composition of the 43rd New Zealand parliament. The governing Labour Party was defeated, ending its two terms in office. The National Party, led by Jim Bolger, won a landslide victory and formed the new government.
The Labour Party had taken office after defeating the National Party under Robert Muldoon in the 1984 election. David Lange became Prime Minister and Roger Douglas became Minister of Finance. The economic program outlined by Douglas was deeply unpopular with Labour's traditional supporters, however — deregulation, privatisation, and free trade, all opposed by the party's more left-wing members, were a key part of the so-called "Rogernomics" platform. This internal dissent was off-set somewhat by new social legislation and a strong stance against nuclear weapons.
Labour was re-elected in the 1987 election with its parliamentary majority untouched, but the internal disputes continued. Eventually Lange forced Douglas to resign in December 1988, but continued destabilisation of his leadership by Douglas had weakened Lange's position such that he resigned eight months later. He was replaced as Prime Minister by Geoffrey Palmer, but Palmer failed to revive Labour's falling popularity. Several months before the election, Palmer was replaced by Mike Moore. The National Party was performing strongly — its leader, Jim Bolger, spoke repeatedly of "the Decent Society", saying that the reforms were doing significant damage to the social fabric of the country. The government was also being challenged by the NewLabour Party, founded by renegade MP Jim Anderton.
Five National MPs and eleven Labour MPs intended to retire at the end of the 42nd Parliament.
|National||George Gair||North Shore|
|Labour||Geoffrey Palmer||Christchurch Central|
|Stan Rodger||Dunedin North|
|Anne Collins||East Cape|
|Trevor Young||Eastern Hutt|
|Trevor de Cleene||Palmerston North|
|Michael Bassett||Te Atatu|
The date for the 1990 election was 27 October. 2,202,157 people were registered to vote, and 85.2% of these people turned out. The number of seats being contested was 97 — this was the same as in the previous election, which had the largest number of seats for any Parliament until that point.
The 1990 election eventually saw a victory for the National Party, then in opposition. National won nearly half (48%) of the vote and 67 (69%) of the seats, becoming the fourth National government. This was the highest number of seats the party had ever won, either in absolute terms or as a percentage. Four new (and young) National MPs: (Bill English, Tony Ryall, Roger Sowry and Nick Smith) were called the "brat pack" by Sir Robert Muldoon (himself one of the "Young Turks" of 1960).
The new Green Party gained the third-highest number of votes, but won no seats. The NewLabour Party won a single seat, due to Jim Anderton retaining the Sydenham seat he originally won as a Labour candidate.
The governing Labour Party, by contrast, suffered its worst-ever electoral defeat since it first won power in the 1935 election, winning only 29 (30%) of the seats and 35% of the vote (its lowest percentage since 1931), and losing 27 seats. Initially it appeared that twelve ministers and the Speaker had lost their seats, but Fran Wilde scraped in on special votes. Many of Labour's talented "class of 84" were sent away, though five of them, Annette King, Jim Sutton, Trevor Mallard, Richard Northey and Judy Keall, returned in 1993.
The result was primarily due to intense anger at Labour and its policies (shown by it losing 12% of its vote) rather than love of National (which only increased its vote by 4%).
|Party||Candidates||Total votes||Percentage||Seats won|
|Minor parties and Independents||76||12,863||0.71||-|
The tables below shows the results of the 1990 general election:
Labour Democrats NewLabour Mana MotuhakeNational
|Albany||Don McKinnon||7,455||June Allen|
|Ashburton||Jenny Shipley||7,922||Basil Moskovis|
|Auckland Central||Richard Prebble||3,277||Kathryn Hill|
|Avon||Larry Sutherland||4,250||Wendy Rush|
|Awarua||Jeff Grant||4,964||Heather Russell|
|Bay of Islands||John Carter||5,285||Bruce Raitt|
|Birkenhead||Jenny Kirk||Ian Revell||2,813||Jenny Kirk|
|Christchurch Central||Geoffrey Palmer||Lianne Dalziel||3,769||Ross Gluer|
|Christchurch North||Mike Moore||2,148||Peter Yarrell|
|Clevedon||Warren Kyd||4,732||Ann Batten|
|Clutha||Robin Gray||6,527||Jeff Buchanan|
|Coromandel||Graeme Lee||6,342||Margaret Hawkeswood|
|Dunedin North||Stan Rodger||Pete Hodgson||2,336||Gael Donoghue|
|Dunedin West||Clive Matthewson||1,779||Ian McMeeking|
|East Cape||Anne Collins||Tony Ryall||1,968||Dianne Collins|
|East Coast Bays||Murray McCully||5,216||Gary Knapp|
|Eastern Hutt||Trevor Young||Paul Swain||801||Rosemary Thomas|
|Eden||Richard Northey||Christine Fletcher||1,524||Richard Northey|
|Fendalton||Philip Burdon||4,993||Tony Day|
|Gisborne||Allan Wallbank||Wayne Kimber||449||Allan Wallbank|
|Glenfield||Judy Keall||Peter Hilt||2,958||Judy Keall|
|Hamilton East||Bill Dillon||Tony Steel||2,121||Bill Dillon|
|Hamilton West||Trevor Mallard||Grant Thomas||1,563||Trevor Mallard|
|Hastings||David Butcher||Jeff Whittaker||728||David Butcher|
|Hawkes Bay||Bill Sutton||Michael Laws||2,895||Bill Sutton|
|Heretaunga||Bill Jeffries||Peter McCardle||1,122||Bill Jeffries|
|Hobson||Ross Meurant||6,641||Howard Henry|
|Horowhenua||Annette King||Hamish Hancock||624||Annette King|
|Invercargill||Rob Munro||4,137||Barry Rait|
|Island Bay||Elizabeth Tennet||3,635||Ann Nolan|
|Kaimai||Robert Anderson||8,147||Gordon Dickson|
|Kaipara||Lockwood Smith||8,610||Wayne Sellwood|
|Kapiti||Margaret Shields||Roger Sowry||1,599||Margaret Shields|
|King Country||Jim Bolger||7,274||Cameron Gordon|
|Lyttelton||Peter Simpson||Gail McIntosh||68||Peter Simpson|
|Manawatu||David Robinson||Hamish MacIntyre||3,089||David Robinson|
|Mangere||David Lange||4,039||Bryan Archer|
|Manurewa||Roger Douglas||George Hawkins||1,143||Pat Baker|
|Maramarua||Bill Birch||7,670||Charles Chauvel|
|Marlborough||Doug Kidd||7,187||Barbara Hutchinson|
|Matamata||John Luxton||8,501||Bill Pepperell|
|Miramar||Peter Neilson||Graeme Reeves||552||Peter Neilson|
|Mt Albert||Helen Clark||1,230||Larry Bellshaw|
|Napier||Geoff Braybrooke||1,265||Colleen Pritchard|
|Nelson||Philip Woollaston||John Blincoe||636||L Baigent|
|New Lynn||Jonathan Hunt||1,099||Martyn Athol Bishop|
|New Plymouth||Harry Duynhoven||John Armstrong||1,701||Harry Duynhoven|
|North Shore||George Gair||Bruce Cliffe||6,183||Graeme Ransom|
|Ohariu||Peter Dunne||783||George Mathew|
|Onehunga||Fred Gerbic||Grahame Thorne||612||Fred Gerbic|
|Otago||Warren Cooper||3,927||Tony Cooke|
|Otara||Colin Moyle||Trevor Rogers||1,226||Taito Phillip Field|
|Pahiatua||John Falloon||7,689||Margo Martindale|
|Pakuranga||Maurice Williamson||9,086||Paul Charles Grant|
|Palmerston North||Trevor de Cleene||Steve Maharey||349||Paul Sherriff|
|Panmure||Bob Tizard||Judith Tizard||1,098||Gray Bartlett|
|Papakura||Merv Wellington||John Robertson||5,665||James Stubbs|
|Papatoetoe||Ross Robertson||510||Allan Brewster|
|Pencarrow||Sonja Davies||384||Ray Wallace|
|Porirua||Graham Kelly||3,453||P Faulkner|
|Raglan||Simon Upton||5,442||Olivia Scaletti-Longley|
|Rangiora||Jim Gerard||5,273||Judith Alison McLachlan|
|Rangitikei||Denis Marshall||6,127||Patricia Barton|
|Remuera||Doug Graham||7,368||Carl Harding|
|Roskill||Phil Goff||Gilbert Myles||644||Phil Goff|
|Rotorua||Paul East||5,270||Bruce Raitt|
|St Albans||David Caygill||1,560||David Dumergue|
|St Kilda||Michael Cullen||1,886||Bruce Alexander|
|Selwyn||Ruth Richardson||5,441||Val Elley|
|Sydenham||Jim Anderton||1,443||Linda Constable|
|Tamaki||Robert Muldoon||7,592||Malcolm Johnston|
|Taranaki||Roger Maxwell||7,867||Scott Dalziel|
|Tarawera||Ian McLean||Max Bradford||5,152||Malcolm Moore|
|Tasman||Ken Shirley||Nick Smith||2,246||Ken Shirley|
|Tauranga||Winston Peters||9,314||Bill Delaney|
|Te Atatu||Michael Bassett||Brian Neeson||1,370||Dan McCaffrey|
|Timaru||Maurice McTigue||3,192||Gary Clarke|
|Titirangi||Ralph Maxwell||Marie Hasler||64||Ralph Maxwell|
|Tongariro||Noel Scott||Ian Peters||886||Noel Scott|
|Waikaremoana||Roger McClay||5,865||David Davies|
|Waikato||Rob Storey||6,172||George Middleton|
|Waipa||Katherine O'Regan||8,477||Mark Apiata-Wade|
|Wairarapa||Wyatt Creech||4,141||Pauline Moran|
|Waitaki||Jim Sutton||Alec Neill||2,905||Jim Sutton|
|Waitotara||Venn Young||Peter Gresham||7,192||Dominic O'Sullivan|
|Wallace||Derek Angus||Bill English||8,886||David Soper|
|Wanganui||Russell Marshall||Cam Campion||409||Jill Pettis|
|Wellington Central||Fran Wilde||246||Pauline Gardiner|
|West Auckland||Jack Elder||252||Laurie Wicks|
|West Coast||Kerry Burke||Margaret Moir||2,611||Kerry Burke|
|Western Hutt||John Terris||Joy Quigley||700||John Terris|
|Whangarei||John Banks||6,839||Edna Tait|
|Yaldhurst||Margaret Austin||42||John Connelly|
|Eastern Maori||Peter Tapsell||6,844||Wi Kuki Kaa|
|Northern Maori||Bruce Gregory||956||Matiu Rata|
|Southern Maori||Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan||7,614||Tikirau Stevens|
|Western Maori||Koro Wētere||5,466||Eva Rickard|
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