1990 New Zealand general election

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1990 New Zealand general election
Flag of New Zealand.svg
  1987 27 October 1990 1993  

All 97 seats in the New Zealand House of Representatives
49 seats were needed for a majority
 First partySecond partyThird party
 
Jim Bolger at press conference retouched.jpg
Mike Moore.jpg
Jim Anderton, 2010.jpg
Leader Jim Bolger Mike Moore Jim Anderton
Party National Labour NewLabour
Leader since 26 March 1986 4 September 1990 1 April 1989
Leader's seat King Country Christchurch North Sydenham
Last election40 seats, 44.02%57 seats, 47.96%New party
Seats won67291
Seat changeIncrease2.svg 27Decrease2.svg 28Increase2.svg 1
Popular vote872,358640,91594,171
Percentage47.82%35.14%5.16%
SwingIncrease2.svg 3.80%Decrease2.svg 12.82%Increase2.svg 5.16%

Prime Minister before election

Mike Moore
Labour

Subsequent Prime Minister

Jim Bolger
National

The 1990 New Zealand general election was held on 27 October to determine the composition of the 43rd New Zealand parliament. The governing Labour Party was defeated, ending its controversial two terms in office. The National Party, led by Jim Bolger, won a landslide victory and formed the new government.

43rd New Zealand Parliament

The 43rd New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. Its composition was determined by the 1990 elections, and it sat until the 1993 elections.

The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism, while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance.

New Zealand National Party Major New Zealand political party

The New Zealand National Party, shortened to National or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand. It is one of two major parties that dominate contemporary New Zealand politics, alongside its traditional rival, the New Zealand Labour Party.

Contents

Background

The Labour Party had taken office after defeating the National Party under Robert Muldoon in the 1984 election. David Lange became Prime Minister and Roger Douglas became Minister of Finance. The economic program outlined by Douglas was deeply unpopular with Labour's traditional supporters, however — deregulation, privatisation, and free trade, all opposed by the party's more left-wing members, were a key part of the so-called "Rogernomics" platform. This internal dissent was off-set somewhat by new social legislation and a strong stance against nuclear weapons.

Robert Muldoon 31st Prime Minister of New Zealand

Sir Robert David Muldoon, also known as Rob Muldoon, was a New Zealand politician who served as the 31st Prime Minister of New Zealand, from 1975 to 1984, while Leader of the National Party.

1984 New Zealand general election

The 1984 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the 41st New Zealand Parliament. It marked the beginning of the Fourth Labour Government, with David Lange's Labour Party defeating the long-serving Prime Minister, Robert Muldoon, of the National Party. It was also the last election in which the Social Credit Party won seats as an independent entity. The election was also the only one in which the New Zealand Party, a protest party, played any substantial role.

David Lange 32nd Prime Minister of New Zealand

David Russell Lange was a New Zealand politician who served as the 32nd Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1984 to 1989.

Labour was re-elected in the 1987 election with its parliamentary majority untouched, but the internal disputes continued. Eventually Lange forced Douglas to resign in December 1988, but the crisis had weakened Lange's position such that he resigned eight months later. He was replaced as Prime Minister by Geoffrey Palmer, but Palmer failed to revive Labour's falling popularity. Several months before the election, Palmer was replaced by Mike Moore. The National Party was performing strongly — its leader, Jim Bolger, spoke repeatedly of "the Decent Society", saying that the reforms were doing significant damage to the social fabric of the country. The government was also being challenged by the NewLabour Party, founded by renegade MP Jim Anderton.

1987 New Zealand general election

The 1987 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the 42nd sitting of the New Zealand Parliament. The governing New Zealand Labour Party, led by Prime Minister David Lange, was re-elected for a second term, although the Opposition National Party made gains. The election also saw the elimination of the Democratic Party from Parliament, leaving Labour and National as the only parties represented.

Geoffrey Palmer (politician) Prime Minister of New Zealand, politician, academic

Sir Geoffrey Winston Russell Palmer is a New Zealand lawyer, legal academic, and past politician, who was a member of Parliament from 1979 to 1990. He served as the 33rd Prime Minister of New Zealand for a little over a year, from August 1989 until September 1990, leading the Fourth Labour Government. As Minister of Justice from 1984 to 1989, Palmer was responsible for considerable reforms of the country's legal and constitutional framework, such as the creation of the Constitution Act 1986, New Zealand Bill of Rights, Imperial Laws Application Act, and the State Sector Act. He served as president of the New Zealand Law Commission, from 2005 to 2010.

Mike Moore (New Zealand politician) politician from New Zealand who has served both as Prime Minister of New Zealand and Director-General of the World Trade Organization

Michael Kenneth Moore, commonly known as Mike Moore, is a former New Zealand politician and union organiser. In the Fourth Labour Government of New Zealand he served in several portfolios including Minister of Foreign Affairs, and became the Prime Minister for 59 days before the October 1990 general election. Following Labour's defeat in that election, Moore served as Leader of the Opposition until the 1993 election, after which Helen Clark successfully challenged him for the Labour Party leadership.

The election

The date for the 1990 election was 27 October. 2,202,157 people were registered to vote, and 85.2% of these people turned out. The number of seats being contested was 97 — this was the same as in the previous election, which had the largest number of seats for any Parliament until that point.

Summary of results

The 1990 election eventually saw a victory for the National Party, then in opposition. National won nearly half (48%) of the vote and 67 (69%) of the seats, becoming the fourth National government. This was the highest number of seats the party had ever won, either in absolute terms or as a percentage. Four new (and young) National MPs: (Bill English, Tony Ryall, Roger Sowry and Nick Smith) were called the "brat pack" by Sir Robert Muldoon (himself one of the "Young Turks" of 1960). [1]

The Fourth National Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 2 November 1990 to 27 November 1999. Following electoral reforms in the 1996 election, Jim Bolger formed a coalition with New Zealand First. Following Bolger's resignation, the government was led by Jenny Shipley, the country's first female Prime Minister, for the final two years.

Bill English 39th Prime Minister of New Zealand

Sir Simon William English is a retired New Zealand politician who served as the 39th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 2016 to 2017. He was the leader of the National Party from 2001 to 2003 and 2016 to 2018, also serving two terms as Leader of the Opposition.

Tony Ryall New Zealand politician

Anthony Boyd Williams Ryall is a New Zealand former politician. He represented the National Party in the New Zealand Parliament from 1990 to 2014. Since November 2008, he served as a cabinet minister, holding the posts of Minister of Health, Minister of State Services and Minister of State Owned Enterprises. He served previously in the Shipley Cabinet between 1997 and 1999. He announced in February 2014 that he was to retire from politics at that year's general election. He is chief executive of BestStart Educare, an early childhood education provider.

The new Green Party gained the third-highest number of votes, but won no seats. The NewLabour Party won a single seat, due to Jim Anderton retaining the Sydenham seat he originally won as a Labour candidate.

The Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand is a left-wing political party in New Zealand. Like many Green parties around the world it has four organisational pillars: ecology, social responsibility, grassroots democracy, and nonviolence. It also accepts Te Tiriti o Waitangi as the founding document of Aotearoa New Zealand and recognises Māori as Tangata Whenua.

NewLabour Party (New Zealand)

The NewLabour Party was a centre-left political party in New Zealand that operated from 1989 to 2000. It was founded by Jim Anderton, an MP and former President of the New Zealand Labour Party.

Jim Anderton New Zealand politician

James Patrick Anderton was a New Zealand politician who led a succession of left-wing parties after leaving the Labour Party in 1989.

The governing Labour Party, by contrast, suffered its worst-ever electoral defeat since it first won power in the 1935 election, winning only 29 (30%) of the seats and 35% of the vote (its lowest percentage since 1931), and losing 27 seats. Initially it appeared that twelve ministers and the Speaker had lost their seats, but Fran Wilde scraped in on special votes. Many of Labour's talented "class of 84" were sent away, though four of them, Annette King, Jim Sutton, Trevor Mallard and Judy Keall, returned in 1993. [2]

1935 New Zealand general election

The 1935 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 25th term. It resulted in the Labour Party's first electoral victory, with Michael Joseph Savage becoming the first Labour Prime Minister. The governing coalition, consisting of the United Party and the Reform Party, suffered a major defeat, attributed by many to their handling of the Great Depression. The year after the election, United and Reform took their coalition further, merging to form the modern National Party.

Fran Wilde New Zealand politician

Dame Frances Helen Wilde is a New Zealand politician, and former Wellington Labour MP, Minister of Tourism and Mayor of Wellington City. She was the first woman to serve as Mayor of Wellington. She was chairperson of the Greater Wellington Regional Council from 2007 until 2015.

Annette King New Zealand politician

Dame Annette Faye King is a former New Zealand politician. She served as Deputy Leader of the New Zealand Labour Party and Deputy Leader of the Opposition from 2008 to 2011, and from 2014 until 1 March 2017. She was a Cabinet Minister in the Fifth Labour Government of New Zealand, and was the MP for the Rongotai electorate in Wellington from 1996 to 2017.

The result was primarily due to intense anger at Labour and its policies (shown by it losing 12% of its vote) rather than love of National (which only increased its vote by 4%).

Detailed results

Party totals

Election results [3]
PartyCandidatesTotal votesPercentageSeats won
National 97872,35847.8267
Labour 97640,91535.1429
Greens 71124,9156.85-
NewLabour 9394,1715.161
Democrats 9130,4551.67-
Social Credit 6817,8970.98-
Mana Motuhake 410,8690.60-
McGillicuddy Serious 5910,0580.55-
Christian Heritage 189,5910.53-
Minor parties and Independents7612,8630.71-
Total6741,824,09297

Votes summary

Popular Vote
National
47.82%
Labour
35.14%
Greens
6.85%
NewLabour
5.16%
Democrats
2.02%
Others
3.37%
Parliament seats
National
69.07%
Labour
29.90%
NewLabour
1.03%

Electorate results

NewZealandElectorates1990-Labeled.png

The tables below shows the results of the 1990 general election:

Key

  National     Labour     Democrats     NewLabour     Mana Motuhake   

Electorate results for the New Zealand general election, 1990
ElectorateIncumbentWinnerMajorityRunner up
General electorates
Albany Don McKinnon 7,455June Allen
Ashburton Jenny Shipley 7,922Basil Moskovis
Auckland Central Richard Prebble 3,277Kathryn Hill
Avon Larry Sutherland 4,250W Rush
Awarua Jeff Grant 4,964Heather Russell
Bay of Islands John Carter 5,285Bruce Raitt
Birkenhead Jenny Kirk Ian Revell 2,813Jenny Kirk
Christchurch Central Geoffrey Palmer Lianne Dalziel 3,769R Gluer
Christchurch North Mike Moore 2,148Peter Yarrell
Clevedon Warren Kyd 4,732 Ann Batten
Clutha Robin Gray 6,527Jeff Buchanan
Coromandel Graeme Lee 6,342Margaret Hawkeswood
Dunedin North Stan Rodger Pete Hodgson 2,336Gael Donoghue
Dunedin West Clive Matthewson 1,779Ian McMeeking
East Cape Anne Collins Tony Ryall 1,968Dianne Collins
East Coast Bays Murray McCully 5,216 Gary Knapp
Eastern Hutt Trevor Young Paul Swain 801Rosemary Thomas
Eden Richard Northey Christine Fletcher 1,524 Richard Northey
Fendalton Philip Burdon 4,993Tony Day
Gisborne Allan Wallbank Wayne Kimber 449 Allan Wallbank
Glenfield Judy Keall Peter Hilt 2,958 Judy Keall
Hamilton East Bill Dillon Tony Steel 2,121 Bill Dillon
Hamilton West Trevor Mallard Grant Thomas 1,563 Trevor Mallard
Hastings David Butcher Jeff Whittaker 728 David Butcher
Hawkes Bay Bill Sutton Michael Laws 2,895 Bill Sutton
Heretaunga Bill Jeffries Peter McCardle 1,122 Bill Jeffries
Hobson Ross Meurant 6,641Howard Henry
Horowhenua Annette King Hamish Hancock 624 Annette King
Invercargill Rob Munro 4,137B G Rait
Island Bay Elizabeth Tennet 3,635Ann Nolan
Kaimai Robert Anderson 8,147Gordon Dickson
Kaipara Lockwood Smith 8,610Wayne Kingsley Sellwood
Kapiti Margaret Shields Roger Sowry 1,599 Margaret Shields
King Country Jim Bolger 7,274Cameron Gordon
Lyttelton Peter Simpson Gail McIntosh 68 Peter Simpson
Manawatu David Robinson Hamish MacIntyre 3,089 David Robinson
Mangere David Lange 4,039Bryan Archer
Manurewa Roger Douglas George Hawkins 1,143Pat Baker
Maramarua Bill Birch 7,670 Charles Chauvel
Marlborough Doug Kidd 7,187B Hutchinson
Matamata John Luxton 8,501Bill Pepperell
Miramar Peter Neilson Graeme Reeves 552 Peter Neilson
Mt Albert Helen Clark 1,230Larry Bellshaw
Napier Geoff Braybrooke 1,265Colleen Pritchard
Nelson Philip Woollaston John Blincoe 636L Baigent
New Lynn Jonathan Hunt 1,099Martyn Athol Bishop
New Plymouth Harry Duynhoven John Armstrong 1,701 Harry Duynhoven
North Shore George Gair Bruce Cliffe 6,183Graeme Ransom
Ohariu Peter Dunne 783George Mathew
Onehunga Fred Gerbic Grahame Thorne 612 Fred Gerbic
Otago Warren Cooper 3,927Tony Cooke
Otara Colin Moyle Trevor Rogers 1,226 Taito Phillip Field
Pahiatua John Falloon 7,689Margo Martindale
Pakuranga Maurice Williamson 9,086Paul Charles Grant
Palmerston North Trevor de Cleene Steve Maharey 349P L Sherriff
Panmure Bob Tizard Judith Tizard 1,098 Gray Bartlett
Papakura Merv Wellington John Robertson 5,665James Stubbs
Papatoetoe Ross Robertson 510Allan Brewster
Pencarrow Sonja Davies 384 Ray Wallace
Porirua Graham Kelly 3,453P Faulkner
Raglan Simon Upton 5,442Olivia Scaletti-Longley
Rangiora Jim Gerard 5,273J A McLachlan
Rangitikei Denis Marshall 6,127P Barton
Remuera Doug Graham 7,368Carl Harding
Roskill Phil Goff Gilbert Myles 644 Phil Goff
Rotorua Paul East 5,270Bruce Raitt
St Albans David Caygill 1,560D Dumergue
St Kilda Michael Cullen 1,886Bruce Alexander
Selwyn Ruth Richardson 5,441Val Elley
Sydenham Jim Anderton 1,443Linda Constable
Tamaki Robert Muldoon 7,592Malcolm Johnston
Taranaki Roger Maxwell 7,867S Dalziel
Tarawera Ian McLean Max Bradford 5,152Malcolm Moore
Tasman Ken Shirley Nick Smith 2,246 Ken Shirley
Tauranga Winston Peters 9,314Bill Delaney
Te Atatu Michael Bassett Brian Neeson 1,370Dan McCaffrey
Timaru Maurice McTigue 3,192Gary Clarke
Titirangi Ralph Maxwell Marie Hasler 64Ralph Maxwell
Tongariro Noel Scott Ian Peters 886Noel Scott
Waikaremoana Roger McClay 5,865David Davies
Waikato Rob Storey 6,172George Middleton
Waipa Katherine O'Regan 8,477Mark Apiata-Wade
Wairarapa Wyatt Creech 4,141Pauline Morgan
Waitaki Jim Sutton Alec Neill 2,905Jim Sutton
Waitotara Venn Young Peter Gresham 7,192Dominic O'Sullivan
Wallace Derek Angus Bill English 8,886David Soper
Wanganui Russell Marshall Cam Campion 409 Jill Pettis
Wellington Central Fran Wilde 246 Pauline Gardiner [nb 1]
West Auckland Jack Elder 252Lawrence Wicks
West Coast Kerry Burke Margaret Moir 2,611Kerry Burke
Western Hutt John Terris Joy Quigley 700 John Terris
Whangarei John Banks 6,839Edna Tait
Yaldhurst Margaret Austin 42John Connelly
Māori electorates
Eastern Maori Peter Tapsell 6,844Wi Kuki Kaa
Northern Maori Bruce Gregory 956 Matiu Rata
Southern Maori Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan 7,614Tikirau Stevens
Western Maori Koro Wētere 5,466 Eva Rickard

Table footnotes:

  1. Gardiner was first on election night for Wellington Central, but lost when special votes were included [2]

Summary of seat changes

Notes

    • "The Brat Pack loses a member". Stuff/Fairfax. 25 May 2014.
  1. 1 2 Bassett 2008, p. 538.
  2. "New Zealand Elections 1972–1993". New Zealand Election Study. Retrieved 17 December 2011.

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References