1957 New Zealand general election

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Flag of New Zealand.svg
  1954 30 November 1957 (1957-11-30) 1960  

All 80 seats in the New Zealand Parliament
41 seats were needed for a majority
Turnout1,157,365 (92.9%)
 First partySecond party
  Walter Nash (ca 1940s).jpg Keith Holyoake (crop).jpg
Leader Walter Nash Keith Holyoake
Party Labour National
Leader since 17 January 1951 13 August 1957
Leader's seat Hutt Pahiatua
Last election35 seats, 44.1%45 seats, 44.3%
Seats won4139
Seat changeIncrease2.svg 6Decrease2.svg 6
Popular vote559,096511,699
Percentage48.3%44.2%
SwingIncrease2.svg 4.2%Decrease2.svg 0.1%

Prime Minister before election

Keith Holyoake
National

Elected Prime Minister

Walter Nash
Labour

The 1957 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 32nd term. It saw the governing National Party narrowly defeated by the Labour Party. The 1957 elections marked the beginning of the second Labour government, although this administration was to last only a single term.

New Zealand Parliament legislative body of New Zealand

The New Zealand Parliament is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives. The Queen is usually represented by her governor-general. Before 1951, there was an upper chamber, the New Zealand Legislative Council. The New Zealand Parliament was established in 1854 and is one of the oldest continuously functioning legislatures in the world. It has met in Wellington, the capital of New Zealand, since 1865.

32nd New Zealand Parliament

The 32nd New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1957 general election on 30 November of that year.

New Zealand National Party Major New Zealand political party

The New Zealand National Party, shortened to National or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand. It is one of two major parties that dominate contemporary New Zealand politics, alongside its traditional rival, the New Zealand Labour Party.

Contents

Background

The National Party had formed its first administration after the 1949 elections, and had been re-elected in the 1951 elections and the 1954 elections. As its third term in office continued, however, the Prime Minister, Sidney Holland, became increasingly ill. Holland's memory began to fail, and he is believed to have suffered a mild heart attack during the Suez Crisis. A mere two months before the 1957 election, Holland was persuaded by his party to step down; Keith Holyoake, his deputy, became Prime Minister. The Labour Party was still led by Walter Nash, who had been Finance Minister in the first Labour government.

1949 New Zealand general election

The 1949 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 29th term. It saw the governing Labour Party defeated by the opposition National Party. This marked the end of the First Labour government and the beginning of the First National government.

1951 New Zealand general election

The 1951 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 30th term. The First National Government was re-elected, with the National Party increasing its parliamentary majority over the opposition Labour Party.

1954 New Zealand general election

The 1954 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 31st term. It saw the governing National Party remain in office, but with a slightly reduced majority. It also saw the debut of the new Social Credit Party, which won more than eleven percent of the vote but failed to win a seat.

The 1957 election campaign was dominated largely by financial issues, particularly introduction of the PAYE tax system. As a campaign promise, Labour announced that in the year that PAYE commenced, there would be a flat rebate of £100 on income tax — National attacked this as an election bribe. Labour also campaigned to abolish compulsory military training. National made no great changes to its policy platform, and Holyoake largely retained the Cabinet he had inherited from his predecessor.

A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures. A failure to pay, along with evasion of or resistance to taxation, is punishable by law. Taxes consist of direct or indirect taxes and may be paid in money or as its labour equivalent. The first known taxation took place in Ancient Egypt around 3000–2800 BC.

Cabinet of New Zealand

The Cabinet of New Zealand is the New Zealand Government's body of senior ministers, responsible to the New Zealand Parliament. Cabinet meetings, chaired by the prime minister, occur once a week; in them, vital issues are discussed and government policy is formulated. Though not established by any statute, Cabinet has significant power in the New Zealand political system and nearly all bills proposed by Cabinet in Parliament are enacted.

The election

The date for the main 1957 election was 30 November. 1,252,329 people were registered to vote, and turnout was 92.9%. This turnout, although only average for the time, was not to be equalled or exceeded until the 1984 election. The number of seats being contested was 80, a number which had been fixed since 1902.

Voter turnout percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election

Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election. Eligibility varies by country, and the voting-eligible population should not be confused with the total adult population. Age and citizenship status are often among the criteria used to determine eligibility, but some countries further restrict eligibility based on sex, race, or religion.

1984 New Zealand general election

The 1984 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the 41st New Zealand Parliament. It marked the beginning of the Fourth Labour Government, with David Lange's Labour Party defeating the long-serving Prime Minister, Robert Muldoon, of the National Party. It was also the last election in which the Social Credit Party won seats as an independent entity. The election was also the only one in which the New Zealand Party, a protest party, played any substantial role.

The Labour candidate for Clutha, R S Waters, died the day before the general election, and the election there was postponed to 18 January 1958. [1]

Clutha was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate from 1866 to 1996.

Election results

Party standings

The 1957 election saw the governing National Party defeated by a narrow two-seat margin. It had previously held a ten-seat majority. National won a total of thirty-nine seats, while the Labour Party won forty-one. In the popular vote, National won 44% to Labour's 48%. The Social Credit Party won 7% of the vote, a drop from its previous result of 11%. It still won no seats.

The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism, while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance.

Social Credit Party (New Zealand)

The New Zealand Social Credit Party was a political party which served as the country's "third party" from the 1950s through into the 1980s. The party held a number of seats in the New Zealand House of Representatives, although never more than two at a time. It has since renamed itself the New Zealand Democratic Party, and was for a time part of the Alliance.

Election results
PartyCandidatesTotal votesPercentageSeats wonchange
Labour 80559,09648.3141+6
National 80511,69944.2139−6
Social Credit 8083,4987.210±0
Communist 57060.060±0
Independents 132,3660.200±0
Total2581,157,36580

Votes summary

Popular Vote
Labour
48.31%
National
44.21%
Social Credit
7.21%
Others
0.26%
Parliament seats
Labour
51.25%
National
48.75%
Holyoake (right) congratulating Nash (left) on Labour's victory. Nash & Holyoake 1957.jpg
Holyoake (right) congratulating Nash (left) on Labour's victory.

The table below shows the results of the 1957 general election:

Key

  Labour     National   

Electorate results for the 1957 New Zealand general election. [2]
ElectorateIncumbentWinnerMajorityRunner up
General electorates
Ashburton Richard Gerard 1,769G Glassey
Auckland Central Bill Anderton 3,856Aileen Joyce
Avon John Mathison 6,100W E Olds
Awarua George Herron Gordon Grieve 1,636J P Wyatt [3]
Bay of Plenty Percy Allen 910Thomas Godfrey Santon
Buller Jerry Skinner 2,677N L Bensenmann
Christchurch Central Robert Macfarlane 4,071 Colin McLachlan
Clutha James Roy 1,490T A Rodgers [nb 1]
Dunedin Central Phil Connolly 1,778Marcus Anderson
Dunedin North Ethel McMillan 3,408G R Terry
Eden Duncan Rae 498Ian Watkins [4]
Egmont Ernest Corbett William Sheat 2,697Clarence Robert Parker
Fendalton Sidney Holland Jack Watts 824L G G White [5]
Franklin Jack Massey Alfred E. Allen 4,241Christopher Mountford
Gisborne Reginald Keeling 1,182A H MacPherson
Grey Lynn Fred Hackett 5,785Bernard Griffiths
Hamilton Hilda Ross 1,110 Ben Waters
Hastings Ted Keating 1,070Arthur Heafy Sievewright
Hauraki Arthur Kinsella 1,161Brevat William Dynes
Hawkes Bay Cyril Harker 2,858Leonard Thomas Fischer
Heretaunga Phil Holloway 5,117 Allan McCready
Hobson Sidney Smith 3,134 Colin Moyle
Hurunui William Gillespie 1,749L Christie
Hutt Walter Nash 4,430 Lance Adams-Schneider
Invercargill Ralph Hanan 679 Thomas Francis Doyle
Island Bay Arnold Nordmeyer 4,209 Saul Goldsmith [6]
Karori Jack Marshall 3,061 Keith Spry
Lyttelton Harry Lake Norman Kirk 567Harry Lake
Manawatu Matthew Oram Blair Tennent 1,575Patrick Kelliher
Manukau Leon Götz 159Cyril Douglas Stamp
Marlborough Tom Shand 1,782Roy Evans
Marsden Donald McKay 2,088Mervyn Allan Hosking
Miramar Bill Fox 2,077Clevedon Costello
Mornington Wally Hudson 2,817Walter MacDougall
Mt Albert Warren Freer 3,987Geoffrey Taylor
Napier Jim Edwards 2,413Raymond Vincent Foster
Nelson Edgar Neale Stanley Whitehead 509Colin Wilson Martin
New Plymouth Ernest Aderman 657 Ron Barclay
North Shore Dean Eyre 462Peter Lawrence Smith
Onehunga Hugh Watt 5,686Donald Watson
Onslow Henry May 2,675Kevin O'Brien [7]
Otago Central John George 2,788J H Rapson
Otahuhu James Deas 3,442Clive Haszard
Otaki James Maher 1,122Cyril Shamy
Pahiatua Keith Holyoake 4,020William Erle Rose
Palmerston North Philip Skoglund 1,348 Bill Brown
Patea Roy Jack 902Benjamin R. Winchcombe
Petone Michael Moohan 4,159 Dan Riddiford
Piako New electorate William Goosman 3,812Alistair Walker
Ponsonby Ritchie Macdonald 6,592Gordon Frederick Smith
Raglan Hallyburton Johnstone Douglas Carter 161 Alan Baxter
Rangitikei Norman Shelton 2,983Stephen Malcolm Roberton
Remuera Ronald Algie 4,766Russell Gordon Penney
Riccarton Mick Connelly 2,867Deena V. Sergel [8]
Rodney Jack Scott 3,112George Webber
Roskill John Rae Arthur Faulkner 2,117 John Rae
Rotorua Ray Boord 2,009 Murray Linton
Selwyn John McAlpine 1,731S S M Cook
St Albans Jack Watts Neville Pickering 501Eric Philip Wills [9]
St Kilda Jim Barnes Bill Fraser 791Jim Barnes
Stratford Thomas Murray 3,172J M Deegan
Sydenham Mabel Howard 6,450Oliver G. Moody
Tamaki Eric Halstead Bob Tizard 589 Eric Halstead
Tauranga George Walsh 3,342Oliver Liddell
Timaru Clyde Carr 2,954 Alfred James Davey
Waikato Geoffrey Sim 2,013Arthur John Ingram
Waipa William Goosman Hallyburton Johnstone 1,813Albert Clifford Tucker
Wairarapa Bert Cooksley 1,058Bob Wilkie [10]
Waitakere Rex Mason 3,682Leonard Bradley
Waitaki New electorate Thomas Hayman 1,618A G Braddock
Waitemata Norman King 2,191 Robert Muldoon
Waitomo David Seath 2,474Vic Haines
Wallace Tom Macdonald Brian Talboys 4,319J S Reid
Wanganui Joseph Cotterill 1,419Mrs A K MacLean
Wellington Central Frank Kitts 1,685Max Wall
Westland Jim Kent 4,745Francis Frederick Boustridge
Māori electorates
Eastern Maori Tiaki Omana 4,197W. Maxwell
Northern Maori Tapihana Paikea 4,310Timothy James Davis
Southern Maori Eruera Tirikatene 4,383Thomas Stratton
Western Maori Iriaka Matiu Ratana 5,553 Pei Te Hurinui Jones

Table footnotes:

  1. The previous Labour candidate, R S Waters, died the day before the general election, so the election in Clutha was postponed to 18 January 1958 [1]

Notes

  1. 1 2 Norton 1988, p. 209.
  2. Norton 1988, pp. ?.
  3. Norton 1988, p. 197.
  4. Norton 1988, p. 220.
  5. Norton 1988, p. 224.
  6. Gustafson 1986, pp. 364f.
  7. Gustafson 1986, p. 381.
  8. Gustafson 1986, p. 386.
  9. Gustafson 1986, p. 390.
  10. Espiner, Guyon (3 March 2012). "Profile: Labour deputy Grant Robertson". New Zealand Listener . Retrieved 26 September 2014.

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References