All 80 seats in the New Zealand Parliament
41 seats were needed for a majority
The 1957 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 32nd term. It saw the governing National Party narrowly defeated by the Labour Party. The 1957 elections marked the beginning of the second Labour government, although this administration was to last only a single term.
The New Zealand Parliament is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives. The Queen is usually represented by her governor-general. Before 1951, there was an upper chamber, the New Zealand Legislative Council. The New Zealand Parliament was established in 1854 and is one of the oldest continuously functioning legislatures in the world. It has met in Wellington, the capital of New Zealand, since 1865.
The 32nd New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1957 general election on 30 November of that year.
The New Zealand National Party, shortened to National or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand. It is one of two major parties that dominate contemporary New Zealand politics, alongside its traditional rival, the New Zealand Labour Party.
The National Party had formed its first administration after the 1949 elections, and had been re-elected in the 1951 elections and the 1954 elections. As its third term in office continued, however, the Prime Minister, Sidney Holland, became increasingly ill. Holland's memory began to fail, and he is believed to have suffered a mild heart attack during the Suez Crisis. A mere two months before the 1957 election, Holland was persuaded by his party to step down; Keith Holyoake, his deputy, became Prime Minister. The Labour Party was still led by Walter Nash, who had been Finance Minister in the first Labour government.
The 1949 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 29th term. It saw the governing Labour Party defeated by the opposition National Party. This marked the end of the First Labour government and the beginning of the First National government.
The 1951 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 30th term. The First National Government was re-elected, with the National Party increasing its parliamentary majority over the opposition Labour Party.
The 1954 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 31st term. It saw the governing National Party remain in office, but with a slightly reduced majority. It also saw the debut of the new Social Credit Party, which won more than eleven percent of the vote but failed to win a seat.
The 1957 election campaign was dominated largely by financial issues, particularly introduction of the PAYE tax system. As a campaign promise, Labour announced that in the year that PAYE commenced, there would be a flat rebate of £100 on income tax — National attacked this as an election bribe. Labour also campaigned to abolish compulsory military training. National made no great changes to its policy platform, and Holyoake largely retained the Cabinet he had inherited from his predecessor.
A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures. A failure to pay, along with evasion of or resistance to taxation, is punishable by law. Taxes consist of direct or indirect taxes and may be paid in money or as its labour equivalent. The first known taxation took place in Ancient Egypt around 3000–2800 BC.
The Cabinet of New Zealand is the New Zealand Government's body of senior ministers, responsible to the New Zealand Parliament. Cabinet meetings, chaired by the prime minister, occur once a week; in them, vital issues are discussed and government policy is formulated. Though not established by any statute, Cabinet has significant power in the New Zealand political system and nearly all bills proposed by Cabinet in Parliament are enacted.
The date for the main 1957 election was 30 November. 1,252,329 people were registered to vote, and turnout was 92.9%. This turnout, although only average for the time, was not to be equalled or exceeded until the 1984 election. The number of seats being contested was 80, a number which had been fixed since 1902.
Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election. Eligibility varies by country, and the voting-eligible population should not be confused with the total adult population. Age and citizenship status are often among the criteria used to determine eligibility, but some countries further restrict eligibility based on sex, race, or religion.
The 1984 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the 41st New Zealand Parliament. It marked the beginning of the Fourth Labour Government, with David Lange's Labour Party defeating the long-serving Prime Minister, Robert Muldoon, of the National Party. It was also the last election in which the Social Credit Party won seats as an independent entity. The election was also the only one in which the New Zealand Party, a protest party, played any substantial role.
The Labour candidate for Clutha, R S Waters, died the day before the general election, and the election there was postponed to 18 January 1958.
Clutha was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate from 1866 to 1996.
The 1957 election saw the governing National Party defeated by a narrow two-seat margin. It had previously held a ten-seat majority. National won a total of thirty-nine seats, while the Labour Party won forty-one. In the popular vote, National won 44% to Labour's 48%. The Social Credit Party won 7% of the vote, a drop from its previous result of 11%. It still won no seats.
The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism, while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance.
The New Zealand Social Credit Party was a political party which served as the country's "third party" from the 1950s through into the 1980s. The party held a number of seats in the New Zealand House of Representatives, although never more than two at a time. It has since renamed itself the New Zealand Democratic Party, and was for a time part of the Alliance.
|Party||Candidates||Total votes||Percentage||Seats won||change|
The table below shows the results of the 1957 general election:
|Ashburton||Richard Gerard||1,769||G Glassey|
|Auckland Central||Bill Anderton||3,856||Aileen Joyce|
|Avon||John Mathison||6,100||W E Olds|
|Awarua||George Herron||Gordon Grieve||1,636||J P Wyatt|
|Bay of Plenty||Percy Allen||910||Thomas Godfrey Santon|
|Buller||Jerry Skinner||2,677||N L Bensenmann|
|Christchurch Central||Robert Macfarlane||4,071||Colin McLachlan|
|Clutha||James Roy||1,490||T A Rodgers|
|Dunedin Central||Phil Connolly||1,778||Marcus Anderson|
|Dunedin North||Ethel McMillan||3,408||G R Terry|
|Eden||Duncan Rae||498||Ian Watkins|
|Egmont||Ernest Corbett||William Sheat||2,697||Clarence Robert Parker|
|Fendalton||Sidney Holland||Jack Watts||824||L G G White|
|Franklin||Jack Massey||Alfred E. Allen||4,241||Christopher Mountford|
|Gisborne||Reginald Keeling||1,182||A H MacPherson|
|Grey Lynn||Fred Hackett||5,785||Bernard Griffiths|
|Hamilton||Hilda Ross||1,110||Ben Waters|
|Hastings||Ted Keating||1,070||Arthur Heafy Sievewright|
|Hauraki||Arthur Kinsella||1,161||Brevat William Dynes|
|Hawkes Bay||Cyril Harker||2,858||Leonard Thomas Fischer|
|Heretaunga||Phil Holloway||5,117||Allan McCready|
|Hobson||Sidney Smith||3,134||Colin Moyle|
|Hurunui||William Gillespie||1,749||L Christie|
|Hutt||Walter Nash||4,430||Lance Adams-Schneider|
|Invercargill||Ralph Hanan||679||Thomas Francis Doyle|
|Island Bay||Arnold Nordmeyer||4,209||Saul Goldsmith|
|Karori||Jack Marshall||3,061||Keith Spry|
|Lyttelton||Harry Lake||Norman Kirk||567||Harry Lake|
|Manawatu||Matthew Oram||Blair Tennent||1,575||Patrick Kelliher|
|Manukau||Leon Götz||159||Cyril Douglas Stamp|
|Marlborough||Tom Shand||1,782||Roy Evans|
|Marsden||Donald McKay||2,088||Mervyn Allan Hosking|
|Miramar||Bill Fox||2,077||Clevedon Costello|
|Mornington||Wally Hudson||2,817||Walter MacDougall|
|Mt Albert||Warren Freer||3,987||Geoffrey Taylor|
|Napier||Jim Edwards||2,413||Raymond Vincent Foster|
|Nelson||Edgar Neale||Stanley Whitehead||509||Colin Wilson Martin|
|New Plymouth||Ernest Aderman||657||Ron Barclay|
|North Shore||Dean Eyre||462||Peter Lawrence Smith|
|Onehunga||Hugh Watt||5,686||Donald Watson|
|Onslow||Henry May||2,675||Kevin O'Brien|
|Otago Central||John George||2,788||J H Rapson|
|Otahuhu||James Deas||3,442||Clive Haszard|
|Otaki||James Maher||1,122||Cyril Shamy|
|Pahiatua||Keith Holyoake||4,020||William Erle Rose|
|Palmerston North||Philip Skoglund||1,348||Bill Brown|
|Patea||Roy Jack||902||Benjamin R. Winchcombe|
|Petone||Michael Moohan||4,159||Dan Riddiford|
|Piako||New electorate||William Goosman||3,812||Alistair Walker|
|Ponsonby||Ritchie Macdonald||6,592||Gordon Frederick Smith|
|Raglan||Hallyburton Johnstone||Douglas Carter||161||Alan Baxter|
|Rangitikei||Norman Shelton||2,983||Stephen Malcolm Roberton|
|Remuera||Ronald Algie||4,766||Russell Gordon Penney|
|Riccarton||Mick Connelly||2,867||Deena V. Sergel|
|Rodney||Jack Scott||3,112||George Webber|
|Roskill||John Rae||Arthur Faulkner||2,117||John Rae|
|Rotorua||Ray Boord||2,009||Murray Linton|
|Selwyn||John McAlpine||1,731||S S M Cook|
|St Albans||Jack Watts||Neville Pickering||501||Eric Philip Wills|
|St Kilda||Jim Barnes||Bill Fraser||791||Jim Barnes|
|Stratford||Thomas Murray||3,172||J M Deegan|
|Sydenham||Mabel Howard||6,450||Oliver G. Moody|
|Tamaki||Eric Halstead||Bob Tizard||589||Eric Halstead|
|Tauranga||George Walsh||3,342||Oliver Liddell|
|Timaru||Clyde Carr||2,954||Alfred James Davey|
|Waikato||Geoffrey Sim||2,013||Arthur John Ingram|
|Waipa||William Goosman||Hallyburton Johnstone||1,813||Albert Clifford Tucker|
|Wairarapa||Bert Cooksley||1,058||Bob Wilkie|
|Waitakere||Rex Mason||3,682||Leonard Bradley|
|Waitaki||New electorate||Thomas Hayman||1,618||A G Braddock|
|Waitemata||Norman King||2,191||Robert Muldoon|
|Waitomo||David Seath||2,474||Vic Haines|
|Wallace||Tom Macdonald||Brian Talboys||4,319||J S Reid|
|Wanganui||Joseph Cotterill||1,419||Mrs A K MacLean|
|Wellington Central||Frank Kitts||1,685||Max Wall|
|Westland||Jim Kent||4,745||Francis Frederick Boustridge|
|Eastern Maori||Tiaki Omana||4,197||W. Maxwell|
|Northern Maori||Tapihana Paikea||4,310||Timothy James Davis|
|Southern Maori||Eruera Tirikatene||4,383||Thomas Stratton|
|Western Maori||Iriaka Matiu Ratana||5,553||Pei Te Hurinui Jones|
Sir Keith Jacka Holyoake was the 26th Prime Minister of New Zealand, serving for a brief period in 1957 and then from 1960 to 1972, and also the 13th Governor-General of New Zealand, serving from 1977 to 1980. He is the only New Zealand politician to date to have held both positions.
Sir Sidney George Holland was a New Zealand politician who served as the 25th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 13 December 1949 to 20 September 1957. He was instrumental in the creation and consolidation of the New Zealand National Party, which was to dominate New Zealand politics for much of the second half of the 20th century.
The New Zealand general election of 1972 was held on 25 November to elect MPs to the 37th session of the New Zealand Parliament. The Labour Party, led by Norman Kirk, defeated the governing National Party.
The 1969 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of Parliament's 36th term. It saw the Second National Government headed by Prime Minister Keith Holyoake of the National Party win a fourth consecutive term.
The 1946 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 28th term. It saw the governing Labour Party re-elected, but by a substantially narrower margin than in the three previous elections. The National Party continued its gradual rise.
The 1960 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 33rd term. It saw the governing Labour Party defeated by the National Party, putting an end to the short second Labour government.
The 1963 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of New Zealand Parliament's 34th term. The results were almost identical to those of the previous election, and the governing National Party remained in office.
The 1966 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 35th term. It saw the governing National Party win a third consecutive term in office. It was also the first time since the 1943 election that a minor party won a seat in Parliament.
The 29th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. It opened in 1950, following the 1949 general election. It was dissolved in 1951 in preparation for the 1951 general election. The governing Labour Party had been defeated in the election by the National Party. This marked the end of the First Labour government and the beginning of the First National government.
The 30th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1951 general election on 1 September of that year.
The 31st New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1954 general election on 13 November of that year.
The 33rd New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1960 general election on 26 November of that year.
The 34th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1963 general election on 30 November of that year.
The 35th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1966 general election on 26 November of that year.
The 36th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1969 general election on 29 November of that year.
The New Zealand National Party leadership election 1957 was held to choose the next leader of the New Zealand National Party. The election was won by Pahiatua MP Keith Holyoake.