Nelson is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate, returning one Member of Parliament to the House of Representatives of New Zealand. From 1853 to 1860, the electorate was called Town of Nelson. From 1860 to 1881, it was City of Nelson. The electorate is the only one that has continuously existed since the 1st Parliament in 1853.
An electorate is a geographical constituency used for electing members to the New Zealand Parliament. In informal discussion, electorates are often called seats. The most formal description, electoral district, is used in legislation. The size of electorates is determined on a population basis such that all electorates have approximately the same population.
The New Zealand House of Representatives is a component of the New Zealand Parliament, along with the Sovereign. The House passes all laws, provides ministers to form a Cabinet, and supervises the work of the Government. It is also responsible for adopting the state's budgets and approving the state's accounts.
The current MP for Nelson is Nick Smith of the National Party.He has held this position since 1996.
Nicolas Rex Smith is a New Zealand politician and a member of the New Zealand Parliament as a National Party member of parliament. Smith has represented the Nelson electorate since 1996, and was the Member for Tasman before that, from 1990-1996.
The New Zealand National Party, shortened to National or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand. It is one of two major parties that dominate contemporary New Zealand politics, alongside its traditional rival, the New Zealand Labour Party.
The 1996 New Zealand general election was held on 12 October 1996 to determine the composition of the 45th New Zealand Parliament. It was notable for being the first election to be held under the new mixed-member proportional (MMP) electoral system, and produced a parliament considerably more diverse than previous elections. It saw the National Party, led by Jim Bolger, retain its position in government, but only after protracted negotiations with the smaller New Zealand First party to form a coalition. New Zealand First's position as "kingmaker", able to place either of the two major parties into government, was a significant election outcome.
Nelson is based around the city of Nelson, with the dormitory town of Richmond and the smaller communities of Hope and Brightwater drafted in to bring the electorate up to the required population quota.
Nelson is a city on the eastern shores of Tasman Bay. Nelson is the oldest city in the South Island and the second-oldest settled city in New Zealand – it was established in 1841 and was proclaimed a city by royal charter in 1858.
Richmond is a town, and the seat of the Tasman District Council, that lies 13 kilometres (8 mi) south of Nelson in the South Island of New Zealand, close to the southern extremity of Tasman Bay. The town was first settled in 1842 and was named in 1854 after the town of Richmond on Thames near London. By 2014 it had an estimated population of 13,606.
Hope, previously known as Ranzau, is a small settlement south of Nelson, New Zealand, between Richmond and Wakefield.
A significant adjustment to the electorate's boundaries was carried out ahead of the change to Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) voting in 1996; the decrease in South Island electorates from 25 to 16 lead to the abolition of one western South Island electorate; Tasman was split between West Coast and the then (geographically) much smaller Nelson electorate.
Mixed-member proportional (MMP) representation is a mixed electoral system in which voters get two votes: one to decide the representative for their single-seat constituency, and one for a political party. Seats in the legislature are filled firstly by the successful constituency candidates, and secondly, by party candidates based on the percentage of nationwide or region-wide votes that each party received. The constituency representatives are elected using first-past-the-post voting (FPTP) or another plurality/majoritarian system. The nationwide or region-wide party representatives are, in most jurisdictions, drawn from published party lists, similar to party-list proportional representation. To gain a nationwide representative, parties may be required to achieve a minimum number of constituency candidates, a minimum percentage of the nationwide party vote, or both.
Tasman is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate, from 1972 to 1996.
West Coast is a former New Zealand Parliamentary electorate, from 1972 to 1996.
The Representation Commission last adjusted the boundaries in the 2007 review, which first applied at the 2008 election;the electorate was not changed in the 2013/14 review.
The 2008 New Zealand general election was held on 8 November 2008 to determine the composition of the 49th New Zealand parliament. The conservative National Party, headed by its parliamentary leader John Key, won the largest share of votes and seats, ending nine years of government by the social-democratic Labour Party, led by Helen Clark. Key announced a week later that he would lead a National minority government with confidence-and-supply support from the ACT, United Future and Māori parties. The Governor-General swore Key in as New Zealand's 38th Prime Minister on 19 November 2008. This marked an end to nine years of Labour Party government, and the beginning of the Fifth National Government of New Zealand which would govern for 9 years, until its loss to the Labour Party in the 2017 general election.
An electorate based on the Nelson has been contested at every election since the first Parliament in 1853. Two of the original 24 electorates from the 1st Parliament still exist (New Plymouth is the other one), but Nelson is the only original electorate that has existed continuously.
The 1st New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. It opened on 24 May 1854, following New Zealand's first general election. It was dissolved on 15 September 1855 in preparation for that year's election. 37 Members of the House of Representatives (MHRs) represented 24 electorates.
The 1853 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 1st term. It was the first national election ever held in New Zealand, although Parliament did not yet have full authority to govern the colony, which was part of the British Empire at that time.
New Plymouth is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It was first created for the 1st New Zealand Parliament in 1853 and has existed since, with one 32-year interruption. The electorate was initially called Town of New Plymouth.
The electorate was initially known as Town of Nelson. From 1866 to 1881, it was called City of Nelson. Since 1881, it has been known as simply Nelson.
From 1853 to 1881, Nelson was a two-member electorate.James Mackay and William Travers were the first two representatives elected in 1853. Travers and William Cautley (MP for Waimea) both resigned on 26 May 1854. Travers subsequently contested the seat that Cautley had vacated, being elected in the 21 June 1854 Waimea by-election. Samuel Stephens, who succeeded Travers in Nelson, died before the end of the first term, but the seat remained vacant.
Alfred Domett retired from politics at the end of the 3rd Parliament. Edward Stafford resigned in 1868 during the term of the 4th Parliament. Nathaniel Edwards won the resulting by-election. Martin Lightband resigned after a year in Parliament in 1872 and was succeeded by David Luckie.
Nelson became a single member electorate in 1881. Henry Levestam, who was first elected in an 1881 by-election to replace Adams was confirmed by the voters at the next three general elections (1881, 1884 and 1887), but he died in office on 11 February 1889.
Joseph Harkness won the resulting 1889 by-election and was confirmed in the 1890 election.He retired at the end of the parliamentary term in 1893 and was succeeded by John Graham, who with the 1893 election started a representation of the electorate that would last until his retirement in 1911.
Harry Atmore an Independent Member of Parliament succeeded John Graham in the 1911 election,but he was defeated at the next election in 1914 by Thomas Field of the Reform Party. At the subsequent election in 1919, Atmore defeated Field and represented the electorate until his death on 21 August 1946.
Atmore's death did not cause a by-election, as the 1946 election was held in November of that year. The contest was won by Edgar Neale of the National Party.He held the electorate until 1957, when he retired.
Neale was succeeded by Stanley Whitehead of the Labour Party in the 1957 election. This started Labour's dominance in the electorate, which was to last for four decades. Whitehead died on 9 January 1976 in the office and this caused the 1976 by-election, which was won by Labour's Mel Courtney. In the 1981 election, Courtney stood as an Independent against Labour's Philip Woollaston, with the latter the successful candidate. Woollaston retired in 1990 and was succeeded by Labour's John Blincoe. When the electorate was enlarged for the 1996 election, it absorbed most of the former seat of Tasman, held by National's Nick Smith. Smith defeated Blincoe and has held the seat ever since.
In the 2014 election, Smith beat Labour's Maryan Street for the third time in a row. Based on preliminary results, Street has also lost the list MP seat that she has had since the 2005 election; she was the highest-ranked member on the Labour list who did not get returned or elected to Parliament.In the 2017 election, Smith was re-elected although with a significantly lower majority with the party vote swinging back to Labour. Nelson was the only seat that the Green Party campaigned to win, with Green candidates stepping aside for Labour everywhere else in the country. Despite Labour and the Greens sharing a Memorandum of Understanding, the parties were unable to strike a deal in Nelson, leading to the progressive vote being split between the Green candidate, Nelson City Councilor Matt Lawrey and Labour's Rachel Boyack.
The gap between National and Labour contesting the list vote has narrowed – 43% to 36% in Labour's favour at the 2005 election versus a 45%–19% split three years earlier. Nelson is also an electorate in which the Green Party performs better than the national average – nearly nine percent in 2002 and 7.7 percent in 2005.[ citation needed ]
Independent Conservative Liberal Reform National Labour Green
|1853 election||James Mackay||William Travers|
|1854 by-election||Samuel Stephens|
|1855 election||Alfred Domett||Edward Stafford|
|1866 election||Oswald Curtis|
|1868 by-election||Nathaniel Edwards|
|1871 election||Martin Lightband|
|1872 by-election||David Mitchell Luckie|
|1875 election||John Sharp|
|1879 by-election||Acton Adams|
|1879 election||Albert Pitt|
|1881 by-election||Henry Levestam|
|1881 election||Henry Levestam|
|1889 by-election||Joseph Harkness|
|1893 election||John Graham|
|1911 election||Harry Atmore|
|1914 election||Thomas Field|
|1919 election||Harry Atmore|
|1946 election||Edgar Neale|
|1957 election||Stanley Whitehead|
|1976 by-election||Mel Courtney|
|1981 election||Philip Woollaston|
|1990 election||John Blincoe|
|1996 election||Nick Smith|
Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the Nelson electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.
|2002 election||Mike Ward|
|2008 election||Maryan Street|
|2017 general election: Nelson|
Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
|NZ First||Susan Sara||1,429||3.47||—||2,712||6.51||−1.13|
|Money Free||Richard Osmaston||48||0.12||−0.34|
|Total Valid votes||41,131||41,651|
|2014 general election: Nelson|
Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
|Money Free||Richard Osmaston||175||0.46||+0.46|
|Total Valid votes||37,867||38,174|
|2011 general election: Nelson|
Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
|NZ First||Kevin Gardener||669||1.94||+1.94||1,913||5.42||+2.38|
|United Future||Doug Stevens||204||0.59||+0.21||348||0.99||-0.08|
|ACT||Paul Charles Hufflett||171||0.49||-0.36||259||0.73||-1.75|
|Total Valid votes||34,553||35,267|
Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 46,817
|2008 general election: Nelson|
|United Future||Kelvin Deal||138||0.39||-1.17||387||1.07||-2.43|
|Bill and Ben||209||0.58|
|Total Valid votes||35,832||36,220|
|2005 general election: Nelson|
|United Future||Dennis Wells||568||1.56||-0.72||1,289||3.50||-3.18|
|Christian Heritage||Nick Barber||209||0.57||-1.33||141||0.38||-1.48|
|Direct Democracy||Rex Newey||67||0.18||50||0.14|
|Total Valid votes||36,429||36,802|
|2002 general election: Nelson|
|United Future||Dennis Wells||762||2.28||2,254||6.68||+5.68a|
|Christian Heritage||Nick Barber||635||1.90||-1.20||628||1.86||-2.80|
|Total Valid votes||33,382||33,721|
|1999 general election: Nelson|
|Christian Heritage||Nick Barber||1,077||3.10||1,624||4.66|
|NZ First||Trevor Squires||296||0.85||732||2.10|
|McGillicuddy Serious||Tim Owens||223||0.64||95||0.27|
|Total Valid votes||34,705||34,845|
|1996 general election: Nelson|
|NZ First||Bernard Downey||1,510||4.37||3,417||9.88|
|Christian Coalition||Nick Barber||749||2.17||2,206||6.38|
|McGillicuddy Serious||Tim Owens||279||0.81||187||0.54|
|Natural Law||Michelle McGregor||86||0.25||59||0.17|
|Asia Pacific United||21||0.06|
|Superannuitants & Youth||14||0.04|
|Advance New Zealand||7||0.02|
|Ethnic Minority Party||4||0.01|
|Total Valid votes||34,584||34,602|
|National gain from Labour||Majority||12,424||35.92|
|National||L G H Thompson||2,749||13.55|
|Social Credit||N J L McLean||1,545||7.61|
|Social Credit||Rudolph Muller||452||2.6|
|Imperial British Conservative||C P Weallens||38||0.2|
|National||Frederick William Huggins||5,860||48.87|
|National||J R Kerr||5,206||45.89|
|Reform||Frederick William Oscar Smith||3,294||37.02|
|Labour||John George Price||1,079||12.40|
|Independent Liberal||Walter Moffatt||1,371||22.70|
|Conservative||William Spencer Hampson||570||9.44|
|Second ballot result|
|Independent Liberal||Walter Moffatt||2,139||36.82||+14.12|
|Independent Liberal||Walter Moffatt||316||5.27|
|Second ballot result|
|Independent Liberal||Jesse Piper||521||12.08|
|Liberal||Francis William Flowerday||94||6.60|
|Independent||James Crowe Richmond||407||48.17|
|Independent||James Crowe Richmond||156||29.05|
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