Nelson (New Zealand electorate)

Last updated

Nelson electorate boundaries used since the 2008 election Nelson electorate, 2014.svg
Nelson electorate boundaries used since the 2008 election

Nelson is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate, returning one Member of Parliament to the House of Representatives of New Zealand. From 1853 to 1860, the electorate was called Town of Nelson. From 1860 to 1881, it was City of Nelson. The electorate is the only one that has continuously existed since the 1st Parliament in 1853.

Contents

The current MP for Nelson is Nick Smith of the National Party. [1] He has held this position since 1996.

Population centres

Nelson is based around the city of Nelson, with the dormitory town of Richmond and the smaller communities of Hope and Brightwater drafted in to bring the electorate up to the required population quota.

A significant adjustment to the electorate's boundaries was carried out ahead of the change to Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) voting in 1996; the decrease in South Island electorates from 25 to 16 lead to the abolition of one western South Island electorate; Tasman was split between West Coast and the then (geographically) much smaller Nelson electorate.

The Representation Commission last adjusted the boundaries in the 2007 review, which first applied at the 2008 election; [2] the electorate was not changed in the 2013/14 review. [3]

History

An electorate based on the Nelson has been contested at every election since the first Parliament in 1853. Two of the original 24 electorates from the 1st Parliament still exist (New Plymouth is the other one), but Nelson is the only original electorate that has existed continuously. [4]

The electorate was initially known as Town of Nelson. From 1866 to 1881, it was called City of Nelson. Since 1881, it has been known as simply Nelson. [5]

From 1853 to 1881, Nelson was a two-member electorate. [5] James Mackay and William Travers were the first two representatives elected in 1853. Travers and William Cautley (MP for Waimea) both resigned on 26 May 1854. Travers subsequently contested the seat that Cautley had vacated, being elected in the 21 June 1854 Waimea by-election. Samuel Stephens, who succeeded Travers in Nelson, died before the end of the first term, but the seat remained vacant.

Alfred Domett retired from politics at the end of the 3rd Parliament. Edward Stafford resigned in 1868 during the term of the 4th Parliament. Nathaniel Edwards won the resulting by-election. Martin Lightband resigned after a year in Parliament in 1872 and was succeeded by David Luckie.

Nelson became a single member electorate in 1881. Henry Levestam, who was first elected in an 1881 by-election to replace Adams was confirmed by the voters at the next three general elections (1881, 1884 and 1887), but he died in office on 11 February 1889. [6]

Joseph Harkness won the resulting 1889 by-election and was confirmed in the 1890 election. [7] He retired at the end of the parliamentary term in 1893 and was succeeded by John Graham, who with the 1893 election started a representation of the electorate that would last until his retirement in 1911. [8]

Harry Atmore an Independent Member of Parliament succeeded John Graham in the 1911 election, [9] but he was defeated at the next election in 1914 by Thomas Field of the Reform Party. [10] At the subsequent election in 1919, Atmore defeated Field and represented the electorate until his death on 21 August 1946. [9]

Atmore's death did not cause a by-election, as the 1946 election was held in November of that year. The contest was won by Edgar Neale of the National Party. [11] He held the electorate until 1957, when he retired.

Neale was succeeded by Stanley Whitehead of the Labour Party in the 1957 election. This started Labour's dominance in the electorate, which was to last for four decades. Whitehead died on 9 January 1976 in the office and this caused the 1976 by-election, which was won by Labour's Mel Courtney. In the 1981 election, Courtney stood as an Independent against Labour's Philip Woollaston, with the latter the successful candidate. Woollaston retired in 1990 and was succeeded by Labour's John Blincoe. When the electorate was enlarged for the 1996 election, it absorbed most of the former seat of Tasman, held by National's Nick Smith. Smith defeated Blincoe and has held the seat ever since.

In the 2014 election, Smith beat Labour's Maryan Street for the third time in a row. Based on preliminary results, Street has also lost the list MP seat that she has had since the 2005 election; she was the highest-ranked member on the Labour list who did not get returned or elected to Parliament. [12] In the 2017 election, Smith was re-elected although with a significantly lower majority with the party vote swinging back to Labour. Nelson was the only seat that the Green Party campaigned to win, with Green candidates stepping aside for Labour everywhere else in the country. Despite Labour and the Greens sharing a Memorandum of Understanding, the parties were unable to strike a deal in Nelson, leading to the progressive vote being split between the Green candidate, Nelson City Councilor Matt Lawrey and Labour's Rachel Boyack. [13]

The gap between National and Labour contesting the list vote has narrowed – 43% to 36% in Labour's favour at the 2005 election versus a 45%–19% split three years earlier. Nelson is also an electorate in which the Green Party performs better than the national average – nearly nine percent in 2002 and 7.7 percent in 2005.[ citation needed ]

Members of Parliament

Key

  Independent     Conservative     Liberal     Reform     National     Labour     Green   

multi-member electorate

ElectionWinners
1853 election James Mackay William Travers
1854 by-election Samuel Stephens
1855 election Alfred Domett Edward Stafford
1860 election
1866 election Oswald Curtis
1868 by-election Nathaniel Edwards [14]
1871 election Martin Lightband [15]
1872 by-election David Mitchell Luckie [16]
1875 election John Sharp [17]
1879 by-election Acton Adams [18]
1879 election Albert Pitt
1881 by-election Henry Levestam

single-member electorate

ElectionWinner
1881 election Henry Levestam
1884 election
1887 election
1889 by-election Joseph Harkness
1890 election
1893 election John Graham
1896 election
1899 election
1902 election
1905 election
1908 election
1911 election Harry Atmore
1914 election Thomas Field
1919 election Harry Atmore
1922 election
1925 election
1928 election
1931 election
1935 election
1938 election
1943 election
1946 election Edgar Neale
1949 election
1951 election
1954 election
1957 election Stanley Whitehead
1960 election
1963 election
1966 election
1969 election
1972 election
1975 election
1976 by-election Mel Courtney
1978 election
1981 election Philip Woollaston
1984 election
1987 election
1990 election John Blincoe
1993 election
1996 election Nick Smith
1999 election
2002 election
2005 election
2008 election
2011 election
2014 election
2017 election

List MPs

Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the Nelson electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.

ElectionWinner
2002 election Mike Ward
2008 election Maryan Street
2011 election

Election results

2017 election

2017 general election: Nelson [19]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Nick Smith 16,73540.69−12.1316,37439.31−4.97
Labour Rachel Boyack12,45230.27−2.4617,31141.56+16.93
Green Matt Lawrey9,74623.70+14.593,1307.51−6.59
NZ First Susan Sara1,4293.472,7126.51−1.13
Outdoors David Haynes3230.79580.14
Conservative Simon Gutschlag2460.60−2.372410.51−4.98
ACT Paul Hufflett1520.37−0.141370.33−0.07
Money Free Richard Osmaston480.12−0.34
Opportunities  1,3603.27
Legalise Cannabis  990.24−0.29
Ban 1080  970.23−0.78
Māori  920.22−0.11
United Future  230.06−0.19
Democrats  150.04−0.08
People's Party  140.03
Mana  90.02−0.62 [lower-alpha 1]
Internet  60.01−0.63 [lower-alpha 2]
Informal votes390151
Total Valid votes41,13141,651
Turnout 41,802
National holdMajority4,28310.41−9.67

2014 election

2014 general election: Nelson [20]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Nick Smith 20,00052.82−0.3216,90444.28−1.13
Labour Maryan Street 12,39532.73+0.119,40124.63−2.70
Green Colin Robertson3,4499.11−0.375,38114.10−1.95
Conservative John Green1,1252.97+1.232,0945.49+2.78
ACT Paul Hufflett1930.51+0.021510.40−0.33
Money Free Richard Osmaston1750.46+0.46
Democrats Adrian Bayly1380.36+0.36470.12+0.02
NZ First  2,9187.64+2.22
Ban 1080  3861.01+1.01
Internet Mana  3170.83+0.64 [lower-alpha 3]
Legalise Cannabis  2020.53+0.02
Māori  1250.33−0.13
United Future  950.25−0.74
Civilian  120.030.03
Independent Coalition  110.03+0.03
Focus  60.02+0.02
Informal votes392124
Total Valid votes37,86738,174
Turnout 38,17479.76+4.43
National holdMajority7,60520.08−0.44

2011 election

2011 general election: Nelson [21]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Nick Smith 18,36053.14-3.9916,01645.41+2.96
Labour Maryan Street 11,27232.62-0.879,63927.33-10.46
Green Aaryn Barlow3,2769.48+2.215,66016.05+6.61
NZ First Kevin Gardener6691.94+1.941,9135.42+2.38
Conservative Oliver Vitali6011.74+1.749542.71+2.71
United Future Doug Stevens2040.59+0.213480.99-0.08
ACT Paul Charles Hufflett1710.49-0.362590.73-1.75
Legalise Cannabis  1800.51+0.11
Māori  1610.46-0.05
Mana  660.19+0.19
Democrats  370.10+0.04
Libertarianz  200.06+0.02
Alliance  140.04-0.08
Informal votes692250
Total Valid votes34,55335,267
National holdMajority7,08820.52-3.13

Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 46,817 [22]

2008 election

2008 general election: Nelson [23]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Nick Smith 20,47157.13+1.4115,37842.46+5.45
Labour Maryan Street 12,00033.49+5.8413,68937.79-5.17
Green Diana Mellor2,6057.27-4.453,4179.43+1.69
Kiwi Robin Westley3120.872560.71
ACT Paul Hufflett3060.85+0.459002.48+1.43
United Future Kelvin Deal1380.39-1.173871.07-2.43
NZ First  1,1043.05-1.28
Progressive  2820.78-0.35
Bill and Ben  2090.58
Māori  1840.51+0.27
Family Party  1600.44
Legalise Cannabis  1440.40+0.12
Alliance  420.12+0.03
Democrats  240.07±0.00
Workers Party  130.04
Libertarianz  120.03+0.01
Pacific  110.03
RONZ  50.01±0.00
RAM  30.01
Informal votes241115
Total Valid votes35,83236,220
Turnout 36,54881.77-1.00
National holdMajority8,47123.64-4.43


2005 election

2005 general election: Nelson [24] [25]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Nick Smith 20,29955.72+8.4513,61937.01+17.68
Labour Jen McCutcheon10,07327.65-6.9415,80942.96-1.96
Green Mike Ward 4,26911.72-0.512,8487.74-1.18
United Future Dennis Wells5681.56-0.721,2893.50-3.18
Destiny Jason Thomson3831.053610.98
Progressive Jacqueline McAlpine2520.69+0.064171.13-0.18
Christian Heritage Nick Barber2090.57-1.331410.38-1.48
Māori Anne Fitzsimon1650.45890.24
ACT Mike Heine1440.403881.05-2.94
Direct Democracy Rex Newey670.18500.14
NZ First  1,5934.33-2.04
Legalise Cannabis  1040.28-0.29
Alliance  330.09-1.09
Democrats  240.07
One NZ  110.03-0.06
Libertarianz  90.02
Family Rights  70.02
99 MP  60.02
RONZ  40.01±0.00
Informal votes260113
Total Valid votes36,42936,802
Turnout 37,05282.77+3.19
National holdMajority10,22628.07+15.39

2002 election

2002 general election: Nelson [25] [26]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Nick Smith 15,77947.27+2.496,51719.33-7.70
Labour John Kennedy11,54734.59+2.8315,14944.92+4.30
Green Mike Ward 4,08412.23+2.103,0088.92+0.78
United Future Dennis Wells7622.282,2546.68+5.68a
Christian Heritage Nick Barber6351.90-1.206281.86-2.80
Alliance Mary O'Connor3641.09-6.133981.18-7.74
Progressive Adrian Bayly2110.634411.31
NZ First  2,1476.37+4.27
ORNZ  1,6024.75
ACT  1,3463.99-1.52
Legalise Cannabis  1930.57-0.13
One NZ  300.09-0.01
NMP  50.01-0.08
RONZ  40.01
Mana Māori  30.01±0.00
Informal votes286115
Total Valid votes33,38233,721
Turnout 33,92379.58
National holdMajority4,23212.68-0.35
a United Future swing is compared to the 1999 results of United NZ and Future NZ, who merged in 2000.

1999 election

1999 general election: Nelson [27] [28]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Nick Smith 15,54244.789,41927.03
Labour Simon Fraser11,02131.7614,15440.62
Green Mike Ward 3,51610.132,8358.14
Alliance Mary O'Connor2,5057.223,1088.92
Christian Heritage Nick Barber1,0773.101,6244.66
ACT Philip Gully4611.331,9205.51
NZ First Trevor Squires2960.857322.10
McGillicuddy Serious Tim Owens2230.64950.27
NMP Suzanne Johnston640.18320.09
Legalise Cannabis  2780.80
Future NZ  2160.62
United NZ  1310.38
Libertarianz  1140.33
South Island  670.19
Animals First  510.15
One NZ  340.10
Natural Law  140.04
Mana Māori  50.01
People's Choice 50.01
Freedom Movement40.01
Mauri Pacific  40.01
Republican  30.01
Informal votes485345
Total Valid votes34,70534,845
National holdMajority4,52113.03

1996 election

1996 general election: Nelson [29] [30] [31]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Nick Smith 20,48159.2210,65230.78
Labour Red x.svgN John Blincoe 8,05723.3011,01231.82
Alliance Mike Ward 3,1719.174,22012.20
NZ First Bernard Downey1,5104.373,4179.88
Christian Coalition Nick Barber7492.172,2066.38
McGillicuddy Serious Tim Owens2790.811870.54
ACT Graeme Williams2510.731,9005.49
Natural Law Michelle McGregor860.25590.17
Legalise Cannabis  4641.34
United NZ  2300.66
Progressive Green  940.27
Animals First  620.18
Green Society  260.08
Asia Pacific United 210.06
Superannuitants & Youth  140.04
Libertarianz  130.04
Advance New Zealand 70.02
Conservatives  70.02
Mana Māori  60.02
Ethnic Minority Party 40.01
Te Tawharau 10.00
Informal votes165147
Total Valid votes34,58434,602
National gain from Labour Majority12,42435.92

1981 election

1981 New Zealand general election – Nelson result
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Philip Woollaston 8,19840.41
Independent Mel Courtney 7,50036.97
National L G H Thompson2,74913.55
Social Credit N J L McLean1,5457.61
Values Mike Ward 2971.46
Turnout 20,289
Majority6983.44

1976 by-election

1976 Nelson by-election [32]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Mel Courtney 8,418 48.4
National Peter Malone 6,91339.7
Values Gwen Struik1,5839.1
Social Credit Rudolph Muller4522.6
Imperial British Conservative C P Weallens380.2
Majority1,5058.7
Informal votes66
Turnout 17,47066.0
Registered electors 22,105
Labour hold Swing

1931 election

1931 general election: Nelson [33]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Independent Harry Atmore 4,749 50.53 -12.44
Reform Herbert Everett [34] 4,64949.47
Majority1001.06-24.89
Informal votes550.58-0.91
Turnout 9,45389.18+0.09
Registered electors 10,600

1928 election

1928 general election: Nelson [35]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Independent Harry Atmore 5,603 62.98 +4.64
Reform F W O Smith3,29437.02
Majority2,30925.95-3.07
Informal votes1351.49
Turnout 9,03289.09+3.56
Registered electors 10,138

1925 election

1925 general election: Nelson [36]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Independent Harry Atmore 4,721 58.33 -4.89
Reform A Gilbert2,37229.31-7.47
Labour Tom Brindle 1,00012.36
Majority2,34929.03+2.58
Turnout 8,09385.53-6.33
Registered electors 9,462

1899 election

1899 general election: Nelson [37]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal John Graham 2,551 56.43 +1.89
Conservative Richmond Hursthouse 1,97043.57
Majority58112.85+3.77
Turnout 4,52184.22+3.15
Registered electors 5,368

1890 election

1890 general election: Nelson [38]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Joseph Harkness 672 47.22
Liberal John Kerr 65746.17
Liberal Francis William Flowerday946.60
Majority151.05
Turnout 1,42377.71
Registered electors 1,831

1889 by-election

1889 Nelson by-election [39] [40]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Independent Joseph Harkness 659 57.86
Independent John Sharp 48042.14
Majority17915.72
Turnout 1139

1881 by-election

1881 City of Nelson by-election [41] [42]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Independent Henry Levestam 438 51.83
Independent James Crowe Richmond 40748.17
Turnout 845
Majority313.67

1879 by-election

1879 City of Nelson by-election [43] [44] [45]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Independent Acton Adams 369 61.3
Independent Albert Pitt 25238.7
Turnout 119
Majority27

1872 by-election

1872 City of Nelson by-election [46] [47] [48]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Independent David Luckie 307 57.17
Independent James Crowe Richmond 15629.05
Independent Alfred Saunders 7413.78
Turnout 537
Majority15128.12

1868 by-election

1868 City of Nelson by-election [49] [50]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Independent Nathaniel Edwards 302 58.53
Independent Joseph Shephard 21441.47
Turnout 516
Majority8817.05

Table footnotes

  1. 2017 Mana Party swing is relative to the votes for Internet-Mana in 2014; it shared a party list with the Internet Party in the 2014 election
  2. 2017 Internet Party swing is relative to the votes for Internet-Mana in 2014; it shared a party list with Mana Party in the 2014 election
  3. 2014 Internet Mana swing is relative to the votes for Mana in 2011; it shared a party list with Internet in the 2014 election.

Notes

  1. New Zealand Parliament – Nick Smith MP
  2. Report of the Representation Commission 2007 (PDF). Representation Commission. 14 September 2007. p. 9. ISBN   978-0-477-10414-2 . Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  3. Report of the Representation Commission 2014 (PDF). Representation Commission. 4 April 2014. p. 10. ISBN   978-0-477-10414-2 . Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  4. Wilson 1985.
  5. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 161.
  6. Scholefield 1950, p. 120.
  7. Scholefield 1950, p. 112.
  8. Scholefield 1950, p. 109.
  9. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 94.
  10. Scholefield 1950, p. 105.
  11. Scholefield 1950, p. 129.
  12. Moore, Bill (21 September 2014). "Nick Smith returned as Nelson MP". Stuff.co.nz . Retrieved 27 September 2014.
  13. Cherie Sivignon (24 September 2017). "Nick Smith wins Nelson seat, electors see red for party vote". Nelson Mail. Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  14. Cyclopedia Company Limited (1906). "Present And Past Members Of Parliament". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Nelson, Marlborough & Westland Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 4 July 2010.
  15. Cyclopedia Company Limited (1906). "Present And Past Members Of Parliament". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Nelson, Marlborough & Westland Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 4 July 2010.
  16. Cyclopedia Company Limited (1906). "Present And Past Members Of Parliament". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Nelson, Marlborough & Westland Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 4 July 2010.
  17. Cyclopedia Company Limited (1906). "Present And Past Members Of Parliament". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Nelson, Marlborough & Westland Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 4 July 2010.
  18. Cyclopedia Company Limited (1906). "Present And Past Members Of Parliament". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Nelson, Marlborough & Westland Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 4 July 2010.
  19. "Official Count Results -- Nelson (2017)". Electoral Commission. 7 October 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
  20. "Official Count Results – Nelson (2014)". Electoral Commission . Retrieved 11 April 2016.
  21. 2011 election results
  22. "Enrolment statistics". Electoral Commission. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
  23. 2008 election results
  24. "Official Count Results – Nelson". Elections New Zealand. 2005. Retrieved 7 April 2010.
  25. 1 2 "Electorate Profile Nelson" (PDF). New Zealand Parliamentary Library. October 2005. Retrieved 7 April 2010.
  26. "Official Count Results – Nelson". Elections New Zealand. 2002. Retrieved 7 April 2010.
  27. "Official Count Results (1999) – Electoral Votes for registered parties by electorate". NZ Electoral Commission. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  28. "Official Count Results (1999) – Candidate Vote Details". NZ Electoral Commission. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  29. "Electorate Candidate and Party Votes Recorded at Each Polling Place – Nelson, 1996" (PDF). Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  30. "Part III – Party Lists of Successful Registered Parties" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  31. "Part III – Party Lists of unsuccessful Registered Parties" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  32. Norton 1988, p. 286.
  33. The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 4. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  34. "Opposing Mr Atmore". The Evening Post . CXII (110). 5 November 1931. p. 10. Retrieved 27 November 2014.
  35. The General Election, 1928. Government Printer. 1929. p. 4. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  36. "South Island". Otautau Standard and Wallace County Chronicle. XXI (1055). 10 November 1925. p. 1. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  37. "The General Election, 1899". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. 19 June 1900. p. 2. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  38. "The General Election, 1890". National Library. 1891. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
  39. "The Nelson Election". New Zealand Times. 4 April 1889. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  40. "Nelson Election". The Press . XLVI (7276). 4 April 1889. p. 5. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  41. "The Nelson Election". Nelson Evening Mail. 11 June 1881.
  42. "Mr Levestam elected for Nelson". Auckland Star . 8 June 1881.
  43. "Nelson". Star. 7 February 1879.
  44. "Nelson Election". Bruce Herald. 7 February 1879.
  45. "Nelson City Election". West Coast Times. 1 February 1879.
  46. "City Election". Nelson Evening Mail. 30 May 1872.
  47. "By Electric Telegraph". Evening Star. 28 May 1872.
  48. "Untitled". Wellington Independent. 28 May 1872.
  49. "City Election". Nelson Examiner. 26 December 1868.
  50. "The Nomination". Nelson Evening Mail. 18 December 1868.

References