Christchurch East, originally called Christchurch City East, is a current New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It was first created for the 1871 election and was abolished for two period, from 1875–1905 and again from 1946–1996. It was last created for the introduction of the MMP voting system for the 1996 election. The current MP is Poto Williams, a member of the New Zealand Labour Party who was first elected in the 2013 Christchurch East by-election.
An electorate is a geographical constituency used for electing members to the New Zealand Parliament. In informal discussion, electorates are often called seats. The most formal description, electoral district, is used in legislation. The size of electorates is determined on a population basis such that all electorates have approximately the same population.
The New Zealand general election of 1871 was held between 14 January and 23 February to elect 78 MPs across 72 electorates to the fifth session of the New Zealand Parliament. 41,527 electors were registered.
The 1996 New Zealand general election was held on 12 October 1996 to determine the composition of the 45th New Zealand Parliament. It was notable for being the first election to be held under the new mixed-member proportional (MMP) electoral system, and produced a parliament considerably more diverse than previous elections. It saw the National Party, led by Jim Bolger, retain its position in government, but only after protracted negotiations with the smaller New Zealand First party to form a coalition. New Zealand First's position as "kingmaker", able to place either of the two major parties into government, was a significant election outcome.
The electorate is based on the eastern part of the City of Christchurch. When the electorate was first formed through the Representation Act 1870, the western boundary of the electorate was Colombo Street. Unlike today, the eastern boundary was away from the coast; rather, the Avon electorate covered the coastal regions.
Christchurch is the largest city in the South Island of New Zealand and the seat of the Canterbury Region. The Christchurch urban area lies on the South Island's east coast, just north of Banks Peninsula. It is home to 404,500 residents, making it New Zealand's third-most populous city behind Auckland and Wellington. The Avon River flows through the centre of the city, with an urban park located along its banks.
Colombo Street is a main road of the city of Christchurch, New Zealand. It runs south-north through the centre of Christchurch with a break at Cathedral Square. As with many other central Christchurch streets, it is named for a colonial Anglican bishopric, Colombo, Sri Lanka in what at the time was known as Ceylon. Parts of the street which run through Sydenham were known as Addison Street during the 1880s, and some parts were known as Colombo Road.
Avon is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It was created for the 1861 general election and existed until 1996. It was represented by 13 Members of Parliament and was held by Independents, Liberal Party or Labour Party representatives.
The electorate is bounded in the east by the Pacific Ocean and in the north by the Waimakariri River. Since the 2008 election, the western and southern boundary followed Main North Road, Marshland Road, North Parade, Dudley Creek, the Avon River, Keyes Road and Pages Road, before cutting though the Bromley wastewater treatment plant to Cuthberts Road. The boundary then followed Cuthberts Road, Breezes Road and Bridge Street to the Avon River, before following the Avon through the Avon Heathcote Estuary and out to the Pacific Ocean.
The Waimakariri River, formerly briefly known as the Courtenay River, is one of the largest of the North Canterbury rivers, in the South Island of New Zealand. It flows for 151 kilometres (94 mi) in a generally southeastward direction from the Southern Alps across the Canterbury Plains to the Pacific Ocean. In Māori, Waimakariri has several meanings, one of which is "river of cold rushing water". The river is known colloquially in Canterbury as "The Waimak".
The 2008 New Zealand general election was held on 8 November 2008 to determine the composition of the 49th New Zealand parliament. The conservative National Party, headed by its parliamentary leader John Key, won the largest share of votes and seats, ending nine years of government by the social-democratic Labour Party, led by Helen Clark. Key announced a week later that he would lead a National minority government with confidence-and-supply support from the ACT, United Future and Māori parties. The Governor-General swore Key in as New Zealand's 38th Prime Minister on 19 November 2008. This marked an end to nine years of Labour Party government, and the beginning of the Fifth National Government of New Zealand which would govern for 9 years, until its loss to the Labour Party in the 2017 general election.
The Avon River / Ōtākaro flows through the centre of the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, and out to an estuary, which it shares with the Heathcote River, the Avon Heathcote Estuary.
The following suburbs, in alphabetical order, are at least partially located in the electorate: Aranui, Avondale, Bexley, Bottle Lake, Bridgend, Brooklands, Burwood, Chaneys, Dallington, Kainga, Marshland, New Brighton, North New Brighton, Ouruhia, Parklands, Queenspark, Shirley, South New Brighton, Southshore, Spencerville, Stewarts Gully, Styx, Waimairi Beach, and Wainoni.
Aranui is one of the eastern suburbs of Christchurch. It is a lower socio-economic area. The area is predominantly residential with pockets of light industry. There is a cluster of shops and service facilities at the intersection of Breezes Road and Pages Road.
The suburb of Bexley is situated in East Christchurch on the west bank of the Avon River approximately one kilometre from the Avon Heathcote Estuary. It is enclosed within a bend in the Avon River and borders the suburb of Aranui.
Bottle Lake is a suburb in the north-east of Christchurch with a low number of residents. Most of the suburb is covered by Bottle Lake Forest, which has since the mid-1970s become a popular recreation area.
Population loss after the quakes necessitated expansion of the electorate in the 2013/14 redistribution, with the electorate gaining Mairehau and Shirley from Christchurch Central, Bromley from Port Hills and the remainder of Marshland from Waimakariri.
Mairehau is a suburb of Christchurch, New Zealand. It is located four kilometres north of the city centre, close to the edge of the urbanised central city area. It is home to a secondary school, Mairehau High School. Much new development is being carried out on the northern edge of Mairehau.
Shirley, sometimes referred to as Windsor, is a suburb of Christchurch, New Zealand, about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) north-east of the city centre. The area was used for farming from the 1850s, and subdivision started in the early 20th century, with most of the houses being built between 1950 and 1980.
Christchurch Central is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate in the South Island city of Christchurch. The electorate was established for the 1946 election and, until 2011 had always been won by the Labour Party. Since 2008, the incumbent was Brendon Burns but the election night results for the 2011 election resulted in a tie; the special vote results combined with a judicial recount revealed a 47-vote majority for Nicky Wagner, the National list MP based in the electorate. Wagner significantly increased her winning margin in the 2014 election after having declared the electorate "unwinnable" for National earlier in the year following a boundary review.
Christchurch City East was first created for the 1871 electionby the Representation Act 1870, which was passed to increase the number of general electorates to 74 from the 61 that were used at the 1866 election. The Representation Act 1870 also disestablished some multi-member electorates, and the three-member City of Christchurch electorate was split up, with one part of it forming the new Christchurch City East electorate.
The New Zealand general election of 1866 was held between 12 February and 6 April to elect 70 MPs to the fourth term of the New Zealand Parliament.
Christchurch was a parliamentary electorate in Christchurch, New Zealand. It existed three times. Originally it was the Town of Christchurch from 1853 to 1860. From the 1860–61 election to the 1871 election, it existed as City of Christchurch. It then existed from the 1875–76 election until the 1881 election. The last period was from the 1890 election to the 1905 election. Since the 1946 election, a similarly named electorate called Christchurch Central has been in existence.
The first election was contested by Jerningham Wakefield, who had previously represented Christchurch Country in the 1st Parliament (1853–1855), and Andrew Duncan, who was Mayor of Christchurch in 1870. Wakefield won the election and represented the electorate until the end of the electoral term in 1875,when Christchurch City East was abolished, replaced by the three-member electorate City of Christchurch.
Christchurch East was re-created for the 1905 election.The election was contested by Thomas Davey (who had been a representative of the City of Christchurch electorate for the Liberal Party since 1902), William Whitehouse Collins (who had previously been in Parliament for the Liberal Party), Henry Toogood (a young engineer who only recently left Canterbury College and who would become one of the founding members of the Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand), and Frederick Cooke (a prominent member of the Socialist Party). Davey was successful.
The 1908 election was contested by Davey (the incumbent), Charles Boxshall (who represented the opposition, which at that point had not formed into a political party), James McCombs (who was an Independent Liberal, i.e. he was not part of a formal party), and Frederick Cooke (who had also contested the previous election standing for the Socialist Party). Davey was re-elected, with McCombs coming second.The Second Ballot Act 1908 provided for second or runoff ballots between the top two candidates where the top candidate did not get an absolute majority. As Davey had obtained 55.56% of the votes, a second ballot was not required in Christchurch East.
The 1911 election was contested by Davey (the incumbent), Henry Thacker (a prominent medical doctor standing as an Independent Liberal), Hiram Hunter (who stood for the original Labour Party), and Frederick Cooke (who had also contested the two previous election standing for the Socialist Party). The first ballot was won by Thacker, with Davey beating Hunter by only four votes for second place. A second ballot was required, as Thacker had achieved 32.68% of the votes in the first ballot, far short of an absolute majority. The second ballot was won by Davey with a majority of over 17% of the votes.
Davey planned to contest the 1914 election. The Liberal Government had by now been replaced by the Reform Government. At the opening meeting of his campaign, Davey refused to commit himself to a motion of no confidence against the government, which in turn resulted in the meeting refusing to give him a vote of confidence. A week later, he withdrew his nomination.This left three other candidates in the election: Henry Thacker (who had contested the previous election as an Independent Liberal, but with Davey's withdrawal contested as behalf of the Liberal Party), George Duncan Macfarlane (an auctioneer with no prior political experience who stood for the Reform Party), and Hiram Hunter (who this time contested for the Social Democratic Party, which was the successor to the original Labour Party). Thacker was successful and succeeded Davey.
The 1919 election was contested by Thacker (the incumbent, and since May of that year Mayor of Christchurch) and Hiram Hunter (who this time contested for the Labour Party, which had been founded in 1916). Thacker served for two terms until 1922 and was Mayor of Christchurch until 1923.
Thacker was defeated in the 1922 election by Tim Armstrong of the Labour Party.The third candidate was W R Devereux, a land agent who stood for the Reform Party.
Armstrong successfully contested the 1925 and 1928 elections against Denis Franklyn Dennehy; his challenger stood for the Liberal Party in 1925, and for its successor, the United Party, in 1928.Armstrong was challenged by George Frederick Allen of the United Party in 1931, but Armstrong remained successful. Allen was active in local affairs and was the headmaster of the Sumner District High School (1908–1933).
Armstrong was challenged in 1935 by S W Richardson, who was the official candidate for the United/Reform Coalition in 1935.In 1938, Armstrong was challenged by K I Armour of the National Party. Armstrong died in office on 8 November 1942 from heart disease.
Armstrong's death triggered the 1943 by-election, which was held on 6 February.The by-election was contested by five candidates, including representatives from the Labour Party, the Labour breakaway party Democratic Labour Party and the National Party. The election was won by the Labour candidate, Mabel Howard, and started her long parliamentary career, which included her becoming the first female cabinet minister in 1947. Howard was confirmed later in 1943 in the general election, where her majority increased substantially (by over 17 percentage points).
Christchurch East was abolished in 1946and re-created in 1996 for the MMP-era. Larry Sutherland, who had previously represented Avon, won the 1996 election. Sutherland retired at the 1999 election and Lianne Dalziel was first elected. Dalziel had previously represented Christchurch Central (1990–1996) and spent the next three years as a list MP. She is the current holder of the electorate.
The Christchurch newspaper The Press reported on 20 April 2013 that Lianne Dalziel will challenge Bob Parker for the Christchurch mayoralty.Dalziel maintained that she was not yet committed to standing, and only formally confirmed on 19 June that she will contest the mayoralty. She confirmed that she will resign from Parliament, thus triggering a by-election in the Christchurch East electorate. Dalziel resigned before the official results were announced.
The by-election was since held on 30 November 2013 in the electorate. This was won by Labour's Poto Williams in a convincing victory despite the view that significant population changes since the 2011 Christchurch earthquake made the allegiance to Labour less certain.Williams held Christchurch East in the 2014 election against National's sitting list MP Jo Hayes.
Since Tim Armstrong's 1922 election win, the electorate (for as long as it existed) has been held by Labour.
Christchurch East has been represented by eight electorate MPs:
Independent Liberal Labour National
|1871 election||Jerningham Wakefield|
|(Electorate abolished 1875–1905, see City of Christchurch)|
|1905 election||Thomas Davey|
|1914 election||Henry Thacker|
|1922 election||Tim Armstrong|
|1943 by-election||Mabel Howard|
|(Electorate abolished 1946–1996)|
|1996 election||Larry Sutherland|
|1999 election||Lianne Dalziel|
|2013 by-election||Poto Williams|
Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the Christchurch East electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.
|2008 election||Aaron Gilmore|
|2017 general election: Christchurch East|
Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
|NZ First||Melanie Mark-Shadbolt||1,529||4.47||—||2,194||6.29||−3.16|
|Legalise Cannabis||Paula Lambert||547||1.60||+0.16||108||0.31||+0.74|
|Total Valid votes||34,231||34,861|
|2014 general election: Christchurch East|
Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
|Legalise Cannabis||Robert Wilkinson||457||1.44||+1.01||186||0.57||+0.07|
|United Future||Sam Park||159||0.50||+0.50||74||0.23||-0.33|
|Total Valid votes||31,652||32,489|
The following table shows the final results of the by-election:
|2013 Christchurch East by-election|
Notes: Blue background denotes the winner of the by-election.
|Legalise Cannabis||Paula Lambert||59||0.43||-0.48|
|Total Valid votes||13,705|
|2011 general election: Christchurch East|
Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
|Legalise Cannabis||Michael Britnell||254||0.91||-0.32||145||0.50||+0.16|
|United Future||Johnny Miller||108||0.39||-0.22||160||0.56||-0.39|
|Total Valid votes||28,015||28,977|
Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 39,708
|2008 general election: Christchurch East|
|Legalise Cannabis||Paula Lambert||417||1.23||117||0.34|
|Kiwi||Tony Le Cren||378||1.11||269||0.78|
|United Future||Maretta Solomon||204||0.60||326||0.95|
|Independent||Sevaschan Sam Park||114||0.34|
|Workers Party||Paul Hopkinson||90||0.27||26||0.08|
|Bill and Ben||210||0.61|
|Total Valid votes||33,953||34,427|
|2005 general election: Christchurch East|
|United Future||Dianne Wilson||1,205||3.47||1,176||3.33|
|Legalise Cannabis||Kevin O'Connell||299||0.86||101||0.29|
|Direct Democracy||Kyle Chapman||63||0.18||13||0.04|
|Anti-Capitalist Alliance||Paul Hopkinson||43||0.12|
|Total Valid votes||34,787||35,353|
|2002 general election: Christchurch East|
|United Future||Paul Duxbury||1,532||4.95||2,394||7.61|
|Christian Heritage||Judith Phillips||577||1.86||-0.52||441||1.40||-1.00|
|Legalise Cannabis||Michael Britnell||512||1.65||-0.50||222||0.71||-0.69|
|Total Valid votes||30,951||31,472|
|1999 general election: Christchurch East|
|Christian Heritage||Judith Phillips||761||2.38||774||2.40|
|Legalise Cannabis||Michael Britnell||688||2.15||449||1.39||-0.54|
|Future NZ||Chantelle Stiles||669||2.09||456||1.42|
|NZ First||Margaret Silverlock||528||1.65||719||2.23||-6.52|
|Natural Law||Warwick Jones||80||0.25||58||0.18||0.06|
|Total Valid votes||31,968||32,212|
|1996 general election: Christchurch East|
|NZ First||Lem Pearse||2,970||9.35||2,805||8.76|
|Legalise Cannabis||Tim Shadbolt||1,368||4.31||618||1.93|
|McGillicuddy Serious||Phil Clayton||105||0.33||51||0.16|
|Natural Law||Sean O'Connor||61||0.19||38||0.12|
|Advance New Zealand||14||0.04|
|Superannuitants & Youth||13||0.04|
|Ethnic Minority Party||8||0.02|
|Asia Pacific United||4||0.01|
|Total Valid votes||31,768||32,035|
|Labour win new seat||Majority||2,958||9.31|
|National||Reginald Gilbert Brown||3,374||24.38||-0.21|
|Democratic Labour||Herman Theodore Schou||1,277||9.23||-17.50|
|Real Democracy||Fred Whiley||278||2.01|
|Democratic Labour||Horace Herring||2,578||26.73|
|United||George Frederick Allen||3,990||35.67||-3.93|
|United||Denis Franklyn Dennehy||4,304||39.60||+2.64|
|Liberal||Denis Franklyn Dennehy||4,047||36.96||+1.57|
|Reform||William Russell Devereux||1,671||17.40|
|Social Democrat||Hiram Hunter||2,203||28.81||-2.08|
|Reform||George Duncan Macfarlane||1,350||17.66|
|Independent Liberal||Henry Thacker||2,492||32.68|
|Independent Liberal||Henry Thacker||2,861||41.45|
|New Liberal||Henry Toogood||2,060||32.66|
|Liberal||William Whitehouse Collins||1,532||24.29|
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