1999 New Zealand general election

Last updated

1999 New Zealand general election
Flag of New Zealand.svg
  1996 27 November 1999 (1999-11-27) 2002  

All 120 seats in the House of Representatives
61 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Turnout2,127,295 (84.77%) Decrease2.svg3.51%
 First partySecond partyThird party
Helen Clark 2001 - colour (cropped).jpg
Jenny Shipley, September 1999 (cropped).jpg
Jim Anderton 2000 (cropped).jpg
Leader Helen Clark Jenny Shipley Jim Anderton
Party Labour National Alliance
Leader since 1 December 1993 8 December 1997 7 May 1995
Leader's seat Mount Albert Rakaia Wigram
Last election37 seats, 28.19%44 seats, 33.87%13 seats, 10.10%
Seats won493910
Seat changeIncrease2.svg 12Decrease2.svg 5Decrease2.svg 3
Electorate vote854,736

Increase2.svg 10.67
Decrease2.svg 1.99
Decrease2.svg 4.35
Party vote800,199

Increase2.svg 10.55
Decrease2.svg 3.37
Decrease2.svg 2.36

 Fourth partyFifth partySixth party
Richard Prebble, 1993 (cropped).jpg
Rod Donald and Jeanette Fitzsimons (cropped).jpg
Winston Peters cropped.PNG
Leader Richard Prebble Rod Donald
Jeanette Fitzsimons
Winston Peters
Party ACT Green NZ First
Leader since24 March 199621 May 199518 July 1993
Leader's seat List
(lost Wellington Central)
Last election8 seats, 6.10%Ran as part of Alliance 17 seats, 13.35%
Seats won975
Seat changeIncrease2.svg 1Increase2.svg 7Decrease2.svg 12
Electorate vote92,445
Increase2.svg 0.77
Decrease2.svg 9.30
Party vote145,493
Increase2.svg 0.94
Decrease2.svg 9.09

 Seventh party
Peter Dunne 2002 (cropped).jpg
Leader Peter Dunne
Party United NZ
Leader since13 December 1993
Leader's seat Ohariu Belmont
Last election1 seat, 0.88%
Seats won1
Seat changeSteady2.svg
Electorate vote11,065
Decrease2.svg 0.34
Party vote22,467
Decrease2.svg 0.97

1999 New Zealand general election.svg
Results by electorate, shaded by winning margin

Prime Minister before election

Jenny Shipley

Subsequent Prime Minister

Helen Clark

The 1999 New Zealand general election was held on 27 November 1999 to determine the composition of the 46th New Zealand Parliament. The governing National Party, led by Prime Minister Jenny Shipley, was defeated, being replaced by a coalition of Helen Clark's Labour Party and the smaller Alliance. This marked an end to nine years of the Fourth National Government, and the beginning of the Fifth Labour Government which would govern for nine years in turn, until its loss to the National Party in the 2008 general election. It was the first New Zealand election where both major parties had female leaders.



Before the election, the National Party had an unstable hold on power. After the 1996 election National had formed a coalition with the populist New Zealand First party and its controversial leader, Winston Peters. The coalition was unpopular, as New Zealand First was seen as opposed to the National government, and had made many statements in the 1996 election campaign to that effect, such as saying that only through New Zealand First could National Party be toppled, and Peters said that he would not accept Jim Bolger as Prime Minister, Bill Birch as Finance Minister or Jenny Shipley in a social welfare portfolio. NZ First's support crashed, though this was also partly caused by scandals and by mid-1997, NZ First was polling at as low as 2%. National also polled badly, and Jim Bolger was replaced as Prime Minister with Jenny Shipley.

Gradually, however, the relationship between the two parties deteriorated, and Peters took his party out of the coalition, after Shipley sacked him from her cabinet. A number of New Zealand First MPs deserted Peters, establishing themselves as independents or as members of newly established parties. By forming agreements with these MPs, National was able to keep itself in office, but its control was often unsteady. The polls were still initially close, but without NZ First support, National's chances of forming a government were slim. Eventually, Labour Party gained a solid lead over National.

The Labour Party, which had been in Opposition since losing the 1990 election, presented a strong challenge, particularly due to its agreement with the smaller Alliance party. The two had not previously enjoyed good relations, primarily due to the presence of the NewLabour Party as one of the Alliance's key members. NewLabour had been established by Jim Anderton, a former Labour MP who quit the party in protest over the economic reforms of Roger Douglas, which were often blamed for Labour's election loss in 1990. Gradually, as the Labour Party withdrew from Rogernomics, the Alliance (led by Anderton) reduced its hostility towards Labour, but it was not until shortly before the 1999 election that a formal understanding was reached regarding a possible left-wing coalition. This agreement was deemed a necessary step towards building a credible alternative to the National Party.

This election was the first one in New Zealand's history where both main parties were led by women, being repeated again in the 2020 election.

MPs retiring in 1999

Fifteen MPs intended to retire at the end of the 45th Parliament.

ACT Derek Quigley (List)
Patricia Schnauer (List)
Alliance Pam Corkery (List)
Independent Neil Kirton (List)
Peter McCardle (List)
Mauri Pacific Jack Elder (List)
National John Banks Whangarei
Bill Birch Port Waikato
Christine Fletcher Epsom
Doug Graham (List)
Peter Gresham (List)
Denis Marshall Rangitikei
Roger Maxwell (List)
Joy Quigley (List)
Labour Mike Moore Waimakariri
Larry Sutherland Christchurch East

The election

The election took place on 27 November. Less than 84.1% of the 2,509,365 people registered to vote turned out for the election. This was the lowest turnout for some time, although it would drop further in the 2002 election. A total of 679 candidates stood for electorate seats, representing 36 parties. Party lists comprised 760 candidates from 22 parties. The new government was sworn in on 10 December.

In the election 965 candidates stood, and there were 22 registered parties with party lists. Of the candidates, 482 were electorate and list, 197 were electorate only, and 286 were list only. 67% of candidates (647) were male and 33% (318) female. [1] [2]

Opinion polling

Summary of results

Labour Party won 49 seats in parliament. When combined with the ten seats won by the Alliance, the coalition was two seats short of an absolute majority. It was able to form a new government with support from the Green Party, which entered parliament for the first time as an independent party (having previously been a part of the Alliance). The Green Party's entry to parliament was by a narrow margin, however – in order to gain seats, it needed to either win 5% of the party vote or win an electorate seat, neither of which the party appeared likely to do. Helen Clark openly encouraged Labour supporters in the Coromandel to give their constituency vote to Green Party co-leader Jeanette Fitzsimons [3] and their party vote to Labour. [4] However, when all special votes (that is, votes cast by people who were not able to attend a polling place in their electorate on the day of the election) were counted, the Greens had narrowly reached not one but both targets - Jeanette Fitzsimons won the electorate of Coromandel by 250 votes, and the party gained 5.16% of the vote.

The National Party, while not performing exceptionally poorly, failed to gain enough support to keep it in power. It won 39 seats, ten fewer than the Labour Party. ACT New Zealand, a potential coalition partner for National, gained nine seats. While this was an increase on ACT's previous election results, it was not sufficient to enable the National Party to form a government. National's former coalition partner, New Zealand First, performed poorly, with voters punishing it for the problems in the last government. The party received less than 5% of the vote, and so would have been removed from parliament had Winston Peters not retained his electorate of Tauranga, something he did by only 63 votes. None of the MPs who deserted New Zealand First were returned to parliament.

Detailed results

Parliamentary parties

Summary of the 27 November 1999 election for the House of Representatives [5]
1999 New Zealand general election - composition chart.svg
PartyParty voteElectorate voteSeats
Votes %Change
Votes %Change
Labour 800,19938.74Increase2.svg10.55854,73641.75Increase2.svg10.6784149Increase2.svg12
National 629,93230.50Decrease2.svg3.37641,36131.32Decrease2.svg1.99172239Decrease2.svg5
Alliance 159,8597.74Decrease2.svg2.36141,3226.90Decrease2.svg4.359110Decrease2.svg3
ACT 145,4937.04Increase2.svg0.9492,4454.52Increase2.svg0.77909Increase2.svg1
Green 106,5605.16new86,1574.21new617new
NZ First 87,9264.26Decrease2.svg9.0985,7374.19Decrease2.svg9.30415Decrease2.svg12
United NZ 11,0650.54Decrease2.svg0.3422,4671.10Decrease2.svg0.97011Steady2.svg
Christian Heritage 49,1542.38Decrease2.svg1.9544,8852.19Decrease2.svg0.19000Steady2.svg
Christian Democrats 23,0331.12new19,2890.94new000new
Legalise Cannabis 22,6871.10Decrease2.svg0.566,5190.32Increase2.svg0.15000Steady2.svg
Libertarianz 5,9490.29Increase2.svg0.26Decrease2.svg0.03000Steady2.svg
Mana Māori 5,1900.25Increase2.svg0.053,9250.19Decrease2.svg0.04000Steady2.svg
Mauri Pacific 4,0080.19new9,3210.46new000new
Animals First 3,2440.17Decrease2.svg0.01000Steady2.svg
McGillicuddy Serious 3,1910.15Decrease2.svg0.143,6330.18Decrease2.svg0.32000Steady2.svg
South Island 2,9120.14new2,4080.12new000new
Natural Law 1,7120.08Decrease2.svg0.072,1010.10Decrease2.svg0.16000Steady2.svg
One NZ 1,3110.06new2670.01new000new
NMP 9360.05new6880.03new000new
Freedom Movement 4540.02new7620.04new000new
People's Choice 3870.02new1540.01new000new
Republican 2920.01Increase2.svg0.012310.01Steady2.svg000Steady2.svg
Unregistered parties2,3540.11Increase2.svg0.04000Steady2.svg
Independent 23,0041.12Increase2.svg0.08000Steady2.svg
Valid votes2,065,49497.10Increase2.svg0.042,047,47396.25Decrease2.svg0.31
Informal votes19,8870.93Increase2.svg0.5537,9081.78Increase2.svg0.90
Disallowed votes41,8841.97Decrease2.svg0.5941,8841.97Decrease2.svg0.59
Eligible voters and Turnout2,509,36584.77Decrease2.svg3.512,509,36584.77Decrease2.svg3.51

In addition to the registered parties listed above, some groups participated in the election without submitting party lists. Many of these were unregistered parties, lacking the necessary membership numbers for submitting a party list. There were, however, three registered ones that did not, for whatever reason, submit a party list. In total, 14 parties nominated electorate candidates only. By number of votes received, the most significant parties to do this were Te Tawharau (registered), Mana Wahine Te Ira Tangata (registered), the Equal Rights Party (unregistered), the Piri Wiri Tua Movement (unregistered), and the Asia Pacific United Party (registered). None of these parties were successful. There were also 36 independent candidates, also unsuccessful. The Mauri Pacific Party, established by a group of defectors from New Zealand First, failed to place even second in the electorates they held. Te Tawharau, which held a seat in parliament thanks to another New Zealand First defector, failed to retain its seat.

Votes summary

Constituency Vote
NZ First
Christian Heritage
United NZ
Party Vote
NZ First
Christian Heritage
Future NZ
Legalise Cannabis
United NZ
Parliament seats
NZ First
United NZ

Electorate results

Party affiliation of winning electorate candidates. NewZealandElectorates1999-Labeled.png
Party affiliation of winning electorate candidates.

Of the 67 electorates in the 1999 election, a majority (41) were won by the opposition Labour Party. Included in Labour's total are the Maori seats, which it managed to regain after losing them to New Zealand First in the previous election. The governing National Party won 22 electorate seats, slightly less than a third of the total.

Four minor parties managed to win electorate seats. This proved important for some – neither New Zealand First nor United would have entered parliament if not for Winston Peters and Peter Dunne retaining their seats. Jim Anderton also retained his seat. The Greens won their first electorate seat when Jeanette Fitzsimons took Coromandel, although since the Greens crossed the 5% threshold, this was of less importance than originally thought. The Greens were not to repeat an electorate win until the 2020 election, with Chloë Swarbrick's plurality in Auckland Central.

The table below shows the results of the 1999 general election:


  National   Labour   Alliance   Green   ACT   United NZ
  NZ First   Legalise Cannabis   Mauri Pacific   Christian Democrats   Te Tawharau   Independent
Electorate results of the 1999 New Zealand general election [6] [7]
ElectorateIncumbentWinnerMajorityRunner upThird place
General electorates
Albany Murray McCully 4,948Hamish McCrackenHeather Ann McConachy
Aoraki Jim Sutton 7,139Wayne F MarriottLynley Simmons
Auckland Central Judith Tizard 5,285Martin Poulsen Sandra Lee
Banks Peninsula David Carter Ruth Dyson 1,455 David Carter Maevis Watson
Bay of Plenty Tony Ryall 7,102Terry Hughes Peter Brown
Christchurch Central Tim Barnett 9,404John Stringer Liz Gordon
Christchurch East Larry Sutherland Lianne Dalziel 11,162John Knox Paul Piesse
Clutha-Southland Bill English 6,401 Lesley Soper Dave Mackie
Coromandel Murray McLean Jeanette Fitzsimons 250 Murray McLean Margaret Hawkeswood
Dunedin North Pete Hodgson 12,695 Katherine Rich Quentin Findlay
Dunedin South Michael Cullen David Benson-Pope 10,608Russel KeastMark Ryan
East Coast New electorate Janet Mackey 3,845Matthew ParkinsonGavin MacLean
Epsom Christine Fletcher Richard Worth 1,908 Rodney Hide David Jacobs
Hamilton East Tony Steel 692 Dianne Yates Peter Jamieson
Hamilton West Bob Simcock Martin Gallagher 1,629Bob SimcockDave Macpherson
Hunua Warren Kyd 5,195Paul SchofieldJanice Graham
Hutt South Trevor Mallard 8,885Clare RadomskeChristopher Milne
Ilam Gerry Brownlee 6,792Alison WilkieLois Griffiths
Invercargill Mark Peck 7,990 Eric Roy Stephnie de Ruyter
Kaikoura Doug Kidd Lynda Scott 1,486Brian McNamara Ian Ewen-Street
Karapiro John Luxton Lindsay Tisch 5,216Paul CroninJohn Pemberton
Mana Graham Kelly 5,475Mark ThomasMoira Ann Lawler
Māngere Taito Phillip Field 13,047Sylvia TaylorFinau Kolo
Manukau East Ross Robertson 7,086Ken YeeCharles Lowndes
Manurewa George Hawkins 13,062Enosa Auva'aToia Lucas
Maungakiekie Belinda Vernon Mark Gosche 2,512Belinda Vernon Matt Robson
Mount Albert New electorate Helen Clark 13,108Noelene Buckland Jill Ovens
Mount Roskill New electorate Phil Goff 9,707Phil RaffillsSarah Martin
Napier Geoff Braybrooke 11,863 Anne Tolley Robin Gwynn
Nelson Nick Smith 4,521Simon FraserMary Ellen O'Connor
New Plymouth Harry Duynhoven 15,092Len JuryTom Smithers
North Shore Wayne Mapp 7,048 Helen Duncan Michael Pinkney
Northcote Ian Revell Ann Hartley 278Ian Revell Grant Gillon
Northland John Carter 5,454Les RobertsonIan Walker
Ohariu-Belmont Peter Dunne 12,557Derek BestKathryn Asare
Otago Gavan Herlihy 2,367Val DearmanBill Holvey
Otaki Judy Keall 7,250 Roger Sowry Russell Franklin
Pakuranga Maurice Williamson 5,314Patrick Hine Dick Quax
Palmerston North Steve Maharey 13,153George HalliganJohn Gerard Hehir
Port Waikato Bill Birch Paul Hutchison 13,153Trish RyanDavid Fowler
Rakaia Jenny Shipley 10,602Diane SchurgersAnnabel Taylor
Rangitikei Denis Marshall Simon Power 289Craig WalshamDion Martin
Rimutaka Paul Swain 8,374Stuart Blair RoddickBrendan Tracey
Rodney Lockwood Smith 6,905Mark DomneyJill Jeffs
Rongotai Annette King 12,928Stuart BoagRichard Wernham
Rotorua Max Bradford Steve Chadwick 4,978Max BradfordLynne Dempsey
Tamaki Clem Simich 4,911 Lynne Pillay Alex Swney
Taranaki-King Country Shane Ardern 6,510John Young Kevin Campbell
Taupo Mark Burton 3,578David SteeleNick Fisher
Tauranga Winston Peters 63 Katherine O'Regan Margaret Wilson
Te Atatu New electorate Chris Carter 9,262Vanessa Neeson Laila Harré
Titirangi New electorate David Cunliffe 5,800 Marie Hasler Stephen Abel
Tukituki Rick Barker 8,646Larry WhiteJohn Ormond
Waimakariri Mike Moore Clayton Cosgrove 1,141Gideon Couper John Wright
Wairarapa Wyatt Creech Georgina Beyer 3,033 Paul Henry Cathy Casey
Waitakere Marie Hasler Brian Neeson 4,056 Jonathan Hunt David Clendon
Wellington Central Richard Prebble Marian Hobbs 1,482Richard Prebble Michael Appleby
West Coast-Tasman Damien O'Connor 7,378Rod O'Beirne Pat O'Dea
Whanganui Jill Pettis 3,155 Chester Borrows Mark Middleton
Whangarei John Banks Phil Heatley 1,934Denise Jelicich Brian Donnelly
Wigram Jim Anderton 9,885Angus McKayMike Mora
Māori electorates
Hauraki Maori New electorate John Tamihere 7,238Josie Anderson Willie Jackson
Ikaroa-Rāwhiti New electorate Parekura Horomia 695 Derek Fox Bill Gudgeon
Te Tai Hauāuru Tuku Morgan Nanaia Mahuta 6,233Lorraine Anderson Tuku Morgan
Te Tai Tokerau Tau Henare Dover Samuels 5,692Anaru George Tau Henare
Te Tai Tonga Tu Wyllie Mahara Okeroa 4,522 Tu Wyllie Vern Winitana
Waiariki New electorate Mita Ririnui 4,369 Tuariki Delamere Arapeta Tahana

List results

Highest polling party in each electorate. New Zealand Party Vote, 1999.png
Highest polling party in each electorate.

MPs returned via party lists, and unsuccessful candidates, were as follows: [8] [9]

Labour Michael Cullen
Jonathan Hunt
Margaret Wilson
Tariana Turia
Dianne Yates
Helen Duncan
Joe Hawke
Luamanuvao Winnie Laban
Unsuccessful: Lynne Pillay, John Blincoe, George Eru, Lili Tuioti, Ashraf Choudhary, Brenda Lowe-Johnson, Lesley Soper, Gordon Duncan, Denise Jelicich, Warren Lindberg, Derek Best, Josie Karanga, Tuipola Eva Charlton, Terry Hughes, Lindsay Rea, Glen Cameron, Kenneth Barclay, Margaret Hawkeswood, Tapihana Shelford, Hamish McCracken, Val Dearman, David Shearer, Lynette Stutz, Max Purnell, Yani Johanson
National Wyatt Creech
Don McKinnon 2
Georgina te Heuheu
Roger Sowry
Belinda Vernon
Pansy Wong
Simon Upton 2
John Luxton
Max Bradford
Doug Kidd
Annabel Young
Eric Roy
Anne Tolley
David Carter
Bob Simcock
Katherine Rich
Marie Hasler
Unsuccessful: Arthur Anae 1, Alec Neill 1, Katherine O'Regan, Mark Thomas, Phil Raffills, Kerry Prendergast, Martin Poulson, David Steele, Dale Stephens, Angus McKay, Paul Henry, Chester Borrows, George Ngatai, Enosa Auva'a, Bret Bestic, Rod O'Beirne, Wayne Marriott, Stephen Rainbow, Tim Macindoe, George Kahi, Larry White, Ken Yee, Matthew Parkinson, Dawn Honeybun, George Halligan, Grant McCallum, Peggy Burrows, Toni Millar, Noelene Buckland, Stuart Boag
Alliance Sandra Lee
Matt Robson
John Wright
Phillida Bunkle
Laila Harré
Grant Gillon
Liz Gordon
Willie Jackson
Kevin Campbell
Unsuccessful: Mark Ryan, Heather Ann McConachy, Des Ratima, Dave Macpherson, Gerard Hehir, Moira Ann Lawler, Finau Kolo, Trevor Lance Barnard, Tricia Cutforth, Tekarehana Wicks, Robin Gwynn, Stephnie de Ruyter, Vernon Tile, Vern Winitana, Sarah Martin, Brendan Tracey, Cathy Casey, Jill Ovens, Deborah Frederikse, Tony Bird, Rebecca Matthews, Mary Ellen O'Connor, Gavin Maclean, Dion Martin, Evana Belich, Michael Treen, John Pemberton, Peter Jamieson, David Wilson, Donna Pokere-Phillips, Harry Alchin-Smith, Bonnie Johnstone, Janice Graham, Joseph Te Pare, Anna Sutherland, Lois Griffiths, Quentin Findlay, Peter Conrad Romanovsky, Gordon Parr, Lynley Simmons, Wayne Morris, Maevis Watson, Lindsay Mehrtens, John Neill, Bruce Bennett Holm, Pirihira Kaio, Paul Piesse, Bill Mockridge, Patrick Rooney
ACT Richard Prebble
Ken Shirley
Stephen Franks
Donna Awatere Huata
Rodney Hide
Owen Jennings
Muriel Newman
Penny Webster
Gerry Eckhoff
Unsuccessful: Heather Roy, Dick Quax, Kathryn Asare, Max Whitehead, Andrew Davies, Hilary Calvert, Alex Wong, Nigel Mattison, Bruce Howat, Mike Steeneveld, Coral Wong, John Ormond, Charles Lowndes, Christopher Milne, Angus Ogilvie, Michael Coote, Brett Ambler, Vijaya Charan, Katharine Sillars, Matt McInnes, Lech Beltowski, Alex Swney, Ian Carline, Moira Irving, Daniel King, Richard Cox, John Thompson, Paul King, Reg Turner, Graham Hewett, John Morrison, Malcolm Spark, Glen Cowie, Alan Beecham, Dean Richardson, Alan Wood, Willie Martin, Ian Swan, Andrew Power, Lynne Cook, Lynley McKerrow, Gavin Denby, Barbara Steinijans, Ria Gray-Lock, Morris Hey, Jean Thompson, Paul Booth, Trevor West, Men Chandler, John Peters, Darryl Ward, Wayne Harris, Stephen Kidby, William Tripe, Kati Unuia, Garry Mallett
Greens Rod Donald
Ian Ewen-Street
Sue Bradford
Nándor Tánczos
Sue Kedgley
Keith Locke
Unsuccessful: Mike Ward, Janine McVeagh, Richard Davies, Judy Bischoff, Danna Glendining, Janet McVeagh, Caron Zillwood, Evan Alty, Michael Tritt, Rex Verity, Laurence Boomert, David Clendon, Brendan Hoare, Lynne Dempsey, Frankie Dean, Diana Pennel, Don Murray, Diana Mellor, Angie Denby, Stephen Abel, Craig Potton, Celia Wade-Brown, Toni Atkinson, Karen Summerhays, Jeremy Hall, Deb Harding, Ruth Gardner, Pat McNamara, Wayne Parsonson, Pid Direen, Clive Taylor, Bera MacClement, Cliff Mason, Dianne Gillard, Rich Wernham, James Baynton, Craig Carson, Jane Wells, Chris Marshall, David Rose, Robert Cawte, Olive Gallagher, Chris Hay, John Carapiet, Nick Fisher, Jim Valley, Greg Sawyer
New Zealand First Peter Brown
Brian Donnelly
Ron Mark
Doug Woolerton
Unsuccessful: Ian Walker, Suzanne Bruce, Andrew Gin, Josie Anderson, Gilbert Myles, Jonathan Mosen, Kahukore Baker, Chris Comesky, Allan Wise, Rob Harris, David Fowler, Chris Rivers, Pat O'Dea, Pita Paraone, Robyn McDonald, Bill Woods, Jenny Bloxham, Graham Adams, Dave Mackie, Bill Gudgeon, Anaru George, Robert Dixon, Gordon Stewart, Anne Martin, Brent Catchpole, Charles Crofts, Lorraine Anderson, John Ballantyne, Jerry Hohepa, Joy Brett, Dilip Rupa, Edwin Perry, Raymond Hina, Dawn Mullins, Mae Neuman
Christian HeritageUnsuccessful: Graham Capill, Philip Sherry, Ewen McQueen, Gael Donoghue, John Bryant, Frank Grover, Rosemarie Thomas, Vic Jarvis, Tuhi Vahaakolo, Dick Holland, David Parlour, Grant Bradfield, Rosemary Francis, Barrie Paterson, Chris Salt, Helma Vermeulen, Nick Barber, Robin Corner, Mike Lloyd, Madeleine Flannagan, Max Shierlaw, McGregor Simpson, Geoff Francis, Jim Prime, Mary Paki, Mark Munroe, Derek Blight, Judith Phillips, Renton Maclachlan, Mike Ferguson, Rod Harris, David Simpkin, John Tonson, Steve Williams, Margaret Burgess, Barry Pepperell, Marin Reid, Uaita Levi, Eleanor Goodall, Richard Rangihuna, Leona Emberson-Ready, Joyce Stevens, Ken Moore, Ross Prichard, Tony Corbett, Ned Jack, Mark Jones, Don Moore, Gavin Hockly, Diane Taylor, Russell Zwies, Steve Panapa, Bob Davis, Tony Brebner, Mary-Anne Gladwell, John van der Zee, Ken Andrew, Murray Pirret, Jeannette Shramka, Grant Peck, Hasko Starrenberg, Victor Grubi, David Harris, John Streekstra
Future New ZealandUnsuccessful: Anthony Walton, David Brown, Murray Smith, Geoffrey Hounsell, Grant Bowater, Kanui Hiha, Daryl Gregory, Kevin Harper, Larry Baldock, Yvonne Palmer, Robert Wheeler, Harold Smithers, David Ogden, Judy Turner, Wayne Chapman, Julie Belding, Walter McGrail, Jason Keiller, Linda Dring, Craig Hunt, Win Murray, David Perkin, Tiwha Blake, Rosemary Drake, Martyn Seddon
Legalise CannabisUnsuccessful: Michael Appleby, Allan Webb, Kevin O'Connell, David Moore, Jeanette Saxby, Caleb Armstrong, Paul McMullan, Brian Jensen, Mike Britnell, Daya Moy, Kerry Gooch, Evelyn Adele Shingleton, Teresa Aporo, Christine Mitchell, Daniel Hovell, Benjamin Clark, Riki Joyce
UnitedUnsuccessful: Mike Sheppard, Aditya Prakash Kashyap, Ram Prakash, Jim Howard, Kim Woon, Graham Butterworth, Kookie Samin, Rehana Qureshi, Colin Jackson, Steven Bright, Maata Fuimaono, Frank Owen, Gray Phillips, Bryan Mockridge, John Hubscher, Kent Clark, Youssuf Qureshi, Murray Callister, Atiqur Rahman, Pathik Vyas, Seyed Hosseni
LibertarianzUnsuccessful: Lindsay Perigo, Richard McGrath, Deborah Coddington, Bernard Darnton, Tina White, Peter Linton, Larry Timberlake, Sally O'Brien, Julian Darby, Chris Lewis, Peter Cresswell, Paul McDonald, Anna Woolf, Joy Faulkner, Robert Winefield, Scott Alsweiler, Keith Patterson, Andrew Couper, Robert White, Andrew Bates, Michael Murphy, Mark McCombe, Nikolas Haden, Chris Robertson, Mike Webber, Richard Wiig, Russell Watkins, Helen Hughes, Derek Bull, Ken Riddle
Mana MaoriUnsuccessful: Tame Iti, Tuariki Delamere, Angeline Greensill, Richard Kake, Tunuirangi McLean, Tracey Hancy, Ken Mair, Anton Kerekere, Jesse Pene, Mereana Pitman, David Edmonds, Henare Morehu, Te Miringa Hohaia, Gareth Seymour, Himenoa Kake, Tania Rauna, Ellen Amohanga, Diane Prince, Anthony Moke, Lai Toy, Nigel Tairua, Ngahapeaparatuae Lomax, Julie Nathan, Harata Jane Paul, Tehurihanga Heihei, Rangimarie Harding, Wiremu Tairua, Tiare Para
Mauri PacificUnsuccessful: Tau Henare, Tuku Morgan, Peta Si'ulepa, Rana Waitai, Ann Batten, Te Orohi Paul, Atawhai Tibble, Amokura Huia Panoho, Rovina Anderson, Eric Chuah, Danny Turia, Rajesh Masters, Martin Kaipo, Helen Akhtari, Trieste Te Awe Awe, Sharon Faloon, Rayna Waitai, Fa'amatuainu Iakopo, Laura Mason, Richard Waitai, Kelly Waitai, Api Malu
Animals FirstUnsuccessful: Alistar McKellow, Adrienne Hall, Susan Walker, Terri Walsh, Bettina Brown, Brenda Walker, Janice Strong, Jan Cumming, Peter Crosse, Neville Lynch
McGillicuddy SeriousUnsuccessful: Graeme Cairns, Leanne Ireland, Steve Richards, Rodney Hansen, K T Julian, Val Smith, Peter Caldwell, Greg Smith, Donna Demente, Paul Smith, Robyn West, Adrian Holroyd, Johanna Sanders, Cecil G. Murgatroyd, Penny Bousfield, Grant Knowles, Heidi Borchardt, Paull Cooke, Amy Ross, Rebekah Coogan, Derek Craig, Douglas Mackie, Mark Servian, Bernard Smith, Paul Beere, Worik Turei Stanton, Metiria Stanton Turei, Phil Clayton, Megan Seawright, Timothy Owens, Antony Deaker, Colin Howie, Adrienne Carthew, Jonat Wharton, Paula Hudson, Helen Thornton, Amy MacDonald, David McGregor, Fiona Jack, Michael-Garnet Grimmett, Kerry Hoole, Toni-Ann Alsop, D J Howard, John Creser, Maria McMillan, Jane Hakaria, Catherine Wilson, Ara Nokomis, Dale Taylor, Wendy Clesse, Jeffrey Holdaway, Tricesta Engebretsen, Phillip Sandlant, Robyn Homes, Ross Edgar, Serena Moran, Emma Smith, Nikki Davis, Andrew French, David Sutcliffe, Daniel Mohr, Michael Gemmel, Samuel Cumming, Karl Hewlett
South IslandUnsuccessful: Allan McDonald, Patrick McCarrigan, Margaret McCarrigan, Miles Notman, Gerry Campbell, Joe Price, Paul Mierzejewski
Natural LawUnsuccessful: Bryan Lee, Ian Douglas, David Lovell-Smith, Gillian Sanson, John Cleary, Graeme Lodge, Gray Tredwell, Bruce Brown, Anthony Martin, Selwyn Austin, Gail Pianta, John Hodgson, Linda Davy, Mark Watts, Paul Moreham, Raymond Cain, Anthony Katavich, John Bird, Raylene Lodge, Ian Smillie, Tim Irwin, Linda Sinden, Michael Hirst, Daniel Meares, Warwick Jones, Bruce Sowry, Wayne Shepherd, Gary Benner, Martin Jelley, Jonathan Muller, Leslie McGrath, Anthony Cornellissen, Russell Mack, Carolyn Drake, Thomas Hopwood, Andrew Sanderson, Ian McCullough, Kay Morgan, Martin Sharp, Bobbie Aubertin, Gilbert Urquhart, Mieke van Basten Batenburg, Leigh Bush, Michael Bartelmeh, Faye McLaren, Grant Bilyard, Brendan Rhodes, Anne Brigid, Roy Neumegen, Ruth Ordish-Benner, Gary Barnard, Lillian Urquhart
One New ZealandUnsuccessful: Walter Boyd
NMPUnsuccessful: Vivienne Berry-Evans, Peter Harrison, Pauline Hallows, Cecil Andrew da Latour, Edwina Chmielowski, Graham Mark Atkin, Llyn Renwick, Darag Stuart Rennie, Alison White, Aaziq Mumtaz, Sue Johnstom, Brett K Gifkins, Isabel Montgomery, Peter Archer, Isabel Hutchinson, Alfred James Mitchell, David Pattinson, John Sulu Tau Shepherd, Anthony Phillip Cranston
Freedom MovementUnsuccessful: Jennifer Waitai-Rapana, Lei Graham, Kororia Ettie Rawinia Aperahama, Miiria Macushla Mako, Helen Te Uruiria Wepiha-Tai, Atareta Kapa Hills, Arahi R Hagger, Priscilla Ann Maxwell, Trevor Sorenson, Kevin Leonard Kapea, Taukiri Abraham, Te Rino Kotene Rapana, Mereana Pari, Myna Yvonne Rangiamohia Paraha-Richmond, Chrissie B Zurcher, Carol Grace Arnold, Whare Ngarare Mehana, Hone Hamiora Piripi Paki, Annette Christine Paki, Wiremu Abraham, Donna Louise Plumridge, Jaaron Turei Moore, Florence Plumridge, Whetu-Ote-Ata Aranui, Okeroa Denise Waitai, Tutere Tai, William Ernest Abraham, Mary-Anne Waitai, Te Wairangi (Lavinia) Pere, Michelle Ngauta Wroe, Bill Nathan Piriwiritua Thompson, Te Kura (Edward) Pairama, Jared Steve Abbot, Catherine Chisholm, Vanessa Tewaa Rangitakatu, Te Aira Nyman, John Haki Huia, Maraea Mere Hapi-Crowe, Kim Sonia Maxwell, Tina Mouri Johnston-Downs
Peoples ChoiceUnsuccessful: Rusty Kane, Doug Wilson
RepublicanUnsuccessful: Gregory H Smith, Brian Freeth, Graham Gilfillan, Jane Hotere, Sam Mendes, Rose Hotere, William Powell
  1. These party list members later entered parliament in the term as other list MPs elected resigned from parliament.
  2. These party list members later resigned during the parliamentary term.

Summary of seat changes

Post-election events

The result in the Tauranga electorate was an extremely close three way race. New Zealand First leader Winston Peters beat National candidate Katherine O'Regan in a close race with Labour's Margaret Wilson in third. Labour sought a judicial recount as since New Zealand First won less than five percent of the party vote they would have no seats in parliament in at all if Peters lost the electorate (allowing Labour to govern solely with the Alliance and not needing the Greens). Peters criticised the recount as a waste of money. [10] The recount resulted in Peters' majority increasing by one vote from 62 to 63. [11]

A by-election to the Wellington City Council was caused after Eastern Ward councillor Sue Kedgley resigned her seat after she was elected a List MP for the Green Party, necessitating a by-election to fill the council vacancy. The by-election was won by Ray Ahipene-Mercer. [12]


    Related Research Articles

    The Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand, commonly known as Green or the Greens, is a green and left-wing political party in New Zealand. Like many green parties around the world, it has four pillars. The party's ideology combines environmentalism with left-wing and social-democratic economic policies, including well-funded and locally controlled public services within the confines of a steady-state economy. Internationally, it is affiliated with the Global Greens.

    The Alliance was a left-wing political party in New Zealand. It was formed at the end of 1991 by the linking of four smaller parties. The Alliance positioned itself as a democratic socialist alternative to the centre-left New Zealand Labour Party. It was influential throughout the 1990s, but suffered a major setback after its founder and leader, Jim Anderton, left the party in 2002, taking with him several of its members of parliament (MPs). After the remaining MPs lost their seats in the 2002 general election, some commentators predicted the demise of the party.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">2002 New Zealand general election</span> General election in New Zealand

    The 2002 New Zealand general election was held on 27 July 2002 to determine the composition of the 47th New Zealand Parliament. It saw the reelection of Helen Clark's Labour Party government, as well as the worst-ever performance by the opposition National Party.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">1996 New Zealand general election</span> General election in New Zealand

    The 1996 New Zealand general election was held on 12 October 1996 to determine the composition of the 45th New Zealand Parliament. It was notable for being the first election to be held under the new mixed-member proportional (MMP) electoral system, and produced a parliament considerably more diverse than previous elections. Under the new MMP system, 65 members were elected in single-member districts by first-past-the-post voting, while a further 55 "top-up" members were allocated from closed lists to achieve a proportional distribution based on each party's share of the nationwide party vote.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">1993 New Zealand general election</span> General election in New Zealand

    The 1993 New Zealand general election was held on 6 November 1993 to determine the composition of the 44th New Zealand Parliament. Voters elected 99 members to the House of Representatives, up from 97 members at the 1990 election. The election was held concurrently with an electoral reform referendum to replace the first-past-the-post system, with all members elected from single-member electorates, with mixed-member proportional representation. It saw the governing National Party, led by Jim Bolger, win a second term in office, despite a major swing away from National in both seats and votes, and the carrying of the referendum by 53.9% to 46.1%.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Mauri Pacific</span> Political party in New Zealand

    Mauri Pacific was a short-lived political party in New Zealand. It was formed in 1998 by five former members of the New Zealand First party. It has often been described as a Māori party. Officially, Mauri Pacific was a multiculturalist party, welcoming anyone who supported racial and cultural harmony. Three of its five MPs were Māori, and two were Pākehā.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Māori electorates</span> Electoral districts for Māori voters in New Zealand

    In New Zealand politics, Māori electorates, colloquially known as the Māori seats, are a special category of electorate that give reserved positions to representatives of Māori in the New Zealand Parliament. Every area in New Zealand is covered by both a general and a Māori electorate; as of 2020, there are seven Māori electorates. Since 1967, candidates in Māori electorates have not needed to be Māori themselves, but to register as a voter in the Māori electorates people need to declare that they are of Māori descent.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">2005 New Zealand general election</span> General election in New Zealand

    The 2005 New Zealand general election on Saturday 17 September 2005 determined the membership of the 48th New Zealand Parliament. One hundred and twenty-one MPs were elected to the New Zealand House of Representatives: 69 from single-member electorates, including one overhang seat, and 52 from party lists.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">46th New Zealand Parliament</span> Term of the Parliament of New Zealand

    The 46th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. Its composition was determined by the 1999 election, and it sat until the 2002 election.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">45th New Zealand Parliament</span> Term of the Parliament of New Zealand

    The 45th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. Its composition was determined by the 1996 election, and it sat until the 1999 election.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Māori politics</span> Politics of the Māori people

    Māori politics is the politics of the Māori people, who were the original inhabitants of New Zealand and who are now the country's largest minority. Before the arrival of Pākehā (Europeans) in New Zealand, Māori society was based largely around tribal units, and chiefs provided political leadership. With the British settlers of the 19th century came a new British-style government. From the outset, Māori sought representation within this government, seeing it as a vital way to promote their people's rights and improve living standards. Modern Māori politics can be seen as a subset of New Zealand politics in general, but has a number of distinguishing features, including advocacy for indigenous rights and Māori sovereignty. Many Māori politicians are members of major, historically European-dominated political parties, while others have formed separate Māori parties. For example, Te Pāti Māori, holding six of seven Māori electorates, is one such party.

    The Tight Five was a nickname given to the five Māori MPs elected to the New Zealand Parliament in 1996 from the centrist/populist New Zealand First party.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Waka-jumping</span>

    In New Zealand politics, waka-jumping is a colloquial term for when a member of Parliament (MP) either switches political party between elections or when a list MP's party membership ceases.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">2008 New Zealand general election</span> General election in New Zealand

    The 2008 New Zealand general election was held on 8 November 2008 to determine the composition of the 49th New Zealand Parliament. The liberal-conservative National Party, headed by its parliamentary leader John Key, won the largest share of votes and seats, ending nine years of government by the social-democratic Labour Party, led by Helen Clark. Key announced a week later that he would lead a National minority government with confidence-and-supply support from the ACT, United Future and Māori parties. The Governor-General swore Key in as New Zealand's 38th Prime Minister on 19 November 2008. This marked the beginning of the Fifth National Government which governed for the next nine years, until the 2017 general election, when a government was formed between the Labour and New Zealand First parties, with support on confidence and supply by the Green Party.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Te Tai Tokerau</span> Māori electorate in Northland, New Zealand

    Te Tai Tokerau is a New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorate that was created out of the Northern Maori electorate ahead of the first Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) election in 1996. It was held first by Tau Henare representing New Zealand First for one term, and then Dover Samuels of the Labour Party for two terms. From 2005 to 2014, it was held by MP Hone Harawira. Initially a member of the Māori Party, Harawira resigned from both the party and then Parliament, causing the 2011 by-election. He was returned under the Mana Party banner in July 2011 and confirmed at the November 2011 general election. In the 2014 election, he was beaten by Labour's Kelvin Davis, ending the representation of the Mana Party in Parliament.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">2011 New Zealand general election</span> General election in New Zealand

    The 2011 New Zealand general election took place on Saturday 26 November 2011 to determine the membership of the 50th New Zealand Parliament.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Rino Tirikatene</span> New Zealand politician

    Rino Tirikatene is a New Zealand Labour Party politician and a former member of the House of Representatives. He comes from a family with a strong political history.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">2017 New Zealand general election</span>

    The 2017 New Zealand general election took place on Saturday 23 September 2017 to determine the membership of the 52nd New Zealand Parliament. The previous parliament was elected on 20 September 2014 and was officially dissolved on 22 August 2017. Voters elected 120 members to the House of Representatives under New Zealand's mixed-member proportional (MMP) voting system, a proportional representation system in which 71 members were elected from single-member electorates and 49 members were elected from closed party lists. Around 3.57 million people were registered to vote in the election, with 2.63 million (79.8%) turning out. Advance voting proved popular, with 1.24 million votes cast before election day, more than the previous two elections combined.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">2020 New Zealand general election</span>

    The 2020 New Zealand general election was held on Saturday 17 October 2020 to determine the composition of the 53rd New Zealand Parliament. Voters elected 120 members to the House of Representatives, 72 from single-member electorates and 48 from closed party lists. Two referendums, one on the personal use of cannabis and one on euthanasia, were also held on the same day. Official results of the election and referendums were released on 6 November.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">2023 New Zealand general election</span> General election for the 54th Parliament of New Zealand

    The 2023 New Zealand general election was held on 14 October 2023 to determine the composition of the 54th Parliament of New Zealand. Voters elected 122 members to the unicameral New Zealand House of Representatives under the mixed-member proportional (MMP) voting system, with 71 members elected from single-member electorates and the remaining members elected from closed party lists. Of the 72 electorates, only 71 seats were filled, with the remaining electorate MP determined in the 2023 Port Waikato by-election, due to the death of one of the general election candidates. Two overhang seats were added due to Te Pāti Māori winning six electorate seats when the party vote only entitled them to four seats, with an additional overhang seat added after the by-election making for 123 members of parliament.


    1. The Baubles of Office: The New Zealand General Election of 2005 p87, edited by Stephen Levine & Nigel S Roberts (2007, Victoria University Press, Wellington) ISBN   978-0-86473-539-3
    2. New Zealand Votes: The General Election of 2002 p22 edited by Jonathan Boston, Stephen Church, Stephen Levine, Elizabeth McLeay & Nigel S. Roberts (2003, Victoria University Press, Wellington) ISBN   0-86473-468-9
    3. Bernard Orsman (28 October 1999). "Key electorate: Coromandel". The New Zealand Herald . Retrieved 24 December 2014.
    4. Left Turn: The New Zealand General Election of 1999. Victoria University Press. 2000. p. 237. ISBN   9780864734044.
    5. "1999 GENERAL ELECTION - OFFICIAL RESULTS AND STATISTICS". ElectionResults.govt.nz. Electoral Commission. 19 October 2020. Archived from the original on 1 November 2018. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
    6. "Candidate Vote Details". Electoral Commission . Retrieved 9 April 2014.
    7. "Winning Electorate Candidate Votes". Electoral Commission . Retrieved 28 June 2017.
    8. "Party Lists of Successful Registered Parties". Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
    9. "Party Lists of Unsuccessful Registered Parties". Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 14 January 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
    10. Main, Victoria (14 December 1999). "Peters slams decision to seek recount in Tauranga". The Dominion . p. 2.
    11. Venter, Nick (16 December 1999). "Tauranga recount gives one more vote to Peters". The Dominion . p. 2.
    12. "Environmentalist wins council by-election". The Dominion . 1 May 2000. p. 7.

    Further reading