All 120 seats in the New Zealand House of Representatives
61 seats needed for a majority
|Turnout||2,127,295 (84.77%) |
The 1999 New Zealand general election was held on 27 November 1999 to determine the composition of the 46th New Zealand Parliament. The governing National Party, led by Prime Minister Jenny Shipley, was defeated, being replaced by a coalition of Helen Clark's Labour Party and the smaller Alliance. This marked an end to nine years of the Fourth National Government, and the beginning of the Fifth Labour Government which would govern for nine years in turn, until its loss to the National Party in the 2008 general election.
Before the election, the National Party had an unstable hold on power. After the 1996 election National had formed a coalition with the populist New Zealand First party and its controversial leader, Winston Peters. The coalition was unpopular, as New Zealand First was seen as opposed to the National government, and had made many statements in the 1996 election campaign to that effect, such as saying that only through New Zealand First could National Party be toppled, and Peters said that he would not accept Jim Bolger as Prime Minister, Bill Birch as Finance Minister or Jenny Shipley in a social welfare portfolio. NZ First's support crashed, though this was also partly caused by scandals and by mid-1997, NZ First was polling at as low as 2%. National also polled badly, and Jim Bolger was replaced as Prime Minister with Jenny Shipley.
Gradually, however, the relationship between the two parties deteriorated, and Peters took his party out of the coalition. A number of New Zealand First MPs deserted Peters, establishing themselves as independents or as members of newly established parties. By forming agreements with these MPs, National was able to keep itself in office, but its control was often unsteady. The polls were still initially close, but without NZ First support, National's chances of forming a government were slim. Eventually, Labour Party gained a solid lead over National.
The Labour Party, which had been in Opposition since losing the 1990 election, presented a strong challenge, particularly due to its agreement with the smaller Alliance party. The two had not previously enjoyed good relations, primarily due to the presence of the NewLabour Party as one of the Alliance's key members. NewLabour had been established by Jim Anderton, a former Labour MP who quit the party in protest over the economic reforms of Roger Douglas, which were often blamed for Labour's election loss in 1990. Gradually, as the Labour Party withdrew from "Rogernomics", the Alliance (led by Anderton) reduced its hostility towards Labour, but it was not until shortly before the 1999 election that a formal understanding was reached regarding a possible left-wing coalition. This agreement was deemed a necessary step towards building a credible alternative to the National Party.
This election was the only one in New Zealand's history to date where both main parties were led by women.
The election took place on 27 November. Less than 84.1% of the 2,509,365 people registered to vote turned out for the election. This was the lowest turnout for some time, although it would drop further in the 2002 election. A total of 679 candidates stood for electorate seats, representing 36 parties. Party lists comprised 760 candidates from 22 parties. The new government was sworn in on 10 December.
In the election 965 candidates stood, and there were 22 registered parties with party lists. Of the candidates, 482 were electorate and list, 197 were electorate only, and 286 were list only. 67% of candidates (647) were male and 33% (318) female.
Labour Party won 49 seats in parliament. When combined with the ten seats won by the Alliance, the coalition was two seats short of an absolute majority. It was able to form a new government with support from the Green Party, which entered parliament for the first time as an independent party (having previously been a part of the Alliance). The Green Party's entry to parliament was by a narrow margin, however - in order to gain seats, it needed to either win 5% of the party vote or win an electorate seat, neither of which the party appeared likely to do. Helen Clark openly encouraged Labour supporters in the Coromandel to give their constituency vote to Green Party co-leader Jeanette Fitzsimonsand their party vote to Labour. However, when all special votes (that is, votes cast by people who were not able to attend a polling place in their electorate on the day of the election) were counted, the Greens had narrowly reached not one but both targets - Jeanette Fitzsimons won the electorate of Coramandel by 250 votes, and the party gained 5.16% of the vote.
The National Party, while not performing exceptionally poorly, failed to gain enough support to keep it in power. It won 39 seats, ten fewer than the Labour Party. ACT New Zealand, a potential coalition partner for National, gained nine seats. While this was an increase on ACT's previous election results, it was not sufficient to enable the National Party to form a government. National's former coalition partner, New Zealand First, performed poorly, with voters punishing it for the problems in the last government. The party received less than 5% of the vote, and so would have been removed from parliament had Winston Peters not retained his electorate of Tauranga, something he did by only 63 votes. None of the MPs who deserted New Zealand First were returned to parliament.
|party||votes||% of votes||seats|
|disallowed special votes||41,884|
|total votes cast||2,127,295|
|Christian Heritage New Zealand||49,154||2.38|
|Future New Zealand||23,033||1.12|
|McGillicuddy Serious Party||3191||0.15|
|South Island Party||2912||0.14|
|One New Zealand||1311||0.06|
|Minor parties, total||124,460||6.03|
In addition to the registered parties listed above, some groups participated in the election without submitting party lists. Many of these were unregistered parties, lacking the necessary membership numbers for submitting a party list. There were, however, three registered ones that did not, for whatever reason, submit a party list. In total, 14 parties nominated electorate candidates only. By number of votes received, the most significant parties to do this were Te Tawharau (registered), Mana Wahine Te Ira Tangata (registered), the Equal Rights Party (unregistered), the Piri Wiri Tua Movement (unregistered), and the Asia Pacific United Party (registered). None of these parties were successful. There were also 36 independent candidates, also unsuccessful. The Mauri Pacific Party, established by a group of defectors from New Zealand First, failed to place even second in the electorates they held. Te Tawharau, which held a seat in parliament thanks to another New Zealand First defector, failed to retain its seat.
Of the 67 electorates in the 1999 election, a majority (41) were won by the opposition Labour Party. Included in Labour's total are the Maori seats, which it managed to regain after losing them to New Zealand First in the previous election. The governing National Party won 22 electorate seats, slightly less than a third of the total.
Four minor parties managed to win electorate seats. This proved important for some - neither New Zealand First nor United would have entered parliament if not for Winston Peters and Peter Dunne retaining their seats. Jim Anderton also retained his seat. The Greens won their first (and, so far, only) electorate seat when Jeanette Fitzsimons took Coromandel, although since the Greens crossed the 5% threshold, this was of less importance than originally thought.
The table below shows the results of the 1999 general election:
|NZ First||Legalise Cannabis||Mauri Pacific||Future NZ||Te Tawharau||Independent|
|Electorate||Incumbent||Winner||Majority||Runner up||Third place|
|Albany||Murray McCully||4,948||Hamish McCracken||Heather Ann McConachy|
|Aoraki||Jim Sutton||7,139||Wayne F Marriott||Lynley Simmons|
|Auckland Central||Judith Tizard||5,285||Martin Poulsen||Sandra Lee|
|Banks Peninsula||David Carter||Ruth Dyson||1,455||David Carter||Maevis Watson|
|Bay of Plenty||Tony Ryall||7,102||Terry Hughes||Peter Brown|
|Christchurch Central||Tim Barnett||9,404||John Stringer||Liz Gordon|
|Christchurch East||Larry Sutherland||Lianne Dalziel||11,162||John Knox||Paul Piesse|
|Clutha-Southland||Bill English||6,401||Lesley Soper||Dave Mackie|
|Coromandel||Murray McLean||Jeanette Fitzsimons||250||Murray McLean||Margaret Hawkeswood|
|Dunedin North||Pete Hodgson||12,695||Katherine Rich||Quentin Findlay|
|Dunedin South||Michael Cullen||David Benson-Pope||10,608||Russel Keast||Mark Ryan|
|East Coast||New electorate||Janet Mackey||3,845||Matthew Parkinson||Gavin MacLean|
|Epsom||Christine Fletcher||Richard Worth||1,908||Rodney Hide||David Jacobs|
|Hamilton East||Tony Steel||692||Dianne Yates||Peter Jamieson|
|Hamilton West||Bob Simcock||Martin Gallagher||1,629||Bob Simcock||Dave Macpherson|
|Hunua||Warren Kyd||5,195||Paul Schofield||Janice Graham|
|Hutt South||Trevor Mallard||8,885||Clare Radomske||Christopher Milne|
|Ilam||Gerry Brownlee||6,792||Alison Wilkie||Lois Griffiths|
|Invercargill||Mark Peck||7,990||Eric Roy||Stephnie de Ruyter|
|Kaikoura||Doug Kidd||Lynda Scott||1,486||Brian McNamara||Ian Ewen-Street|
|Karapiro||John Luxton||Lindsay Tisch||5,216||Paul Cronin||John Pemberton|
|Mana||Graham Kelly||5,475||Mark Thomas||Moira Ann Lawler|
|Māngere||Taito Phillip Field||13,047||Sylvia Taylor||Finau Kolo|
|Manukau East||Ross Robertson||7,086||Ken Yee||Charles Lowndes|
|Manurewa||George Hawkins||13,062||Enosa Auva'a||Toia Lucas|
|Maungakiekie||Belinda Vernon||Mark Gosche||2,512||Belinda Vernon||Matt Robson|
|Mount Albert||New electorate||Helen Clark||13,108||Noelene Buckland||Jill Ovens|
|Mount Roskill||New electorate||Phil Goff||9,707||Phil Raffills||Sarah Martin|
|Napier||Geoff Braybrooke||11,863||Anne Tolley||Robin Gwynn|
|Nelson||Nick Smith||4,521||Simon Fraser||Mary Ellen O'Connor|
|New Plymouth||Harry Duynhoven||15,092||Len Jury||Tom Smithers|
|North Shore||Wayne Mapp||7,048||Helen Duncan||Michael Pinkney|
|Northcote||Ian Revell||Ann Hartley||278||Ian Revell||Grant Gillon|
|Northland||John Carter||5,454||Les Robertson||Ian Walker|
|Ohariu-Belmont||Peter Dunne||12,557||Derek Best||Kathryn Asare|
|Otago||Gavan Herlihy||2,367||Val Dearman||Bill Holvey|
|Otaki||Judy Keall||7,250||Roger Sowry||Russell Franklin|
|Pakuranga||Maurice Williamson||5,314||Patrick Hine||Dick Quax|
|Palmerston North||Steve Maharey||13,153||George Halligan||John Gerard Hehir|
|Port Waikato||Bill Birch||Paul Hutchison||13,153||Trish Ryan||David Fowler|
|Rakaia||Jenny Shipley||10,602||Diane Schurgers||Annabel Taylor|
|Rangitikei||Denis Marshall||Simon Power||289||Craig Walsham||Dion Martin|
|Rimutaka||Paul Swain||8,374||Stuart Blair Roddick||Brendan Tracey|
|Rodney||Lockwood Smith||6,905||Mark Domney||Jill Jeffs|
|Rongotai||Annette King||12,928||Stuart Boag||Richard Wernham|
|Rotorua||Max Bradford||Steve Chadwick||4,978||Max Bradford||Lynne Dempsey|
|Tamaki||Clem Simich||4,911||Lynne Pillay||Alex Swney|
|Taranaki-King Country||Shane Ardern||6,510||John Young||Kevin Campbell|
|Taupo||Mark Burton||3,578||David Steele||Nick Fisher|
|Tauranga||Winston Peters||63||Katherine O'Regan||Margaret Wilson|
|Te Atatu||New electorate||Chris Carter||9,262||Vanessa Neeson||Laila Harré|
|Titirangi||New electorate||David Cunliffe||5,800||Marie Hasler||Stephen Abel|
|Tukituki||Rick Barker||8,646||Larry White||John Ormond|
|Waimakariri||Mike Moore||Clayton Cosgrove||1,141||Gideon Couper||John Wright|
|Wairarapa||Wyatt Creech||Georgina Beyer||3,033||Paul Henry||Cathy Casey|
|Waitakere||Marie Hasler||Brian Neeson||4,056||Jonathan Hunt||David Clendon|
|Wellington Central||Richard Prebble||Marian Hobbs||1,482||Richard Prebble||Michael Appleby|
|West Coast-Tasman||Damien O'Connor||7,378||Rod O'Beirne||Pat O'Dea|
|Whanganui||Jill Pettis||3,155||Chester Borrows||Mark Middleton|
|Whangarei||John Banks||Phil Heatley||1,934||Denise Jelicich||Brian Donnelly|
|Wigram||Jim Anderton||9,885||Angus McKay||Mike Mora|
|Hauraki Maori||New electorate||John Tamihere||7,238||Josie Anderson||Willie Jackson|
|Ikaroa-Rāwhiti||New electorate||Parekura Horomia||695||Derek Fox||Bill Gudgeon|
|Te Tai Hauāuru||Tuku Morgan||Nanaia Mahuta||6,233||Lorraine Anderson||Tuku Morgan|
|Te Tai Tokerau||Tau Henare||Dover Samuels||5,692||Anaru George||Tau Henare|
|Te Tai Tonga||Tu Wyllie||Mahara Okeroa||4,522||Tu Wyllie||Vern Winitana|
|Waiariki||New electorate||Mita Ririnui||4,369||Tuariki Delamere||Arapeta Tahana|
MPs returned via party lists, and unsuccessful candidates, were as follows:
|Labour|| Michael Cullen |
Luamanuvao Winnie Laban
|Unsuccessful: Lynne Pillay, John Blincoe, George Eru, Lili Tuioti, Ashraf Choudhary, Brenda Lowe-Johnson, Lesley Soper, Gordon Duncan, Denise Jelicich, Warren Lindberg, Derek Best, Josie Karanga, Tuipola Eva Charlton, Terry Hughes, Lindsay Rea, Glen Cameron, Kenneth Barclay, Margaret Hawkeswood, Tapihana Shelford, Hamish McCracken, Val Dearman, David Shearer, Lynette Stutz, Max Purnell, Yani Johanson|
|National|| Wyatt Creech |
Don McKinnon 2
Georgina te Heuheu
Simon Upton 2
|Unsuccessful: Arthur Anae 1, Alec Neill 1, Katherine O'Regan, Mark Thomas, Phil Raffills, Kerry Prendergast, Martin Poulson, David Steele, Dale Stephens, Angus McKay, Paul Henry, Chester Borrows, George Ngatai, Enosa Auva'a, Bret Bestic, Rod O'Beirne, Wayne Marriott, Stephen Rainbow, Tim Macindoe, George Kahi, Larry White, Ken Yee, Matthew Parkinson, Dawn Honeybun, George Halligan, Grant McCallum, Peggy Burrows, Toni Millar, Noelene Buckland, Stuart Boag|
|Alliance|| Sandra Lee |
|Unsuccessful: Mark Ryan, Heather Ann McConachy, Des Ratima, Dave Macpherson, Gerard Hehir, Moira Ann Lawler, Finau Kolo, Trevor Lance Barnard, Tricia Cutforth, Tekarehana Wicks, Robin Gwynn, Stephnie de Ruyter, Vernon Tile, Vern Winitana, Sarah Martin, Brendan Tracey, Cathy Casey, Jill Ovens, Deborah Frederikse, Tony Bird, Rebecca Matthews, Mary Ellen O'Connor, Gavin Maclean, Dion Martin, Evana Belich, Michael Treen, John Pemberton, Peter Jamieson, David Wilson, Donna Pokere-Phillips, Harry Alchin-Smith, Bonnie Johnstone, Janice Graham, Joseph Te Pare, Anna Sutherland, Lois Griffiths, Quentin Findlay, Peter Conrad Romanovsky, Gordon Parr, Lynley Simmons, Wayne Morris, Maevis Watson, Lindsay Mehrtens, John Neill, Bruce Bennett Holm, Pirihira Kaio, Paul Piesse, Bill Mockridge, Patrick Rooney|
|ACT|| Richard Prebble |
Donna Awatere Huata
|Unsuccessful: Heather Roy, Dick Quax, Kathryn Asare, Max Whitehead, Andrew Davies, Hilary Calvert, Alex Wong, Nigel Mattison, Bruce Howat, Mike Steeneveld, Coral Wong, John Ormond, Charles Lowndes, Christopher Milne, Angus Ogilvie, Michael Coote, Brett Ambler, Vijaya Charan, Katharine Sillars, Matt McInnes, Lech Beltowski, Alex Swney, Ian Carline, Moira Irving, Daniel King, Richard Cox, John Thompson, Paul King, Reg Turner, Graham Hewett, John Morrison, Malcolm Spark, Glen Cowie, Alan Beecham, Dean Richardson, Alan Wood, Willie Martin, Ian Swan, Andrew Power, Lynne Cook, Lynley McKerrow, Gavin Denby, Barbara Steinijans, Ria Gray-Lock, Morris Hey, Jean Thompson, Paul Booth, Trevor West, Men Chandler, John Peters, Darryl Ward, Wayne Harris, Stephen Kidby, William Tripe, Kati Unuia, Garry Mallett|
|Greens|| Rod Donald |
|Unsuccessful: Mike Ward, Janine McVeagh, Richard Davies, Judy Bischoff, Danna Glendining, Janet McVeagh, Caron Zillwood, Evan Alty, Michael Tritt, Rex Verity, Laurence Boomert, David Clendon, Brendan Hoare, Lynne Dempsey, Frankie Dean, Diana Pennel, Don Murray, Diana Mellor, Angie Denby, Stephen Abel, Craig Potton, Celia Wade-Brown, Toni Atkinson, Karen Summerhays, Jeremy Hall, Deb Harding, Ruth Gardner, Pat McNamara, Wayne Parsonson, Pid Direen, Clive Taylor, Bera MacClement, Cliff Mason, Dianne Gillard, Rich Wernham, James Baynton, Craig Carson, Jane Wells, Chris Marshall, David Rose, Robert Cawte, Olive Gallagher, Chris Hay, John Carapiet, Nick Fisher, Jim Valley, Greg Sawyer|
|New Zealand First|| Peter Brown |
|Unsuccessful: Ian Walker, Suzanne Bruce, Andrew Gin, Josie Anderson, Gilbert Myles, Jonathan Mosen, Kahukore Baker, Chris Comesky, Allan Wise, Rob Harris, David Fowler, Chris Rivers, Pat O'Dea, Pita Paraone, Robyn McDonald, Bill Woods, Jenny Bloxham, Graham Adams, Dave Mackie, Bill Gudgeon, Anaru George, Robert Dixon, Gordon Stewart, Anne Martin, Brent Catchpole, Charles Crofts, Lorraine Anderson, John Ballantyne, Jerry Hohepa, Joy Brett, Dilip Rupa, Edwin Perry, Raymond Hina, Dawn Mullins, Mae Neuman|
|Christian Heritage||Unsuccessful: Graham Capill, Philip Sherry, Ewen McQueen, Gael Donoghue, John Bryant, Frank Grover, Rosemarie Thomas, Vic Jarvis, Tuhi Vahaakolo, Dick Holland, David Parlour, Grant Bradfield, Rosemary Francis, Barrie Paterson, Chris Salt, Helma Vermeulen, Nick Barber, Robin Corner, Mike Lloyd, Madeleine Flannagan, Max Shierlaw, McGregor Simpson, Geoff Francis, Jim Prime, Mary Paki, Mark Munroe, Derek Blight, Judith Phillips, Renton Maclachlan, Mike Ferguson, Rod Harris, David Simpkin, John Tonson, Steve Williams, Margaret Burgess, Barry Pepperell, Marin Reid, Uaita Levi, Eleanor Goodall, Richard Rangihuna, Leona Emberson-Ready, Joyce Stevens, Ken Moore, Ross Prichard, Tony Corbett, Ned Jack, Mark Jones, Don Moore, Gavin Hockly, Diane Taylor, Russell Zwies, Steve Panapa, Bob Davis, Tony Brebner, Mary-Anne Gladwell, John van der Zee, Ken Andrew, Murray Pirret, Jeannette Shramka, Grant Peck, Hasko Starrenberg, Victor Grubi, David Harris, John Streekstra|
|Future New Zealand||Unsuccessful: Anthony Walton, David Brown, Murray Smith, Geoffrey Hounsell, Grant Bowater, Kanui Hiha, Daryl Gregory, Kevin Harper, Larry Baldock, Yvonne Palmer, Robert Wheeler, Harold Smithers, David Ogden, Judy Turner, Wayne Chapman, Julie Belding, Walter McGrail, Jason Keiller, Linda Dring, Craig Hunt, Win Murray, David Perkin, Tiwha Blake, Rosemary Drake, Martyn Seddon|
|Legalise Cannabis||Unsuccessful: Michael Appleby, Allan Webb, Kevin O'Connell, David Moore, Jeanette Saxby, Caleb Armstrong, Paul McMullan, Brian Jensen, Mike Britnell, Daya Moy, Kerry Gooch, Evelyn Adele Shingleton, Teresa Aporo, Christine Mitchell, Daniel Hovell, Benjamin Clark, Riki Joyce|
|United||Unsuccessful: Mike Sheppard, Aditya Prakash Kashyap, Ram Prakash, Jim Howard, Kim Woon, Graham Butterworth, Kookie Samin, Rehana Qureshi, Colin Jackson, Steven Bright, Maata Fuimaono, Frank Owen, Gray Phillips, Bryan Mockridge, John Hubscher, Kent Clark, Youssuf Qureshi, Murray Callister, Atiqur Rahman, Pathik Vyas, Seyed Hosseni|
|Libertarianz||Unsuccessful: Lindsay Perigo, Richard McGrath, Deborah Coddington, Bernard Darnton, Tina White, Peter Linton, Larry Timberlake, Sally O'Brien, Julian Darby, Chris Lewis, Peter Cresswell, Paul McDonald, Anna Woolf, Joy Faulkner, Robert Winefield, Scott Alsweiler, Keith Patterson, Andrew Couper, Robert White, Andrew Bates, Michael Murphy, Mark McCombe, Nikolas Haden, Chris Robertson, Mike Webber, Richard Wiig, Russell Watkins, Helen Hughes, Derek Bull, Ken Riddle|
|Mana Maori||Unsuccessful: Tame Iti, Tuariki Delamere, Angeline Greensill, Richard Kake, Tunuirangi McLean, Tracey Hancy, Ken Mair, Anton Kerekere, Jesse Pene, Mereana Pitman, David Edmonds, Henare Morehu, Te Miringa Hohaia, Gareth Seymour, Himenoa Kake, Tania Rauna, Ellen Amohanga, Diane Prince, Anthony Moke, Lai Toy, Nigel Tairua, Ngahapeaparatuae Lomax, Julie Nathan, Harata Jane Paul, Tehurihanga Heihei, Rangimarie Harding, Wiremu Tairua, Tiare Para|
|Mauri Pacific||Unsuccessful: Tau Henare, Tuku Morgan, Peta Si'ulepa, Rana Waitai, Ann Batten, Te Orohi Paul, Atawhai Tibble, Amokura Huia Panoho, Rovina Anderson, Eric Chuah, Danny Turia, Rajesh Masters, Martin Kaipo, Helen Akhtari, Trieste Te Awe Awe, Sharon Faloon, Rayna Waitai, Fa'amatuainu Iakopo, Laura Mason, Richard Waitai, Kelly Waitai, Api Malu|
|Animals First||Unsuccessful: Alistar McKellow, Adrienne Hall, Susan Walker, Terri Walsh, Bettina Brown, Brenda Walker, Janice Strong, Jan Cumming, Peter Crosse, Neville Lynch|
|McGillicuddy Serious||Unsuccessful: Graeme Cairns, Leanne Ireland, Steve Richards, Rodney Hansen, K T Julian, Val Smith, Peter Caldwell, Greg Smith, Donna Demente, Paul Smith, Robyn West, Adrian Holroyd, Johanna Sanders, Cecil G. Murgatroyd, Penny Bousfield, Grant Knowles, Heidi Borchardt, Paull Cooke, Amy Ross, Rebekah Coogan, Derek Craig, Douglas Mackie, Mark Servian, Bernard Smith, Paul Beere, Worik Turei Stanton, Metiria Stanton Turei, Phil Clayton, Megan Seawright, Timothy Owens, Antony Deaker, Colin Howie, Adrienne Carthew, Jonat Wharton, Paula Hudson, Helen Thornton, Amy MacDonald, David McGregor, Fiona Jack, Michael-Garnet Grimmett, Kerry Hoole, Toni-Ann Alsop, D J Howard, John Creser, Maria McMillan, Jane Hakaria, Catherine Wilson, Ara Nokomis, Dale Taylor, Wendy Clesse, Jeffrey Holdaway, Tricesta Engebretsen, Phillip Sandlant, Robyn Homes, Ross Edgar, Serena Moran, Emma Smith, Nikki Davis, Andrew French, David Sutcliffe, Daniel Mohr, Michael Gemmel, Samuel Cumming, Karl Hewlett|
|South Island||Unsuccessful: Allan McDonald, Patrick McCarrigan, Margaret McCarrigan, Miles Notman, Gerry Campbell, Joe Price, Paul Mierzejewski|
|Natural Law||Unsuccessful: Bryan Lee, Ian Douglas, David Lovell-Smith, Gillian Sanson, John Cleary, Graeme Lodge, Gray Tredwell, Bruce Brown, Anthony Martin, Selwyn Austin, Gail Pianta, John Hodgson, Linda Davy, Mark Watts, Paul Moreham, Raymond Cain, Anthony Katavich, John Bird, Raylene Lodge, Ian Smillie, Tim Irwin, Linda Sinden, Michael Hirst, Daniel Meares, Warwick Jones, Bruce Sowry, Wayne Shepherd, Gary Benner, Martin Jelley, Jonathan Muller, Leslie McGrath, Anthony Cornellissen, Russell Mack, Carolyn Drake, Thomas Hopwood, Andrew Sanderson, Ian McCullough, Kay Morgan, Martin Sharp, Bobbie Aubertin, Gilbert Urquhart, Mieke van Basten Batenburg, Leigh Bush, Michael Bartelmeh, Faye McLaren, Grant Bilyard, Brendan Rhodes, Anne Brigid, Roy Neumegen, Ruth Ordish-Benner, Gary Barnard, Lillian Urquhart|
|One New Zealand||Unsuccessful: Walter Boyd|
|NMP||Unsuccessful: Vivienne Berry-Evans, Peter Harrison, Pauline Hallows, Cecil Andrew da Latour, Edwina Chmielowski, Graham Mark Atkin, Llyn Renwick, Darag Stuart Rennie, Alison White, Aaziq Mumtaz, Sue Johnstom, Brett K Gifkins, Isabel Montgomery, Peter Archer, Isabel Hutchinson, Alfred James Mitchell, David Pattinson, John Sulu Tau Shepherd, Anthony Phillip Cranston|
|Freedom Movement||Unsuccessful: Jennifer Waitai-Rapana, Lei Graham, Kororia Ettie Rawinia Aperahama, Miiria Macushla Mako, Helen Te Uruiria Wepiha-Tai, Atareta Kapa Hills, Arahi R Hagger, Priscilla Ann Maxwell, Trevor Sorenson, Kevin Leonard Kapea, Taukiri Abraham, Te Rino Kotene Rapana, Mereana Pari, Myna Yvonne Rangiamohia Paraha-Richmond, Chrissie B Zurcher, Carol Grace Arnold, Whare Ngarare Mehana, Hone Hamiora Piripi Paki, Annette Christine Paki, Wiremu Abraham, Donna Louise Plumridge, Jaaron Turei Moore, Florence Plumridge, Whetu-Ote-Ata Aranui, Okeroa Denise Waitai, Tutere Tai, William Ernest Abraham, Mary-Anne Waitai, Te Wairangi (Lavinia) Pere, Michelle Ngauta Wroe, Bill Nathan Piriwiritua Thompson, Te Kura (Edward) Pairama, Jared Steve Abbot, Catherine Chisholm, Vanessa Tewaa Rangitakatu, Te Aira Nyman, John Haki Huia, Maraea Mere Hapi-Crowe, Kim Sonia Maxwell, Tina Mouri Johnston-Downs|
|Peoples Choice||Unsuccessful: Rusty Kane, Doug Wilson|
|Republican||Unsuccessful: Gregory H Smith, Brian Freeth, Graham Gilfillan, Jane Hotere, Sam Mendes, Rose Hotere, William Powell|
New Zealand First, commonly abbreviated to NZ First, is a nationalist and populist political party in New Zealand. It was founded in July 1993, following the resignation on 19 March 1993 of its leader and founder, Winston Peters, from the then-governing National Party. It has formed governments with both major parties in New Zealand, first with the National Party from 1996 to 1998 and then with the Labour Party from 2005 to 2008 and from 2017 to present.
Electoral reform in New Zealand has, in recent years, become a political issue as major changes have been made to both parliamentary and local government electoral systems.
The Alliance was a left-wing political party in New Zealand. It was formed at the end of 1991 by the linking of four smaller parties. The Alliance positioned itself as a democratic socialist alternative to the centre-left New Zealand Labour Party. It was influential throughout the 1990s, but suffered a major setback after its founder and leader, Jim Anderton, left the party in 2002, taking with him several of its members of parliament (MPs). After the remaining MPs lost their seats in the 2002 general election, some commentators predicted the demise of the party.
The 2002 New Zealand general election was held on 27 July 2002 to determine the composition of the 47th New Zealand Parliament. It saw the reelection of Helen Clark's Labour Party government, as well as the worst-ever performance by the opposition National Party.
The 1987 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the 42nd sitting of the New Zealand Parliament. The governing New Zealand Labour Party, led by Prime Minister David Lange, was re-elected for a second term, although the Opposition National Party made gains. The election also saw the elimination of the Democratic Party from Parliament, leaving Labour and National as the only parties represented.
The 1996 New Zealand general election was held on 12 October 1996 to determine the composition of the 45th New Zealand Parliament. It was notable for being the first election to be held under the new mixed-member proportional (MMP) electoral system, and produced a parliament considerably more diverse than previous elections. It saw the National Party, led by Jim Bolger, retain its position in government, but only after protracted negotiations with the smaller New Zealand First party to form a coalition. New Zealand First's position as "kingmaker", able to place either of the two major parties into government, was a significant election outcome.
The 1993 New Zealand general election was held on 6 November 1993 to determine the composition of the 44th New Zealand Parliament. Voters elected 99 members to the House of Representatives, up from 97 members at the 1990 election. The election was the last general election to use the first-past-the-post electoral system, with all members elected from single-member electorates.
Mauri Pacific was a short-lived political party in New Zealand. It was formed in 1998 by five former members of the New Zealand First party. It has often been described as a Māori party. Officially, Mauri Pacific was a multiculturalist party, welcoming anyone who supported racial and cultural harmony. Three of its five MPs were Māori, and two were Pākehā.
In New Zealand politics, Māori electorates, colloquially known as the Māori seats, are a special category of electorate that gives reserved positions to representatives of Māori in the New Zealand Parliament. Every area in New Zealand is covered by both a general and a Māori electorate; as of 2002, there are seven Māori electorates. Since 1967 candidates in Māori electorates have not needed to be Māori themselves, but to register as a voter in the Māori electorates people need to declare they are of Māori descent.
The 2005 New Zealand general election on Saturday 17 September 2005 determined the membership of the 48th New Zealand Parliament. One hundred and twenty-one MPs were elected to the New Zealand House of Representatives: 69 from single-member electorates, including one overhang seat, and 52 from party lists.
The 45th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. Its composition was determined by the 1996 election, and it sat until the 1999 election.
Māori politics is the politics of the Māori people, who were the original inhabitants of New Zealand and who are now the country's largest minority. Before the arrival of Pākehā (Europeans) in New Zealand, Māori society was based largely around tribal units, and chiefs provided political leadership. With the British settlers of the 19th century came a new British-style government. From the outset, Māori sought representation within this government, seeing it as a vital way to promote their people's rights and improve living standards. Modern Māori politics can be seen as a subset of New Zealand politics in general, but has a number of distinguishing features. Many Māori politicians are members of major, historically European-dominated, political parties, but several Māori parties have been formed.
The Tight Five was a nickname given to the five Māori MPs elected to the New Zealand Parliament in 1996 from the centrist/populist New Zealand First party.
The New Zealand electoral system has been mixed-member proportional (MMP) since 1996. MMP was introduced after a referendum in 1993. MMP replaced the first-past-the-post (FPP) system New Zealand had previously used for most of its history.
The 2008 New Zealand general election was held on 8 November 2008 to determine the composition of the 49th New Zealand Parliament. The liberal-conservative National Party, headed by its parliamentary leader John Key, won the largest share of votes and seats, ending nine years of government by the social-democratic Labour Party, led by Helen Clark. Key announced a week later that he would lead a National minority government with confidence-and-supply support from the ACT, United Future and Māori parties. The Governor-General swore Key in as New Zealand's 38th Prime Minister on 19 November 2008. This marked an end to nine years of Labour Party government, and the beginning of the Fifth National Government which governed for the next nine years, until its loss to the Labour Party in the 2017 general election.
Coromandel is a New Zealand electoral division returning one member to the House of Representatives. It is currently represented by Scott Simpson, a member of the National Party.
Te Tai Tokerau is a New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorate that was created out of the Northern Maori electorate ahead of the first Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) election in 1996. It was first held by Tau Henare representing New Zealand First for one term, and then Dover Samuels of the Labour Party for two terms. From 2005 to 2014, it was held by MP Hone Harawira. Initially a member of the Māori Party, Harawira resigned from both the party and then Parliament, causing the 2011 by-election. He was returned under the Mana Party banner in July 2011 and confirmed at the November 2011 general election. In the 2014 election, he was beaten by Labour's Kelvin Davis, ending the representation of the Mana Party in Parliament.
The 2011 New Zealand general election on Saturday 26 November 2011 determined the membership of the 50th New Zealand Parliament.
Kelvin Glen Davis is a New Zealand politician and a member of the House of Representatives who has served as Deputy Leader of the Labour Party since 1 August 2017.
The 2017 New Zealand general election took place on Saturday 23 September 2017 to determine the membership of the 52nd New Zealand Parliament. The previous parliament was elected on 20 September 2014 and was officially dissolved on 22 August 2017. Voters elected 120 members to the House of Representatives under New Zealand's mixed-member proportional (MMP) voting system, a proportional representation system in which 71 members were elected from single-member electorates and 49 members were elected from closed party lists. Around 3.57 million people were registered to vote in the election, with 2.63 million (79.8%) turning out. Advance voting proved popular, with 1.24 million votes cast before election day, more than the previous two elections combined.