Tauranga

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Tauranga
Mount Maunganui-2952.jpg
Tauranga from Mount Maunganui
New Zealand location map.svg
Disc Plain red.svg
Tauranga
Location of Tauranga, New Zealand
Coordinates: 37°41′S176°10′E / 37.683°S 176.167°E / -37.683; 176.167 Coordinates: 37°41′S176°10′E / 37.683°S 176.167°E / -37.683; 176.167
Country Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Island North Island
Region Bay of Plenty
Territorial authority Tauranga City Council
WardsMount Manunganui-Papamoa
Otumoetai-Pyes Pa
Te Papa-Welcome Bay
Settled1250–1300
Gazetted as a borough1882
City constituted17 April 1963
Electorate(s) Tauranga
Bay of Plenty
Government
   MP (Tauranga) Simon Bridges (National)
  MP (Bay of Plenty) Todd Muller (National)
   Mayor Tenby Powell
  Deputy MayorLarry Baldock
Area
  Territorial168 km2 (65 sq mi)
Highest elevation
232 m (761 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (June 2019) [1]
  Territorial144,700
  Density860/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
   Urban
135,000
Time zone UTC+12 (NZST)
  Summer (DST) UTC+13 (NZDT)
Postcode(s)
3110, 3112, 3116, 3118
Area code(s) 07
Local iwi Ngāti Ranginui, Ngāi Te Rangi, Ngāti Pūkenga
Website Tauranga.govt.nz
View over Greater Tauranga, taken from the top of Mauao Mt Maunganui & Tauranga 2006.jpg
View over Greater Tauranga, taken from the top of Mauao

Tauranga (Māori pronunciation:  [ˈtaʉɾaŋa] ) [2] [3] is a large coastal metropolitan city in the Bay of Plenty region and the fifth most populous city of New Zealand, with an urban population of 135,000 (June 2019). [1] It was settled by Māori late in the 13th century, by Europeans in the early 19th century, and was constituted as a city in 1963. [4]

Contents

The city lies in the north-western corner of the Bay of Plenty, on the south-eastern edge of Tauranga Harbour. The city extends over an area of 168 square kilometres (65 sq mi), and encompasses the communities of Bethlehem, on the south-western outskirts of the city; Greerton, on the southern outskirts of the city; Matua, west of the central city overlooking Tauranga Harbour; Maungatapu; Mount Maunganui, located north of the central city across the harbour facing the Bay of Plenty; Otūmoetai; Papamoa, Tauranga's largest suburb, located on the Bay of Plenty; Tauranga City; Tauranga South; and Welcome Bay.

Tauranga is one of New Zealand's main centres for business, international trade, culture, fashion and horticultural science. The Port of Tauranga is New Zealand's largest port in terms of gross export tonnage and efficiency. [5] [6] Tauranga is one of New Zealand's fastest growing cities, with a 14 percent increase in population between the 2001 census and the 2006 census, [7] and 11% between the 2006 census and the 2013 census. [8] This rapid population growth has seen Tauranga overtake Dunedin and the Napier-Hastings urban areas to become New Zealand's fifth-largest city.

History

Settlement

The earliest known settlers were Māori who arrived at Tauranga in the Tākitimu and the Mātaatua waka in the 13th century.

At 9 am on Friday 23 June 1826 Herald was the first European ship to enter Tauranga Harbour. The Revd. Henry Williams conducted a Christian service at Otamataha Pā. [9] [10] [11]

In December 1826 and again on March 1827 the Herald travelled to Tauranga from the Bay of Islands to obtain supplies of potatoes, pigs and flax. [12] [13] In 1835 a Church Missionary Society mission station was established at Tauranga by William Wade. Rev. Alfred N. Brown arrived at the CMS mission station in 1838. [14] John Morgan also visited the mission in 1838. [15]

View of waterfront in 1924 Street on the waterfront at Tauranga, 1924. ATLIB 296375.png
View of waterfront in 1924

Europeans trading in flax were active in the Bay of Plenty during the 1830s; some were transient, others married local women and settled permanently. The first permanent non-Maori trader was James Farrow, who travelled to Tauranga in 1829, obtaining flax fibre for Australian merchants in exchange for muskets and gunpowder. Farrow acquired a land area of 2,000 square metres (12 acre) on 10 January 1838 at Otūmoetai Pā from the chiefs Tupaea, Tangimoana and Te Omanu, the earliest authenticated land purchase in the Bay of Plenty. [16]

In 1840, a Catholic mission station was established. Bishop Pompallier was given land within the palisades of Otūmoetai Pā for a church and a presbytery. The mission station closed in 1863 due to land wars in the Waikato district. [17]

New Zealand Wars–Tauranga Campaign

The Tauranga Campaign took place in and around Tauranga from 21 January to 21 June 1864, during the New Zealand Wars. The Battle of Gate Pa is the best known.

The Battle of Gate Pa

The battle of Gate Pā was an attack on the well fortified and its Māori defenders on 29 April 1864 by British forces made up of approximately 300 men of the 43rd Regiment and a naval contingent. It was the single most devastating loss of life suffered by the British military in the whole of the New Zealand Wars. The British casualties were 31 dead (including 10 officers), and 80 wounded. The Māori defenders abandoned the Pā during the night with casualties estimated at 25 dead and an unknown number of wounded. [18]

Tauranga today

Under the Local Government (Tauranga City Council) Order 2003, [19] Tauranga became legally a city for a second time, from 1 March 2004.

In August 2011, Tauranga received Ultra-Fast Broadband as part of the New Zealand Government's rollout. [20]

Suburbs

Here is a list of suburbs by electoral ward:

Geography

Tauranga is located around a large harbour that extends along the western Bay of Plenty, and is protected by Matakana Island and the extinct volcano of Mauao (Mount Maunganui). Ngamuwahine River is located 19 kilometres southwest of Tauranga.

Street in Taurunga in 1924 including Tauranga Hotel and the Farmers' Union Trading Company buildings Street in Tauranga, 1924. ATLIB 296372.png
Street in Taurunga in 1924 including Tauranga Hotel and the Farmers' Union Trading Company buildings

Tauranga and the Bay of Plenty are situated along a faultline and so experience (infrequent) seismic activity. There are a few volcanoes around the area (mainly dormant). The most notable of these are White Island and Mauao, nicknamed "The Mount" by locals.

Tauranga is roughly the antipode of Jaén, Spain.

Climate

Tauranga has an oceanic or maritime temperate climate. It can also be described as subtropical. [21]

During the summer months the population swells as holidaymakers descend on the city, especially along the popular white coastal surf beaches from Mount Maunganui to Papamoa.

Climate data for Tauranga (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)24.0
(75.2)
24.0
(75.2)
22.5
(72.5)
19.9
(67.8)
17.4
(63.3)
15.1
(59.2)
14.5
(58.1)
15.0
(59.0)
16.6
(61.9)
18.1
(64.6)
20.1
(68.2)
22.3
(72.1)
19.1
(66.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)19.4
(66.9)
19.6
(67.3)
18.0
(64.4)
15.5
(59.9)
13.2
(55.8)
10.8
(51.4)
10.2
(50.4)
10.7
(51.3)
12.3
(54.1)
13.9
(57.0)
15.8
(60.4)
18.0
(64.4)
14.8
(58.6)
Average low °C (°F)14.8
(58.6)
15.3
(59.5)
13.5
(56.3)
11.0
(51.8)
9.0
(48.2)
6.6
(43.9)
5.9
(42.6)
6.4
(43.5)
8.0
(46.4)
9.7
(49.5)
11.4
(52.5)
13.6
(56.5)
10.4
(50.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches)76.0
(2.99)
86.6
(3.41)
92.7
(3.65)
120.9
(4.76)
105.7
(4.16)
115.7
(4.56)
127.4
(5.02)
112.3
(4.42)
87.6
(3.45)
90.4
(3.56)
75.3
(2.96)
90.3
(3.56)
1,180.9
(46.49)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)6.47.08.08.48.610.911.511.810.410.39.18.2110.4
Average relative humidity (%)74.477.777.780.483.385.584.181.977.475.273.474.878.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 261.5217.3214.0183.9165.3135.4151.0173.4174.1212.7224.2232.72,345.6
Source: NIWA Climate Data [22]

Demographics

Tauranga surpassed Dunedin in 2008 as the sixth-largest city in New Zealand by urban area, and the ninth largest city by Territorial Authority area. It has now also surpassed the Napier-Hastings area to become the fifth largest city.

In 1976, Tauranga was a medium-sized urban area, with a population of around 48,000, smaller than Napier or Invercargill. The completion of a harbour bridge in 1988 brought Tauranga and The Mount closer (they amalgamated in 1989) and promoted growth in both parts of the enlarged city. In 1996 Tauranga's population was 82,092 and by 2006 it had reached 103,635. [23]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
2006103,881    
2013114,789+1.44%
2018136,713+3.56%
Source: [24]

Tauranga City had a population of 136,713 at the 2018 New Zealand census, an increase of 21,924 people (19.1%) since the 2013 census, and an increase of 32,832 people (31.6%) since the 2006 census. There were 50,442 households. There were 65,868 males and 70,845 females, giving a sex ratio of 0.93 males per female. Of the total population, 27,564 people (20.2%) were aged up to 15 years, 23,235 (17.0%) were 15 to 29, 58,938 (43.1%) were 30 to 64, and 26,979 (19.7%) were 65 or older. Figures may not add up to the total due to rounding.

Ethnicities were 81.7% European/Pākehā, 18.2% Māori, 2.9% Pacific peoples, 7.6% Asian, and 2.1% other ethnicities. People may identify with more than one ethnicity.

The percentage of people born overseas was 21.7, compared with 27.1% nationally.

Although some people objected to giving their religion, 50.8% had no religion, 35.5% were Christian, and 7.1% had other religions.

Of those at least 15 years old, 21,570 (19.8%) people had a bachelor or higher degree, and 18,957 (17.4%) people had no formal qualifications. The median income was $31,600. The employment status of those at least 15 was that 51,591 (47.3%) people were employed full-time, 16,233 (14.9%) were part-time, and 3,753 (3.4%) were unemployed. [24]

The city hosts five major head offices – Port of Tauranga, Zespri International, Ballance Agri-Nutrients Ltd, Trustpower and Craigs Investment Partners (formerly, ABN AMRO Craigs). Tauranga is home to a large number of migrants, especially from the UK, attracted to the area by its climate and quality of life.

Mount Maunganui Main Beach in winter, with 'Leisure Island' in the background. Mount Maunganui main beach in Tauranga, New Zealand.jpg
Mount Maunganui Main Beach in winter, with 'Leisure Island' in the background.

Government and politics

Tauranga is located in the administrative area of the Tauranga City Council. The council consists of ten councillors and a mayor (currently Tenby Powell), elected in 2019. The council has three wards (constituencies):

Council elections are held every three years and most recently in 2019.

Economy

Much of the countryside surrounding Tauranga is horticultural land, used to grow a wide range of fresh produce for both domestic consumption and export. There are many kiwifruit and avocados orchards as well as other crops.

The Port of Tauranga is New Zealand's largest export port. It is a regular stop for both container ships and luxury cruise liners.

Tauranga NZ7 3481-82 - 46361933804.jpg
Tauranga harbour. Abaconda Tauranga-Boat Sunrise.jpg
Tauranga harbour.
Picturesque sunrise over the Tauranga harbour. Abaconda ocean-2.jpg
Picturesque sunrise over the Tauranga harbour.

Tauranga's main shopping mall is Bayfair, in Mount Maunganui. Most of the city's shopping centres are located in the suburbs. They include Fraser Cove, Tauranga Crossing, Bethlehem Town Centre, Palm Beach Plaza, Fashion Island, Bayfair Shopping Centre, Bay Central and Greerton Village.

The following companies have their head office in Tauranga:

Arts and culture

Religion

A wide variety of faiths are practised, including Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Sikhism, Taoism and Judaism. There are many denominations of Christianity including Pentecostal, Methodist, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, Exclusive Brethren, Baptist and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).

Music

The National Jazz Festival takes place in Tauranga every Easter. [30]

Events

New Year celebrations at the Mount in Mount Maunganui are one of Tauranga's main events, bringing people from all around the country.

In 2014 Tauranga City Council granted permission for an annual Sikh parade to celebrate Guru Gobind Singh's birthday. 2500 people took part in 2014, while in 2015, the number increased to 3500. [31]

Sports

McLaren Falls Park, on the outskirts of Tauranga Abaconda park-1.jpg
McLaren Falls Park, on the outskirts of Tauranga

Tauranga has a large stadium complex in the Bayfair suburb, Baypark Stadium, rebuilt in 2001 after a similar complex closed in 1995. It hosts Speedway events during summer and rugby matches in winter.

Tauranga is also the home of football (soccer) club Tauranga City United who compete in the Lotto Sport Italia NRFL Division 2.

Tauranga is the home to two rowing clubs – Tauranga Rowing Club in Memorial Park and Bay of Plenty Coast Rowing Club at the picturesque Wairoa River. Both clubs have had successful NZ representation over the years.

Tauranga has an all weather outdoor athletics ground at Tauranga Domain.

City facilities and attractions

Greater Tauranga is a very popular lifestyle and tourism destination. It features many natural attractions and scenery ranging from popular beaches and harbour environments to lush bush-clad mountains with waterfalls and lakes.

View of Mount Beach, with Mauao in background Mt Maunganui Beach 2006.jpg
View of Mount Beach, with Mauao in background

Cultural attractions include the Tauranga Art Gallery, which opened in October 2007 and showcases local, national and international exhibitions in a range of media. On the 17th Avenue, the "Historic Village on 17th", [32] recreates a historic setting with original and replica buildings from early Tauranga housing arts and gift shops.

Aviation interests are well served with the Classic Flyers Museum and the Gyrate Flying Club where you can experience flying a modern gyroplane; the "motorbike of the sky". [33]

Tauranga has many parks: one of the largest is Memorial Park, and others include, Yatton Park, Kulim Park, Fergusson Park and the large Tauranga Domain. The Te Puna Quarry Park has become a regional attraction, known for being converted from a disused quarry into a community park. [34]

Due to the temperate climate, outdoor activities are very popular, including golf, tramping (hiking), mountain biking and white water rafting. The Bay of Plenty coastline has miles of golden sandy beaches, and watersports are very popular, including swimming, surfing, fishing, diving, kayaking and kitesurfing. Tourists also enjoy dolphin-watching on specially run boat trips.

The coastal suburb Papamoa and neighbouring town Mount Maunganui are some of the more affluent areas around Tauranga. The region's beaches attract swimmers, surfers, kayakers and kitesurfers throughout the year.

Tauranga has many outlying islands and reefs that make it a notable tourist destination point for travelling scuba divers and marine enthusiasts. [ citation needed ] Extensive marine life diversity is available to scuba divers all year round. Water temperatures range from 12 degrees Celsius in winter to 22–24 degrees Celsius in summer. Tauranga houses two professional dive instructor training centres, training NAUI, PADI and SSI dive leader systems.

Infrastructure

Hospitals

Tauranga Hospital is a public secondary regional hospital located in Tauranga South, with 349 beds including neonatal, maternity and mental health care. [35] It provides elective and emergency healthcare across medical, surgical, paediatric, obstetric, gynaecological and psychiatric services. The main tertiary referral centre for Tauranga Hospital is Waikato Hospital, located in Hamilton. As the site of the Bay of Plenty Clinical School, Tauranga Hospital provides training to medical students from the University of Auckland, as well as selctive and elective placements for nursing and midwifery students. [36]

Grace Hospital is Tauranga's only private specialist surgical hospital, located in Oropi.

Utilities

Powerco operates the local distribution network in the city, [37] with electricity supplied from Transpower's national grid at three substations: Tauranga (Greerton), Kaitemako and Mount Maunganui (Matapihi).

Natural gas arrived in Tauranga in 1982, following the completion of the high-pressure pipeline from the Maui pipeline near Te Awamutu to the city, now operated by First Gas. [38] First Gas also operates the gas distribution network within the city.

Transport

Tauranga City Council is currently responsible for approximately 530 km of roads, 700 km of footpaths, cycle ways and access ways. [39]

Tauranga City Council also has a bit of work under way with their Transportation and Roads strategy. Their aim for the future to change current travel behaviour from a focus on private cars to more sustainable modes such as buses, cycling and walking.

Air

Tauranga Airport is served by several airlines offering flights to Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch as well as some regional destinations within New Zealand. Sunair is based in Tauranga, operating a fleet of light aircraft. Sunair operates from Tauranga Airport to Gisborne, Claris, Whitanga, Motiti Island and North Shore. In addition Barrier Air operates from Tauranga to Claris with a Partenavia P68.

Rail

Tauranga railway bridge Tauranga train bridge.jpg
Tauranga railway bridge

Tauranga is located on the East Coast Main Trunk Railway.

Bus

Main transportation in the city is provided by the BayBus, with twelve routes servicing the city's population. Bay Hopper buses depart the central stops in Tauranga's CBD, Mount Maunganui and Greerton every 20 minutes, with the routes to Mount Maunganui, Papamoa, Greerton and Ohauiti experiencing an increase in frequency during peak hours.[ citation needed ]

The city is also a waypoint for bus travel between cities, with the Bay Hopper, and Intercity having a daily schedule.

Education

Tauranga is home to the Bay of Plenty Tertiary Education Partnership, made up of:

The organisations currently share two main campuses, but are planning a new central campus. Stage 1 is expected to be open in 2017, catering for 500 but with capacity for 700, which will cost $67.3 Million. [41] [42]

Tauranga's secondary schools are:

ACG Tauranga, the city's first fully private school, [44] [45] offers pre-school to Year 12. [46]

There is also a Rudolf Steiner School in Welcome Bay, catering for birth to 12-year olds.

Notable residents

Past residents

Sister cities

Tauranga is twinned with: [48]

Related Research Articles

Whakatāne Town in Bay of Plenty, New Zealand

Whakatāne, also spelled Whakatane, is a town in the eastern Bay of Plenty region in the North Island of New Zealand, 90 kilometres (56 mi) east of Tauranga and 89 kilometres (55 mi) north-east of Rotorua, at the mouth of the Whakatane River. Whakatane District is the encompassing territorial authority, which covers an area to the south and west of the town, excluding the enclave of Kawerau.

Te Puke Place in Bay of Plenty, New Zealand

Te Puke is a town located 28 kilometres southeast of Tauranga in the Western Bay of Plenty of New Zealand. It is particularly famous for the cultivation of kiwifruit. Te Puke has a population of 7,496 as of the 2013 Census.

Matakana Island island

Matakana Island is located in the western Bay of Plenty in New Zealand's North Island. A long, flat barrier island, it is 20 kilometres (12 mi) in length but rarely more than 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) wide. The island has been continuously populated for centuries by Māori tribes that are mostly associated with Ngāi Te Rangi.

Mount Maunganui Place in Bay of Plenty, New Zealand

Mount Maunganui is a major residential, commercial and industrial suburb of the Tauranga metropolitan area, located on a peninsula to the north-east of Tauranga's city centre. It was an independent town from Tauranga until the completion of the Tauranga Harbour Bridge in 1988, which connects Mount Maunganui to Tauranga's central business district.

Papamoa Place in Bay of Plenty, New Zealand

Papamoa or Papamoa Beach is a suburb of Tauranga, located about 11 kilometres from the city centre. It is the largest residential suburb in Tauranga, having a population of 20,091 at the 2013 census. It is bordered to the west by Mount Maunganui, the east by the Kaituna River and to the south by State Highway 2.

Ngāi Te Rangi Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

Ngāi Te Rangi or Ngāiterangi is a Māori iwi, based in Tauranga, New Zealand. Its rohe extends to Mayor Island / Tuhua and Bowentown in the north, to the Kaimai Range in the west, south of Te Puke and to Maketu in the east.

Mount Maunganui (mountain) mountain in New Zealand

Mount Maunganui, or Mauao, commonly known by locals as The Mount, is an extinct volcanic cone at the end of a peninsula and the town of Mount Maunganui, by the eastern entrance to the Tauranga Harbour in New Zealand. It is considered very important and tapu (sacred) by the local Māori iwi, featuring extensively in local mythology. It is also of significant historical value. The summit is 232 metres above sea level.

Ngāti Ranginui Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

Ngāti Ranginui is a Māori iwi (tribe) in Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. Its rohe extends from Waihi in the north, to the Kaimai Range in the west, to south of Te Puke in the south, and to Tauranga in the east. The rohe does not extend offshore to Matakana Island or Mayor Island / Tuhua.

Ngāti Pūkenga Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

Ngāti Pūkenga is a Māori iwi centred in Tauranga in the Bay of Plenty region of New Zealand. Its rohe extends to Mayor Island / Tuhua and Waihi in the north, to the Kaimai Range in the west, south of Te Puke and to Maketu in the east, and it has tribal holdings in Whangarei, Hauraki and Maketu.

Bay of Plenty (New Zealand electorate) electorate in New Zealand

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Port of Tauranga port

The Port of Tauranga is situated in Tauranga, New Zealand. It is the largest port in the country both in terms of total cargo volume, and in terms of container throughput with container volumes exceeding 950,000 TEUs. The port is operated by Port of Tauranga Ltd. This article is about both the company and the port itself.

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Bay of Plenty Region of New Zealand

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The Mount Maunganui branch is a short industrial branch line in Tauranga, New Zealand, servicing the eastern side of the Port of Tauranga. It branches from the East Coast Main Trunk at a triangle junction outside Baypark Stadium before running north-west through Mount Maunganui to the port complex.

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Greerton is a major suburb of Tauranga, the largest city in the Bay of Plenty region of New Zealand. According to the 2013 census, Greerton has a total population of 4,173. Greerton is named after Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Harpur Greer, commander of the British forces during the Battle of Gate Pa.

State Highway 33 (SH 33) is a New Zealand state highway in the Bay of Plenty in the North Island. It is one of two state highways that form a north-south connection between the cities of Tauranga and Rotorua, SH 33 being the most easterly of the two.

Omanu is a beach and suburb in Mount Maunganui, Tauranga, in the Bay of Plenty Region of New Zealand's North Island.

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