New Plymouth

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New Plymouth

Ngāmotu (Māori)
Across New Plymouth to Mt. Taranaki.jpg
Looking across New Plymouth with Mount Taranaki in the distance in mid-July 2010
NZ-Taranaki plain map.png
Disc Plain red.svg
New Plymouth
Coordinates: 39°04′S174°05′E / 39.067°S 174.083°E / -39.067; 174.083 Coordinates: 39°04′S174°05′E / 39.067°S 174.083°E / -39.067; 174.083
CountryFlag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Region Taranaki
Territorial authority New Plymouth District
Settled31 March 1841
Electorate New Plymouth
Government
   MP Jonathan Young (National)
   Mayor Neil Holdom
  Deputy MayorCraig McFarlane
Area
  Territorial2,324.26 km2 (897.40 sq mi)
Population
  Territorial81,900
  Density35/km2 (91/sq mi)
   Urban
58,300
Time zone UTC+12 (NZST)
  Summer (DST) UTC+13 (NZDT)
Postcode(s)
4310, 4312
Area code(s) 06
Website newplymouthnz.com

New Plymouth (Māori : Ngāmotu) is the major city of the Taranaki Region on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand. It is named after the English city of Plymouth from where the first English settlers migrated. The New Plymouth District, which includes New Plymouth City and several smaller towns, is the 10th largest district (out of 67) in New Zealand, and has a population of 74,184 – about two-thirds of the total population of the Taranaki Region and 1.7% of New Zealand's population. [1] This includes New Plymouth City (58,300), Waitara (6,483), Inglewood (3,380), Oakura (1,359), Okato (561) and Urenui (429). [2]

Māori language Polynesian language spoken by New Zealand Māori

Māori, also known as te reo, is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand. Closely related to Cook Islands Māori, Tuamotuan, and Tahitian, it gained recognition as one of New Zealand's official languages in 1987. The number of speakers of the language has declined sharply since 1945, but a Māori language revitalisation effort slowed the decline, and the language has experienced a revival, particularly since about 2015.

North Island The northern of the two main islands of New Zealand

The North Island, also officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated from the larger but much less populous South Island by Cook Strait. The island's area is 113,729 square kilometres (43,911 sq mi), making it the world's 14th-largest island. It has a population of 3,749,200.

New Zealand Country in Oceania

New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, and the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal, and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland.

Contents

The city itself is a service centre for the region's principal economic activities including intensive pastoral activities (mainly dairy farming) as well as oil, natural gas and petrochemical exploration and production. It is also the region's financial centre as the home of the TSB Bank (formerly the Taranaki Savings Bank), the largest of the remaining non-government New Zealand-owned banks.

Dairy farming class of agricultural, or an animal husbandry, enterprise

Dairy farming is a class of agriculture for long-term production of milk, which is processed for eventual sale of a dairy product.

Petroleum naturally occurring flammable liquid

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation, i.e. separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point by means of distillation, typically using a fractionating column.

Petrochemical chemical product derived from petroleum

Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn, palm fruit or sugar cane.

Notable features are the botanic gardens (i.e. Pukekura Park), the critically acclaimed Len Lye Centre and Art Gallery, the 11 km (6.8 mi) Coastal Walkway alongside the Tasman Sea, the Len Lye-designed 45-metre-tall (148 ft) artwork known as the Wind Wand , Paritutu Rock, and views of Mount Taranaki/Egmont.

Pukekura Park botanic garden and park

Pukekura Park is a Garden of National Significance, covering 52ha near the heart of New Plymouth, Taranaki in New Zealand.

Leonard Charles Huia Lye was a New Zealand artist known primarily for his experimental films and kinetic sculpture. His films are held in archives including the New Zealand Film Archive, British Film Institute, Museum of Modern Art in New York City, and the Pacific Film Archive at University of California, Berkeley. Lye's sculptures are found in the collections of the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Albright-Knox Art Gallery and the Berkeley Art Museum. Although he became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1950, much of his work went to New Zealand after his death, where it is housed at the Govett-Brewster Art Gallery in New Plymouth.

<i>Wind Wand</i> sculpture by Len Lye

The Wind Wand is a 48-metre kinetic sculpture located in New Plymouth, New Zealand. The sculpture includes a 45-metre tube of red fibreglass, and was made to designs by artist Len Lye. To residents, it is one of the main icons of New Plymouth. During the night, the Wind Wand lights up.

As described under awards, New Plymouth won multiple awards in 2008. The city was in 2010 chosen as one of two walking & cycling "Model Communities" by the government. Based on New Plymouth's already positive attitude towards cyclists and pedestrians, the city received $3.71m to invest into infrastructure and community programs to boost walking and cycling. [3]

It is also noted for being a coastal city with a mountain within 30 minutes drive, where residents and visitors to New Plymouth can snowboard, ski, water ski and surf all in the same day.

History

In 1828 Richard "Dicky" Barrett (1807–47) set up a trading post at Ngamotu after arriving on the trading vessel Adventure. Barrett traded with the local Māori and helped negotiate the purchase of land from them on behalf of the New Zealand Company. Settlers were selected by the Plymouth Company, which was set up to attract emigrants from the West Country of England, and which took over land initially purchased by the New Zealand Company. The first of the town's settlers arrived on the William Bryan , which anchored off the coast on 31 March 1841. A series of disputes over ownership and settlement of land developed between Māori and settlers soon after and New Plymouth became a fortified garrison town in 1860–1861 as more than 3500 Imperial soldiers, as well as local volunteers and militia, fought Māori in the First Taranaki War.

Richard "Dicky" Barrett (1807–1847) was one of the first European traders to be based in New Zealand. He lent his translation skills to help negotiate the first land purchases from Maori in New Plymouth and Wellington and became a key figure in the establishment of the settlement of New Plymouth. He was described by Edward Jerningham Wakefield, son of New Zealand Company founder Edward Gibbon Wakefield, as short, stout and "perfectly round all over" and fond of relating "wild adventures and hairbreadth 'scapes".

New Zealand Company company formed for the purpose of colonising New Zealand

The New Zealand Company, chartered in the United Kingdom, was a company that existed in the first half of the 1800s on a business model focused on the systematic colonisation of New Zealand. The company was formed to carry out the principles devised by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, who envisaged the creation of a new-model English society in the southern hemisphere. Under Wakefield’s model, the colony would attract capitalists who would then have a ready supply of labour—migrant labourers who could not initially afford to be property owners, but who would have the expectation of one-day buying land with their savings.

West Country area of south-western England

The West Country is a loosely defined area of south-western England. The term usually encompasses the historic counties of Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Somerset, and often the counties of Bristol, Gloucestershire and Wiltshire, in the South West region. The region is host to distinctive regional dialects and accents. Some definitions also include Herefordshire.

Growth and governance

New Plymouth Province

The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 created the New Plymouth Province, with a Provincial Council given jurisdiction over an area of 400,000ha. Five years later the name of the province changed to Taranaki Province. The province was abolished in 1876.

New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 Statute of the Parliament of the United Kingdom

The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that granted self-government to the Colony of New Zealand. It was the second such Act, the previous 1846 Act not having been fully implemented.

Taranaki Province Provinces of New Zealand in North Island

For the current top-level subdivision of Taranaki in New Zealand, see Taranaki region

Borough/City of New Plymouth

New Plymouth City Council Coat-of-Arms as used from 1949 Crest of the City of New Plymouth, Taranaki.jpg
New Plymouth City Council Coat-of-Arms as used from 1949

A Town Board was formed in 1863 and in August 1876 the town was constituted as a borough. Its new status did little to overcome some outside perceptions, however. In 1876 author E. W. Payton wrote that "all the great bustling 'cities' of the colony had a patronising way of trying to snub New Plymouth, referring to it in such derogatory terms as the dullest hole in the colony ... nothing whatever to do there... I find a great liking for this 'slow, old hole' ... it is a quiet, unassuming place and has not done so much to attract immigrants and settlers by exaggerating reports, as some districts have done." [4]

The Fitzroy Town District was merged with New Plymouth borough in August 1911; Vogeltown, Frankleigh Park and Westown were added a year later, followed by St Aubyn-Moturoa. By 1913 the town had a population of 7538. Seafront land was added in 1931 and 1941; land acquired on Omata Rd was added in 1955 and in 1960 large areas including land to the south of Paritutu, as well as Hurdon, Ferndale and Huatoki were included, as well as land straddling Mangorei Rd between the Henui Stream and Waiwakaiho River.

New Plymouth was declared a city in 1949.

New Plymouth District Council

In 1989, as a part of New Zealand-wide reorganisation of local government, New Plymouth City Council was merged with Taranaki District Council (Taranaki County Council and Waitara Borough merged in 1986), Inglewood District Council (Inglewood Borough and County merged in 1986), and Clifton County Council to form New Plymouth District Council.

Every three years the Mayor, 14 councillors and 16 community board members are elected by the New Plymouth District's enrolled voters. The full council, sub-committees and standing committees meet on a six-weekly cycle.

The Policy and Monitoring standing committees have delegated authority from the council to make final decisions on certain matters, and they make recommendations to the council on all others. The four community boards–Clifton, Waitara, Inglewood and Kaitake–as well as the subcommittees and working parties can make recommendations to the standing committees for them to consider.

The third standing committee, the Hearings Commission, is a quasi-judicial body that meets whenever a formal hearing is required–for instance, to hear submissions on a publicly notified resource consent application.

The Chief Executive (currently Craig Stevenson) and approximately 460 full-time equivalent staff provide advice and information to the elected members and the public, implement council decisions and manage the district's day-to-day operations.

This includes everything from maintaining more than 280 parks and reserves, waste water management and issuing consents and permits, through to providing libraries and other recreational services and ensuring the district's eateries meet health standards.

New Plymouth District Council's annual operating revenue for 2008/2009 is more than $188 million. [5]

The current Mayor of New Plymouth is Neil Holdom.

City suburbs

From west to east

Satellite settlements

New Plymouth Airport

New Plymouth Airport (IATA: NPL, ICAO: NZNP) serves the city of New Plymouth, and the surrounding region of Taranaki. It is located on the coast, 11 km from the city centre, and 4 km from the outer suburb/satellite town of Bell Block. [ clarification needed ]

It is the 9th busiest airport in New Zealand, with scheduled Air New Zealand services to Auckland, Christchurch and Wellington. New Plymouth airport also has daily services with budget airline Jetstar to Auckland with domestic and international links.

Transport, industry and emergency services

Electric power was first provided in January 1906 from the Mangorei power station alongside the Waiwhakaiho River near Burgess Park. [6] In the 1960s, the New Plymouth Power Station was initially designed to run on coal but constructed to be fuelled by natural gas or fuel oil. This is a thermal power station with a steam turbine, commenced operation in 1974 with units progressively decommissioned from 2000 with one left operating in 2008. [7]

Companies began searching for oil on the New Plymouth coast in 1865 after small deposits of thick oil were found on the shoreline. The first commercial quantities of oil were obtained in January 1866. Exploration continued sporadically and a refinery opened in 1913. Production ceased about 1972. The city was one of the original nine towns and cities in New Zealand to be supplied with natural gas when the Kapuni gas field in South Taranaki entered production in 1970. [8] The offshore Maui A well began production of natural gas in the late 1970s, sparking a flourishing energy and petrochemical industry. As Maui A's resources decline, new sites in Taranaki are being developed in an effort to find more commercial petrochemical reserves. [9]

Powerco operates the local electricity and natural gas distribution networks in the city. [10] Electricity is supplied from Transpower's national grid at two substations: Carrington Street (Brooklands) and Huirangi. Natural gas is supplied from First Gas's transmission system at a gate station in Bell Block.

An 18 km (11 mi) railway link between New Plymouth and Waitara was completed in 1875; this later became the Waitara Branch. The next year, work began on a line south to Stratford, which was reached in 1879, followed by Hawera in 1881. This line, known as the Marton - New Plymouth Line, was completed on 23 March 1885, and when the Wellington - Manawatu Line of the Wellington and Manawatu Railway Company was opened on 3 November 1886, a direct railway link was established to Wellington. [11] The original routing through the centre of the town was replaced in 1907 by an alignment along the foreshore, which remains today. The New Plymouth Express passenger train began operating on this route in December 1886. In 1926, it was augmented by the Taranaki Flyer for the run between New Plymouth and Wanganui, A direct railway route to Auckland was not established until 1932, when the Stratford–Okahukura Line was completed; the next year, when the line was handed over from the Public Works Department to the New Zealand Railways Department, the New Plymouth Night Express began operating to Auckland. [12] All carriage trains were replaced by RM class Standard and 88 seater railcars by 1956. The Wanganui service ceased in 1959; the Auckland service was truncated to terminate in Taumarunui from 1971; and the Wellington service was cancelled on 30 July 1977. On 11 February 1978, the Taumarunui railcar was replaced by a passenger train, but it was ultimately cancelled on 21 January 1983. Since this date, the only passenger trains to operate to New Plymouth have been infrequent excursions operated by railway preservation societies. [13]

The breakwater at Ngamotu was completed in 1883, providing safe berthage for vessels, and the Moturoa wharf was completed in 1888. Port Taranaki is a critical transport link for the region and the only deep water port on the west coast of New Zealand.

In 1916 the city's electric tramway system began and petrol-powered buses began running four years later. The tramway system was closed in 1954. It was replaced by trolley buses which operated until 1967.

The first aircraft landed at the racecourse in 1920 and commercial flights began using the airport at Bell Block in June 1937. During World War II this grass airfield became RNZAF Bell Block; and was replaced in 1966 by the current tarmac airport, 3 km (1.9 mi) NE of the old airport site.

Among the city's major industrial companies was Ivon Watkins-Dow, an agricultural chemicals company founded in 1944 by brothers Ivon, Harry and Dan Watkins and joined as a partner 20 years later by Dow Chemicals of Michigan. The company ran a factory at Paritutu making the herbicide 2,4,5-T. A 2005 study found that people who lived close to the Ivon Watkins-Dow plant between 1962 and 1987 were likely to have dioxin levels on average four times higher than the general public. In some groups the level was as much as seven times as high. A Public Health Medicine senior adviser has claimed that based on international findings, the residents' exposure to dioxin may cause increased rates of disease, in particular cancer. In March 2007 the Ministry of Health announced it would offer a major health support programme to anyone affected. [14] [15] [16] In April 2008 the Ministry clarified that the programme's main feature would be a free annual medical check up for those who had lived, worked or studied close to the factory. [17]

New Plymouth has two fire stations in the city with the central station a block away from the CBD. The station houses four fire appliances, including an aerial appliance, along with three specialist vehicles. New Plymouth Central Fire Station is manned by two crews (8 firefighters) 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and responds, not only to the city, but to surrounding areas if needed. New Plymouth West Volunteer Fire Brigade is based west of the city in the suburb of Spotswood. The volunteer station houses a single appliance but is close to Port Taranaki and LPG/Gas tanks. The brigade supports New Plymouth and surrounding satellite towns.

Police stations are scattered throughout the city with the main base at a modern police station on Powderham Street. Other suburban stations are located in Fitzroy, Westown and Bell Block.

St John Ambulance supplies all ambulance services to Taranaki with their main station based at Taranaki Base Hospital.

The Taranaki Rescue Helicopter Trust provides search, rescue and patient transfer missions when required. The AgustaWestland AW109 is based at its hangar at Taranaki Base Hospital.

Port Taranaki is the home port for HMNZS Endeavour, although the ship is based at the Devonport Naval Base on Auckland's North Shore.[ clarification needed ]

Media

Local print media include:

Local radio stations:

Other stations run by NZME and Mediaworks are broadcast throughout Taranaki but are networked from either Auckland or Wellington.

Local television stations:

TVNZ, TV3, Sky Network Television and other Freeview channels broadcast on digital off a transmitter on Mount Taranaki and Windy Point in Spotswood.

Features and attractions

Te Rewa Rewa Bridge which immediately became a symbol of the extensive cycling opportunities that have been created in and around New Plymouth. Te Rewa Rewa1.jpg
Te Rewa Rewa Bridge which immediately became a symbol of the extensive cycling opportunities that have been created in and around New Plymouth.
Coastal Walkway in New Plymouth Coastal Walkway in New Plymouth.jpg
Coastal Walkway in New Plymouth

New Plymouth District has a reputation as an events centre, with major festivals (the annual TSB Bank Festival of Lights, Taranaki Powerco Garden Spectacular, WOMAD and the biennial Taranaki Arts Festival), sports fixtures (including international rugby, surfing, cricket and tennis matches, and the annual ITU World Cup Triathlon), concerts (from Sir Elton John, Jack Johnson, REM, John Farnham and Fleetwood Mac), and the annual Talk Like a Pirate Day pubcrawl [18] which has been running since 2005.

With its rich volcanic soil, the city is well known for its gardens. Chief among them are the 52 ha Pukekura Park in the centre of the city (named a Garden of National Significance), and Pukeiti, a rhododendron garden of international significance high on the Pouakai Range.

Pukekura Park is also the home of the TSB Bank Festival of Lights, which runs for free every year from mid-December to early February. It has daytime and night time programmes of events for people of all ages, and the festival itself transforms the park into an illuminated wonderland every evening.

Next to the foreshore in the central city is Puke Ariki – the world's first purpose-built, fully integrated museum, library and information centre. [19]

Nearby is the Len Lye Centre a contemporary art museum. It includes the Len Lye Centre, a purpose-built centre next to the gallery that houses the collection of film maker and kinetic artist Len Lye, which opened in 2015, making New Plymouth the world centre for Len Lye. This museum is the first in the world to be completely dedicated to one person.

The Coastal Walkway is a 13 km path that forms an expansive sea-edge promenade stretching almost the entire length of the city, from the Bell Block mouth in the east to Port Taranaki in the west. The pathway includes the iconic Te Rewa Rewa Bridge and is ideal for walking, running, cycling or skating, or simply enjoying the view of the dramatic west coast. [20] It has won numerous awards, including the Cycle Friendly Award in 2008 for the best New Zealand cycle facility.

Centre City Shopping Centre is the only shopping mall in New Plymouth. It contains over 65 shops and services. [21]

Awards

New Plymouth won the Top Town award from North and South Magazine in 2008 (judged "the best place in New Zealand to live, love, work and raise a family"). [22]

The city also won three awards at the 11th International Awards for Liveable Communities held in Dongguan, China, 6–10 November 2008: [23]

Climate

New Plymouth has an oceanic climate that could be described as a moist, temperate climate. The average summer afternoon temperature is 21–22 °C (70–72 °F); average summer night-time temperature is 12–13 °C (54–55 °F). The city experiences mild winters, where the average afternoon temperature is 13–14 °C (55–57 °F) and night-time temperature is 5–6 °C (41–43 °F). The average annual rainfall is 1,432 mm (56.4 in). On 15 August 2011 it snowed in New Plymouth, a rare event which has been described as a once in a generation occurrence. [25]

Climate data for New Plymouth (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)30.6
(87.1)
29.5
(85.1)
29.0
(84.2)
24.9
(76.8)
21.7
(71.1)
19.8
(67.6)
18.0
(64.4)
19.9
(67.8)
21.6
(70.9)
22.3
(72.1)
26.4
(79.5)
29.9
(85.8)
30.6
(87.1)
Average high °C (°F)21.7
(71.1)
22.1
(71.8)
20.9
(69.6)
18.6
(65.5)
16.0
(60.8)
14.0
(57.2)
13.3
(55.9)
14.0
(57.2)
15.0
(59.0)
16.1
(61.0)
18.1
(64.6)
19.9
(67.8)
17.5
(63.5)
Daily mean °C (°F)17.8
(64.0)
18.0
(64.4)
16.8
(62.2)
14.5
(58.1)
12.2
(54.0)
10.4
(50.7)
9.5
(49.1)
10.3
(50.5)
11.5
(52.7)
12.8
(55.0)
14.5
(58.1)
16.3
(61.3)
13.7
(56.7)
Average low °C (°F)13.8
(56.8)
13.9
(57.0)
12.7
(54.9)
10.4
(50.7)
8.5
(47.3)
6.8
(44.2)
5.8
(42.4)
6.6
(43.9)
8.0
(46.4)
9.5
(49.1)
10.9
(51.6)
12.7
(54.9)
10.0
(50.0)
Record low °C (°F)4.2
(39.6)
2.8
(37.0)
2.6
(36.7)
0.0
(32.0)
−0.8
(30.6)
−2.4
(27.7)
−2.6
(27.3)
−2.3
(27.9)
−2.2
(28.0)
−0.1
(31.8)
1.2
(34.2)
2.1
(35.8)
−2.6
(27.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches)114.5
(4.51)
85.4
(3.36)
126.5
(4.98)
125.4
(4.94)
97.1
(3.82)
152.6
(6.01)
131.1
(5.16)
117.2
(4.61)
104.8
(4.13)
117.8
(4.64)
100.3
(3.95)
113.1
(4.45)
1,398
(55.04)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)8.97.79.89.812.313.612.613.412.614.110.59.5135.5
Average relative humidity (%)80.982.581.882.485.486.185.784.482.782.880.181.483.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 248.4225.0212.8177.8143.9118.1138.0162.7162.6189.6206.9211.62,197.2
Source #1: NIWA Climate Data [26]
Source #2: Météo Climat [27]

Sister cities

Education

There are three schools within the central city, and suburban schools in Fitzroy, Frankleigh Park, Lynmouth, Mangorei, Marfell, Merrilands, Moturoa, Spotswood, Vogeltown, Welbourn, Westown and Brooklands . The Western Institute of Technology at Taranaki has its main campus in central New Plymouth. [30]

In the inner city, New Plymouth Boys' High School and New Plymouth Girls' High School are single-sex secondary (years 9–13) schools with rolls of 1219 [31] and 1218 [32] respectively. New Plymouth Boys' High School was founded in 1882. [33] The decile ratings of the two schools are 8 and 7, respectively.

Central School is a coeducational contributing primary (years 1–6) schools with a roll of 212 and a decile rating of 8. [34] Central School opened in 1884 and is one of the oldest schools in the region. [35]

In the suburbs are Francis Douglas Memorial College and Sacred Heart Girls' College, state-integrated catholic boys and girls schools (Years 7–13) respectively, while Spotswood College in the western suburbs is the only co-educational secondary school in the city.

The largest primary school in the city is Central school with other primary schools scattered across the city. The only catholic schools in the city are St Josephs Primary, St John Bosco School and St Pius X School.

See also

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Monica Romaine Brewster was a New Zealand arts patron and women's rights advocate. She is best known as the founding benefactor of the Govett-Brewster Art Gallery.

Motukawa Power Station

The Motukawa Power Station is a hydroelectric power facility in Taranaki in New Zealand which makes use of water from the Manganui River and Waitara River catchments. Water is drawn from behind a weir on the Manganui River near Tariki and diverts this water through a race to Lake Ratapiko and then through penstocks to the Motukawa Power Station. The power station discharges into the Makara Stream, a tributary of the Waitara River.

Mangorei Power Station

The Mangorei Power Station is a hydroelectric power facility near Mangorei in Taranaki in New Zealand which makes use of water from the Waiwhakaiho River and the Mangamahoe Stream catchments.

References

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Further reading