|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
Territorial authorities are the second tier of local government in New Zealand, below regional councils. There are 67 territorial authorities: 13 city councils, 53 district councils and the Chatham Islands Council.District councils serve a combination of rural and urban communities, while city councils administer the larger urban areas. Five territorial authorities (Auckland, Nelson, Gisborne, Tasman and Marlborough) also perform the functions of a regional council and thus are unitary authorities. The Chatham Islands Council is a sui generis territorial authority that is similar to a unitary authority.
Territorial authority districts are not subdivisions of regions, and some of them fall within more than one region. Regional council areas are based on water catchment areas, whereas territorial authorities are based on community of interest and road access. Regional councils are responsible for the administration of many environmental and public transport matters, while the territorial authorities administer local roading and reserves, water supply and sanitation, building consents, the land use and subdivision aspects of resource management, and other local matters.Some activities are delegated to council-controlled organisations. The scope of powers is specified by the Local Government Act 2002.
There are currently 67 territorial authorities. Prior to the Auckland Council "super merger" in November 2010, there were 73 territorial authorities. Prior to the Banks Peninsula District merging with the Christchurch City Council in 2006, there were 74 territorial authorities.
|Far North District||10||Kaikohe||6,684||71,000||10.62||Northland||North|
|Matamata-Piako District||12||Te Aroha||1,755||36,300||20.68||Waikato||North|
|Waipa District||13||Te Awamutu||1,470||57,800||39.32||Waikato||North|
|South Waikato District||11||Tokoroa||1,819||25,400||13.96||Waikato||North|
|Waitomo District||7||Te Kuiti||3,535||9,710||2.75||Waikato (94.87%)|
|Taupō District||11||Taupō||6,333||40,100||6.33||Waikato (73.74%)|
Bay of Plenty (14.31%)
Hawke's Bay (11.26%)
|Western Bay of Plenty District||12||Greerton||1,951||56,600||29.01||Bay of Plenty||North|
|Tauranga City||11||Tauranga||135||151,300||1,120.74||Bay of Plenty||North|
|Rotorua Lakes||11||Rotorua||2,409||77,300||32.09||Bay of Plenty (61.52%)|
|Whakatāne District||11||Whakatane||4,450||38,200||8.58||Bay of Plenty||North|
|Kawerau District||9||Kawerau||24||7,750||322.92||Bay of Plenty||North|
|Ōpōtiki District||7||Opotiki||3,090||10,000||3.24||Bay of Plenty||North|
|Gisborne District||14||Gisborne||8,385||50,700||6.05||unitary authority||North|
|Wairoa District||7||Wairoa||4,077||8,960||2.20||Hawke's Bay||North|
|Hastings District||15||Hastings||5,227||88,000||16.84||Hawke's Bay||North|
|Napier City||13||Napier||105||66,300||631.43||Hawke's Bay||North|
|Central Hawke's Bay District||9||Waipawa||3,333||15,250||4.58||Hawke's Bay||North|
|New Plymouth District||15||New Plymouth||2,205||86,100||39.05||Taranaki||North|
|Stratford District||11||Stratford||2,163||9,880||4.57||Taranaki (68.13%)|
|South Taranaki District||13||Hāwera||3,575||28,700||8.03||Taranaki||North|
|Rangitikei District||12||Marton||4,484||15,750||3.51||Manawatū-Whanganui (86.37%)|
Hawke's Bay (13.63%)
|Palmerston North City||16||Palmerston North||395||90,400||228.86||Manawatū-Whanganui||North|
|Tararua District||9||Dannevirke||4,365||18,900||4.33||Manawatū-Whanganui (98.42%)|
|Kapiti Coast District||11||Paraparaumu||732||57,000||77.87||Wellington||North|
|Upper Hutt City||11||Upper Hutt||540||47,100||87.22||Wellington||North|
|Hutt City||13||Lower Hutt||376||111,800||297.34||Wellington||North|
|South Wairarapa District||10||Martinborough||2,387||11,400||4.78||Wellington||North|
|Tasman District||14||Richmond||9,616||56,400||5.87||unitary authority||South|
|Nelson City||13||Nelson||422||54,600||129.38||unitary authority||South|
|Marlborough District||14||Blenheim||10,458||50,200||4.80||unitary authority||South|
|Buller District||11||Westport||7,943||9,610||1.21||West Coast||South|
|Grey District||9||Greymouth||3,474||13,800||3.97||West Coast||South|
|Westland District||9||Hokitika||11,828||8,920||0.75||West Coast||South|
|Chatham Islands||9||Waitangi||794||760||0.96||unitary authority||South|
|Waitaki District||11||Oamaru||7,108||23,500||3.31||Canterbury (59.61%)|
|Central Otago District||11||Alexandra||9,933||23,900||2.41||Otago||South|
There are a number of islands where the Minister of Local Government is the territorial authority, two of which have a 'permanent population and/or permanent buildings and structures.' The main islands are listed below (population according to 2001 census in parenthesis):
In addition, seven of the nine groups of the New Zealand outlying islands are outside of any territorial authority:
Mayors in New Zealand, like councillors, are directly elected in the local elections a three-year term.The Local Government Act 2002 defines the role of a mayor as having to provide leadership to the other elected members of the territorial authority, be a leader in the community and perform civic duties.
For many decades until the local government reforms of 1989, a borough with more than 20,000 people could be proclaimed a city. The boundaries of councils tended to follow the edge of the built-up area, so little distinction was made between the urban area and the local government area.
New Zealand's local government structural arrangements were significantly reformed by the Local Government Commission in 1989 when approximately 700 councils and special purpose bodies were amalgamated to create 87 new local authorities. Regional councils were reduced in number from 20 to 13, territorial authorities (city/district councils) from 200 to 75, and special purpose bodies from over 400 to 7.The new district and city councils were generally much larger and most covered substantial areas of both urban and rural land. Many places that once had a city council were now being administered by a district council.
As a result, the term "city" began to take on two meanings.
The word "city" came to be used in a less formal sense to describe major urban areas independent of local body boundaries. This informal usage is jealously guarded. Gisborne, for example, adamantly described itself as the first city in the world to see the new millennium. Gisborne is administered by a district council, but its status as a city is not generally disputed.
Under the current law the minimum population for a new city is 50,000.
Since the 1989 reorganisations, there have been few major reorganisations or status changes in local government. Incomplete list:
Reports on completed reorganisation proposals since 1999 are available on the Local Government Commission's site (link below).
On 26 March 2009, the Royal Commission on Auckland Governance recommended the Rodney, North Shore, Waitakere, Auckland City, Manukau, Papakura and Franklin territorial councils and the Auckland Regional Council be abolished and the entire Auckland region to be amalgamated into one "supercity".The area would consist of one city council (with statutory provision for three Maori councillors), four urban local councils, and two rural local councils:
The National-led Government responded within about a week. Its proposal, which will go to a Select Committee, has the supercity and many community boards but no local councils and for the first election no separate seats for Maori.
Public reaction to the Royal Commission report was mixed, especially in regards to the Government's amended proposal. Auckland Mayor John Banks supported the amended merger plans.
Criticism of the amended proposal came largely from residents in Manukau, Waitakere and North Shore Cities.In addition, Maori Affairs Minister Pita Sharples spoke against the exclusion of the Maori seats, as recommended by the Royal Commission. Opposition Leader Phil Goff called for a referendum on the issue.
Auckland Council was created on 1 November 2010 — a unitary authority that is classed as both a region and a territorial authority. It incorporated the recommendations of the Royal Commission and was established via legislation.Auckland Council is uniquely divided into "local boards" representing the lowest tier of local government.
Manukau City was a territorial authority district in Auckland, New Zealand, that was governed by the Manukau City Council. The area is sometimes referred to as "South Auckland", although this term never possessed official recognition and does not encompass areas such as East Auckland, which was within the city boundary. It was a relatively young city, both in terms of legal status and large-scale settlement – though in June 2010, it was the third largest in New Zealand, and the fastest growing. In the same year, the entire Auckland Region was amalgamated under a single city authority, Auckland Council.
Waikato is a local government region of the upper North Island of New Zealand. It covers the Waikato District, Waipa District, Matamata-Piako District, South Waikato District and Hamilton City, as well as Hauraki, Coromandel Peninsula, the northern King Country, much of the Taupō District, and parts of Rotorua District. It is governed by the Waikato Regional Council.
The Manukau Harbour is the second largest natural harbour in New Zealand by area. It is located to the southwest of the Auckland isthmus, and opens out into the Tasman Sea.
Papakura District was a local council territory in New Zealand's Auckland Region that was governed by the Papakura District Council from 1989 until 2010. The area makes up the southernmost part of the Auckland metropolitan area.
The Auckland Region is one of the sixteen regions of New Zealand, named for the city of Auckland, the country's largest urban area. The region encompasses the Auckland metropolitan area, smaller towns, rural areas, and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf. Containing 34 percent of the nation's residents, it has by far the largest population and economy of any region of New Zealand, but the second-smallest land area.
Waitākere City was a territorial authority in the western part of the urban area of Auckland, New Zealand; it was governed by the Waitākere City Council from 1989 to 2010. It was New Zealand's fifth largest city, with an annual growth of about 2%. In 2010 the council was amalgamated with the other authorities of the Auckland Region to form the current Auckland Council.
South Auckland is an imprecisely defined urban area of Auckland, New Zealand, with a young population, a relatively large Polynesian and Māori demographic, and lower incomes than other parts of Auckland. The name South Auckland, though not an official place name, has come into common use among New Zealanders. It also appears in the names of some organisations and companies.
Auckland City was a city in the Auckland urban area, covering the central isthmus and most of the islands of the Hauraki Gulf. It included the Auckland CBD – a major financial and commercial centre – and a number of suburbs.
Conifer Grove is an upper-middle class suburb of Auckland, in northern New Zealand. Located on the eastern shores of the Pahurehure Inlet, on the Manukau Harbour, under authority of the Auckland Council. The suburb makes up the western side of the Takanini urban area and is in the Manurewa-Papakura ward of Auckland City. The suburb is known for its tree-lined streets, bay views, and until 2018 its border with the Manukau Golf Course.
Sir Robert Anster Harvey is a former mayor of Waitakere City, one of four cities and three districts which until 2010 administered the Auckland urban area in New Zealand. He received the New Zealand 1990 Commemoration Medal in 1990, and was awarded honorary citizenship of Waitakere Sister City Ningbo, People's Republic of China in 2005. He was knighted as a Knight Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit in the 2013 New Year Honours.
Papakura is a suburb of Auckland, in northern New Zealand. It is located on the shores of the Pahurehure Inlet, approximately 32 kilometres south of the Auckland CBD. It is under the authority of the Auckland Council.
Auckland Libraries is the public library system for the Auckland Region of New Zealand. It was created when the seven separate councils in the Auckland region merged in 2010. It is currently the largest public-library network in the Southern Hemisphere with 55 branches from Wellsford to Waiuku.
Auckland railway electrification occurred in phases as part of investment in a new infrastructure for Auckland's urban railway network. Electrification of the network had been proposed for several decades. Installation started in the late 2000s after funds were approved from a combination of regional and central government budgets.
Auckland is a large metropolitan city in the North Island of New Zealand. The most populous urban area in the country, Auckland has an urban population of about 1,470,100. It is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,717,500. Auckland is a diverse, multicultural and cosmopolitan city, home to the largest Polynesian population in the world. The Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki Makaurau, meaning "Tāmaki desired by many", in reference to the desirability of its natural resources and geography. The word Tāmaki itself generally meaning an omen.
Auckland Council is the local government council for the Auckland Region in New Zealand. It is a territorial authority that has the responsibilities, duties and powers of a regional council and so is a unitary authority, according to the Local Government Act 2009, which established the Council. The governing body consists of a mayor and 20 councillors, elected from 13 wards. There are also 149 members of 21 local boards who make decisions on matters local to their communities. It is the largest council in Oceania, with a $3 billion annual budget, $29 billion of ratepayer equity, and 9,870 full-time staff as of 30 June 2016. The council began operating on 1 November 2010, combining the functions of the previous regional council and the region's seven city and district councils into one "super council" or "super city".
The Royal Commission on Auckland Governance was established by the New Zealand Government to investigate the local government arrangements of Auckland.
A district in New Zealand is a territorial authority area governed by a district council as a second-tier of local government in New Zealand, below regional councils. They were formed as a result of local government reforms in 1989. There are 53 districts in New Zealand, and they do not include the 12 city councils, Auckland Council, or Chatham Islands Council. District councils serve a combination of rural and urban communities, while city councils administer the larger urban areas. Three districts are unitary authorities also performing the functions of a regional council.
New Zealand has a unitary system of government in which the authority of the central government defines sub-national entities. Local government in New Zealand has only the powers conferred upon it by the New Zealand Parliament. In general, local authorities are responsible for enabling democratic local decision-making and promoting the social, economic, environmental, and cultural well-being of their communities, as well as more specific functions for which they have delegated authority.
|Regions||11 non-unitary regions||5 unitary regions||Chatham Islands|| Kermadec Islands |
NZ Subantarctic Islands
Three Kings Islands
|Ross Dependency||15 islands||14 villages|
|Territorial authorities||11 cities and 50 districts||2 cities and 3 districts|
|Notes||Seven districts lie in more than one region||These combine the regional and the territorial authority levels in one||Special territorial authority||New Zealand outlying islands outside any regional authority (the outlying Solander Islands form a part of the Southland Region)||Dependent territory of New Zealand||New Zealand's Antarctic dependency||States in free association with New Zealand|