Nelson, New Zealand

Last updated

Nelson

Whakatū (Māori)
Nelson New Zealand.jpg
November 2006 view of Nelson from the "Centre of New Zealand"
Nelsoncitycouncil-council-crest.jpg
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
Top of the South, Sunny Nelson
Motto(s): 
Palmam qui meruit ferat
Latin Let him, who has earned it, bear the palm
New Zealand location map.svg
Disc Plain red.svg
Nelson
Coordinates: 41°16′15″S173°17′2″E / 41.27083°S 173.28389°E / -41.27083; 173.28389 Coordinates: 41°16′15″S173°17′2″E / 41.27083°S 173.28389°E / -41.27083; 173.28389
CountryFlag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Unitary authority Nelson City
Settled by Europeans1841
Founded by Arthur Wakefield
Named for Horatio Nelson
Electorates Nelson
Te Tai Tonga
Government
   Mayor Rachel Reese
Area
 from Rai Saddle to Stoke
  Territorial445 km2 (172 sq mi)
Population
 (June 2018) [1]
  Territorial51,900
  Density120/km2 (300/sq mi)
   Urban
67,500
Time zone UTC+12 (NZST)
  Summer (DST) UTC+13 (NZDT)
Postcode
7010, 7011, 7020
Area code(s) 03
Website nelson.govt.nz
Southern suburbs of Nelson (right) and the nearby town of Richmond (left) seen from the air Richmond And Nelson From Southeast.jpg
Southern suburbs of Nelson (right) and the nearby town of Richmond (left) seen from the air

Nelson (Māori : Whakatū) is a city on the eastern shores of Tasman Bay. Nelson is the oldest city in the South Island and the second-oldest settled city in New Zealand – it was established in 1841 and was proclaimed a city by royal charter in 1858.

Māori language Polynesian language spoken by New Zealand Māori

Māori, also known as te reo, is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand. Closely related to Cook Islands Māori, Tuamotuan, and Tahitian, it gained recognition as one of New Zealand's official languages in 1987. The number of speakers of the language has declined sharply since 1945, but a Māori language revitalisation effort slowed the decline, and the language has experienced a revival, particularly since about 2015.

Tasman Bay bay in New Zealand

Tasman Bay / Te Tai-o-Aorere, originally known as Blind Bay, is a large V-shaped bay at the north end of New Zealand's South Island. Located in the centre of the island's northern coast, it stretches along 120 kilometres (75 mi) of coastline and is 70 kilometres (43 mi) across at its widest point. It is an arm of the Tasman Sea, lying on the western approach to Cook Strait.

South Island Southernmost of the two main islands in New Zealand

The South Island, also officially named Te Waipounamu, is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand in surface area; the other being the smaller but more populous North Island. It is bordered to the north by Cook Strait, to the west by the Tasman Sea, and to the south and east by the Pacific Ocean. The South Island covers 150,437 square kilometres (58,084 sq mi), making it the world's 12th-largest island. It has a temperate climate.

Contents

Nelson City is close to the geographical centre of New Zealand and bordered to the west and south-west by Tasman District Council and to the north-east, east and south-east by Marlborough District Council. The city does not include Richmond, the area's second-largest settlement. Nelson City has a population of around 50,000, making it New Zealand's 12th most populous city. When combined with the town of Richmond, which has roughly 15,000 residents, the whole conurbation is ranked as New Zealand's 9th largest urban area by population.

Richmond, New Zealand Town in Tasman, New Zealand

Richmond is a town, and the seat of the Tasman District Council, that lies 13 kilometres (8 mi) south of Nelson in the South Island of New Zealand, close to the southern extremity of Tasman Bay. The town was first settled in 1842 and was named in 1854 after the town of Richmond on Thames near London. By 2014 it had an estimated population of 13,606.

Nelson is well known for its thriving local arts and crafts scene, Each year, the city hosts events popular with locals and tourists alike, such as the Nelson Arts Festival. [2] The annual Wearable Art Awards began near Nelson and a local museum, World of Wearable Art now showcases winning designs alongside a collection of classic cars. [3]

World of Wearable Art

World of WearableArt (WOW) is an internationally recognised design competition, attracting entries from more than 40 countries each year. The stage features everything that is wearable art, as long as it is original and well executed. During the three weeks of the art show, around 60,000 people attend the event in Wellington.

Etymology

Nelson was named in honour of the Admiral Horatio Nelson who defeated both the French and Spanish fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. Many roads and public areas around the city are named after people and ships associated with that battle and Trafalgar Street is the main shopping axis of the city. Inhabitants of Nelson are referred to as Nelsonians.

Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson Royal Navy Admiral

Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy. He was noted for his inspirational leadership, grasp of strategy, and unconventional tactics, which together resulted in a number of decisive British naval victories, particularly during the Napoleonic Wars. He was wounded several times in combat, losing the sight in one eye in Corsica at the age of 36, as well as most of one arm in the unsuccessful attempt to conquer Santa Cruz de Tenerife when 40 years of age. He was shot and killed at the age of 47 during his final victory at the Battle of Trafalgar near the Spanish port city of Cádiz in 1805.

First French Empire Empire of Napoleon I of France between 1804–1815

The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Although France had already established an overseas colonial empire beginning in the 17th century, the French state had remained a kingdom under the Bourbons and a republic after the Revolution. Historians refer to Napoleon's regime as the First Empire to distinguish it from the restorationist Second Empire (1852–1870) ruled by his nephew as Napoleon III.

Enlightenment in Spain the enlightenment movement in Spain

The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment came to Spain in the eighteenth century with the new Bourbon dynasty, following the death of the last Habsburg monarch, Charles II, in 1700. This period in Spanish history is often referred to as Bourbon Spain. "Like the Spanish Enlightenment, the Spanish Bourbon monarchs were imbued with Spain's Catholic identity." The period of reform and 'enlightened despotism' under the Bourbons focused on centralizing and modernizing the Spanish government, and improvement of infrastructure, beginning with the rule of King Charles III and the work of his minister, José Moñino, count of Floridablanca. In the political and economic sphere, the crown implemented a series of changes, collectively known as the Bourbon reforms, which were aimed at making the overseas empire more prosperous to the benefit of Spain.

Nelson's Māori name, Whakatū, [4] means 'build', 'raise', or 'establish'.

In an article to The Colonist newspaper on 16 July 1867, Francis Stevens described Nelson as "The Naples of the Southern Hemisphere". [5] Today, Nelson has the nicknames of "Sunny Nelson" due to its high sunshine hours per year or the "Top of the South" because of its geographic location.

Naples Comune in Campania, Italy

Naples is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents. Its continuously built-up metropolitan area is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe.

Southern Hemisphere part of Earth that lies south of the equator

The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator. It contains all or parts of five continents, four oceans and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania. Its surface is 80.9% water, compared with 60.7% water in the case of the Northern Hemisphere, and it contains 32.7% of Earth's land.

In New Zealand Sign Language, the name is signed by putting the index and middle fingers together which are raised to the nose until the fingertips touch the nose, then move the hand forward so that the fingers point slightly forward away from oneself. [6]

History

Diocese of Nelson Christ Church Cathedral on Church Hill, central Nelson Nelson cathedral.jpg
Diocese of Nelson Christ Church Cathedral on Church Hill, central Nelson

Early settlement

Settlement of Nelson began about 700 years ago by Māori. [7] There is evidence the earliest settlements in New Zealand are around the Nelson-Marlborough regions. The earliest recorded iwi in the Nelson district are the Ngāti Kuia, Ngāti Tūmatakōkiri, Ngāti Apa and Rangitāne tribes.

Raids from northern tribes in the 1820s, led by Te Rauparaha and his Ngāti Toa, soon decimated the local population and quickly displaced them.

New Zealand Company

Planning

The New Zealand Company in London planned the settlement of Nelson. They intended to buy cheaply from the Māori some 200,000 acres (810 km2) which they planned to divide into one thousand lots and sell (at a considerable profit) to intending settlers. The Company earmarked future profits to finance the free passage of artisans and labourers and their families, and for the construction of public works. However, by September 1841 only about one third of the lots had sold. Despite this the Colony pushed ahead, and land was surveyed by Frederick Tuckett. [8]

Three ships, the Arrow , Whitby , and Will Watch , sailed from London under the command of Captain Arthur Wakefield. Arriving in New Zealand, they discovered that the new Governor of the colony, William Hobson, would not give them a free hand to secure vast areas of land from the Māori or indeed to decide where to site the colony. However, after some delay, Hobson allowed the Company to investigate the Tasman Bay area at the north end of the South Island. The Company selected the site now occupied by Nelson City because it had the best harbour in the area. But it had a major drawback: it lacked suitable arable land; Nelson City stands right on the edge of a mountain range while the nearby Waimea Plains amount to only about 60,000 acres (240 km2), less than one third of the area required by the Company plans.

The Company secured a vague and undetermined area from the Māori for £800 that included Nelson, Waimea, Motueka, Riwaka and Whakapuaka. This allowed the settlement to begin, but the lack of definition would prove the source of much future conflict. The three colony ships sailed into Nelson Haven during the first week of November 1841. When the four first immigrant ships – Fifeshire , Mary-Ann , Lord Auckland and Lloyds – arrived three months later, they found the town already laid out with streets, some wooden houses, tents and rough sheds. Within 18 months the Company had sent out 18 ships with 1052 men, 872 women and 1384 children. However, fewer than ninety of the settlers had the capital to start as landowners.

Cultural and religious immigrants

St Paul's Lutheran Church, Upper Moutere Lutheran Church of Uppere Moutere, February 2007.jpg
St Paul's Lutheran Church, Upper Moutere

The early settlement of Nelson province included a proportion of German immigrants, who arrived on the ship Sankt Pauli and formed the nucleus of the villages of Sarau (Upper Moutere) and Neudorf. These were mostly Lutheran Protestants with a small number of Bavarian Catholics. [9]

In 1892 the New Zealand Church Mission Society (NZCMS) was formed in a Nelson church hall. [10]

Problems with land

After a brief initial period of prosperity, the lack of land and of capital caught up with the settlement and it entered a prolonged period of relative depression. The labourers had to accept a cut in their wages. Organised immigration ceased (a state of affairs that continued until the 1850s). By the end of 1843, artisans and labourers began leaving Nelson; by 1846, some 25% of the immigrants had moved away.

The pressure to find more arable land became intense. To the south-east of Nelson lay the wide and fertile plains of the Wairau Valley. The New Zealand Company tried to claim that they had purchased the land. The Māori owners stated adamantly that the Wairau Valley had not formed part of the original land sale and made it clear they would resist any attempts by the settlers to occupy the area. The Nelson settlers led by Arthur Wakefield and Henry Thompson attempted to do just that. This resulted in the Wairau Affray, where 22 settlers died. The subsequent Government enquiry exonerated the Māori and found that the Nelson settlers had no legitimate claim to any land outside Tasman Bay. Public fears of a Māori attack on Nelson lead to the formation of the Nelson Battalion of Militia in 1845.

City

Church Steps (sometimes called the Cawthron Steps) from Trafalgar Street up to the 60's bell tower of Nelson's Christ Church Cathedral NZL-nelson-christ-church-turm.jpg
Church Steps (sometimes called the Cawthron Steps) from Trafalgar Street up to the 60's bell tower of Nelson's Christ Church Cathedral

Nelson township was managed by the Nelson Provincial Council through a Board of Works constituted by the Provincial Government under the Nelson Improvement Act 1856 until 1874. It was proclaimed a Bishop's See and city under letters patent by Queen Victoria on 27 September 1858, [11] the second New Zealand city proclaimed in this manner after Christchurch. Edmund Hobhouse [12] was the first Bishop. The Municipal Corporations Act 1876 stated that Nelson was constituted a city on 30 March 1874.

Coat of arms

Nelson City has a coat of arms, obtained in 1958 from the Royal College of Heralds to mark the Centenary of Nelson as a City. The blazon of the arms is:

"Barry wavy Argent and Azure a Cross Flory Sable on a Chief also Azure a Mitre proper And for the Crest on a Wreath of the Colours Issuant from a Mural Crown proper a Lion rampant Gules holding between the fore paws a Sun in splendour or. The supporters on the dexter side a Huia Bird and on the sinister side a Kotuku both proper."

Motto "Palmam qui meruit ferat" (Let him, who has earned it, bear the palm). This motto is the same as that of Lord Nelson.

Nelson Province

The Nelson Province as constituted in 1853 Nelson in New Zealand (1852).svg
The Nelson Province as constituted in 1853

From 1853 until 1876, when provincial governments were abolished, Nelson was the capital of Nelson Province. The province itself was much larger than present-day Nelson City and included all of the present-day Buller, Kaikoura, Marlborough, Nelson, and Tasman, as well as the Grey District north of the Grey River and the Hurunui District north of the Hurunui River. The Marlborough Province split from Nelson Province in October 1859.

Nelson provincial anniversary

Nelson Anniversary Day is a public holiday observed in the northern half of the South Island of New Zealand, being the area's provincial anniversary day. It is observed throughout the historic Nelson Province, even though the provinces of New Zealand were abolished in 1876. The modern area of observation includes all of Nelson City and includes all of the present-day Buller, Kaikoura, Marlborough, Tasman districts as well as the Grey District north of the Grey River and the Hurunui District north of the Hurunui River. The holiday usually falls on the Monday closest to 1 February, the anniversary of the arrival of the first New Zealand Company boat, the Fifeshire on 1 February 1842. [13]

Anniversary celebrations in the early years featured a sailing regatta, horse racing, running races, shooting and ploughing matches. In 1892, the Nelson Jubilee Celebration featured an official week-long programme with church services, sports, concerts, a ball and a grand display of fireworks.

Time gun

In 1858 the Nelson Provincial Council erected a time gun at the spot on Brittania Heights where in 1841, Captain Wakefield erected his flagpole. The gun was fired each Saturday at noon to give the correct time. The gun is now preserved as a historical relic and the Songer Tree [14] marks the site on Signal Hill of the original flagpole. [15]

Geography

The Nelson region comprises two unitary authorities – Nelson City, administered by the Nelson City Council, and Tasman District, administered by the Tasman District Council, based in Richmond 15 kilometres (9 miles) to the southwest. It is between Marlborough, another unitary authority, to the east, and the West Coast Regional Council to the west.

For some while,[ when? ] there has been talk about amalgamating the two authorities to streamline and render more financially economical the existing co-operation between the two councils, [16] [17] [18] exemplified by the jointly owned Port Nelson and the creation of Nelson Tasman Tourism, a jointly owned tourism promotion organisation. [19]

However, an official poll conducted in April 2012 showed nearly three-quarters of those who voted in Richmond were opposed to the proposal with a narrow majority in favour.

Nelson has beaches and a sheltered harbour. The harbour entrance is protected by a Boulder Bank, a natural, 13 km (8 miles) bank of rocks transported south from Mackay Bluff via longshore drift. The bank creates a perfect natural harbour which enticed the first settlers although the entrance was narrow. The wreck of the Fifeshire on Arrow Rock (now called Fifeshire Rock in memory of this disaster) in 1842 proved the difficulty of the passage. [20] A cut was later made in the bank in 1906 which allowed larger vessels access to the port.

The creation of Rocks Road around the waterfront area after the Tahunanui slump [21] in 1892 increased the effects of the tide on Nelson city's beach, Tahunanui, and removed sediment. This meant the popular beach and adjoining car park were being eroded (plus the sand dunes) so a project to replace these sands was put in place and has so far proved a success, with the sand rising a considerable amount and the dunes continuing to grow.

Waterways

The Nelson territorial authority area is small (just 445 km2) and has four main waterways, the Whangamoa, Wakapuaka, Maitai and Roding Rivers. The Roding River, the southernmost in Nelson, arises in the hills between Mount Meares and Dun Mountain. From there is flows westward before entering the Tasman District where it eventually joins the Waimea River which flows into Waimea Inlet near Rabbit Island. The Maitai River flows westward from the Dun Mountain area into the town centre of Nelson before entering the Nelson Haven then Tasman Bay via 'The Cut'. Major tributaries of the Maitai River are: York and Brook Streams plus Sharland, Packer, Groom, Glen, Neds, Sclanders, Beauchamp and Mill Creeks. The Wakapuaka River, which flows north from the Saddle Hill area to its mouth at Cable Bay in North Nelson, has two main tributaries, the Lud and Teal Rivers. Entering Tasman Bay near Kokorua in the north of Nelson, the Whangamoa River is the longest waterway in Nelson.

Smaller waterways in the south of Nelson include: Saxton Creek, Orchard Stream, Poorman Valley Stream, Arapiki Stream, Jenkins Creek and Maire Stream.

Central Business District

Nelson i-SITE at Millers Acre Centre Millers Acre Complex in Nelson.jpg
Nelson i-SITE at Millers Acre Centre

The Central Business District (CBD) of Nelson is bounded by Halifax Street to the north, Rutherford Street to the west, Collingwood Street to the east, and Selwyn Place to the south. [22] Other major streets within the CBD include Trafalgar Street, Bridge Street and Hardy Street.

Suburbs

Suburbs within Nelson City's territorial area borders are grouped into four city districts:

Note: – The town of Richmond (population over 14,000) has become attached to Nelson's southern suburbs and is now considered an outlying suburb of Nelson City.

National parks

Nelson is surrounded by mountains on three sides with Tasman Bay on the other and the region is the gateway to Abel Tasman National Park, Kahurangi National Park, Lakes Rotoiti and Rotoroa in the Nelson Lakes National Park.

It is a centre for both ecotourism and adventure tourism and has a high reputation among caving enthusiasts due to several prominent cave systems around Takaka Hill and Mounts Owen and Arthur, which hold the largest and deepest explored caverns in the southern hemisphere.

Climate

Nelson has a temperate oceanic climate, with mild winters and warm summers. Nelson has rainfall evenly distributed throughout the year and has fewer frosts due to the highly marine geography of New Zealand. Winter is the stormiest time, when gales and storms are more common. Nelson has one of the sunniest climates of all major New Zealand centres, [23] earning the nickname 'Sunny Nelson' with an annual average total of over 2400 hours of sunshine. [24] The highest recorded temperature in Nelson is 36.3 °C (97 °F), the lowest −6.6 °C (20 °F).

Climate data for Nelson (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)22.4
(72.3)
22.6
(72.7)
21.0
(69.8)
18.1
(64.6)
15.6
(60.1)
13.1
(55.6)
12.5
(54.5)
13.4
(56.1)
15.0
(59.0)
16.9
(62.4)
18.9
(66.0)
20.7
(69.3)
17.5
(63.5)
Daily mean °C (°F)17.8
(64.0)
17.9
(64.2)
16.1
(61.0)
13.2
(55.8)
10.5
(50.9)
7.9
(46.2)
7.2
(45.0)
8.4
(47.1)
10.4
(50.7)
12.4
(54.3)
14.3
(57.7)
16.4
(61.5)
12.7
(54.9)
Average low °C (°F)13.2
(55.8)
13.3
(55.9)
11.3
(52.3)
8.3
(46.9)
5.5
(41.9)
2.7
(36.9)
1.9
(35.4)
3.4
(38.1)
5.7
(42.3)
7.8
(46.0)
9.8
(49.6)
12.0
(53.6)
7.9
(46.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)76.5
(3.01)
63.5
(2.50)
70.8
(2.79)
80.9
(3.19)
82.0
(3.23)
92.7
(3.65)
77.6
(3.06)
81.9
(3.22)
85.1
(3.35)
87.2
(3.43)
78.3
(3.08)
83.6
(3.29)
960.1
(37.80)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)6.85.86.66.57.38.27.88.69.99.47.98.693.3
Average relative humidity (%)74.478.579.683.087.889.690.086.679.776.973.774.281.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 267.5231.4230.4196.2175.7143.3159.0182.2189.3221.4234.9241.12,472.4
Source: NIWA Climate Data [25]

Geographical centre of New Zealand

The marker at the "Centre of New Zealand" Geographical centre nelson.jpg
The marker at the "Centre of New Zealand"

The geographical "centre of New Zealand" allegedly lies in Nelson; [26] on a hilltop near the centre of the city. This is the point "zero, zero" from which the first trigonometrical surveys were started in the 1870s by John Spence Browning, the Chief Surveyor for Nelson.

From this 360-degree viewpoint, the zero, zero points in neighbouring geodetic survey regions (including Wellington in the North Island) could be triangulated and a better survey of the whole of New Zealand constructed. In 1962, the 'gravitational centre' (including Stewart Island and some smaller islands in addition to the North and South Island, but excluding the Chathams) of New Zealand lay in a patch of unremarkable dense scrub in a forest in Spooners Range near Tapawera, 35 km (22 miles) south-west of Nelson: 41°30′S172°50′E / 41.500°S 172.833°E / -41.500; 172.833 (Geographical Centre of New Zealand) . [27]

Demographics

A map showing population density in the Nelson Region at the 2006 census TasmanNelsonRegionPopulationDensity.png
A map showing population density in the Nelson Region at the 2006 census
2006 Nelson ethnic population comparison [28]
Ethnic groupNelsonTasmanNew Zealand
European78%80%65%
Maori8%7%14%
Pacific Islander2%1%7%
Asian2%1%9%
Other17%18%16%

Nelson City's total population rose from 41,568 in 2001 to 42,888 in 2006, while Tasman District's rose from 41,352 to 44,625, to exceed that of Nelson City for the first time. [29]

Figures released on 23 April 2007 by Statistics New Zealand showed that 3,774 people born in the United Kingdom and Ireland lived in the Nelson City Council area and made up 9.1% of its population [30] – the highest proportion of residents from the United Kingdom and Ireland in New Zealand – with another 9.5% born overseas. Although Statistics New Zealand no longer keeps statistics for numbers of residents born in Germany, the Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany in Wellington has stated that a greater proportion of German speakers live in the Nelson region than anywhere else in New Zealand. There was a 23.7% rise in the number of Asians living in Nelson City and a 35.4% rise in Tasman District.

The religious structure in Nelson is similar to that of Tasman, particularly in the high proportion of people (32.2 percent of all people as at 5 March 1996) who specified no religion. This compares with 26.1 percent nationally. Anglicanism is the main Christian denomination, with 20.7 percent of all people, compared with 18.4 percent nationally. Historically, the early European settlers were largely of Anglican denomination. The building of the Anglican cathedral, as well as enabling Nelson to claim city status while being relatively small, also established the religion into the social fabric of Nelson.

Notable people from Nelson

Economy

The Nelson economy (and that of the neighbouring Tasman District) is based on the 'big five' industries; seafood, horticulture, forestry, farming and tourism. [31] Port Nelson [32] is the biggest fishing port in Australasia. There are also a range of growth industries, including art and craft, aviation, engineering technology, and information technology. The region is sixth in terms of GDP growth in the 2007–10 period. [33]

The combined sub-national GDP of Nelson and Tasman District was estimated at $3.4 billion in 2010, 1.8% of New Zealand's national GDP. [33] [34]

Nelson is home to various business agencies that serve the city and its surrounds, [35] including Nelson Tasman Tourism (NTT), [36] which aims to promote the region and help advertisers reach visitors from New Zealand and overseas, [37] and the Nelson Regional Economic Development Agency (EDA), which works to "coordinate, promote, facilitate, investigate, develop, implement, support and fund initiatives relating to economic development [and] employment growth ... within the Nelson region ..." [38] [39]

Below is a list of some of the region's largest companies and employers:

In 2013, Nelson Mayor Aldo Miccio worked on a proposal that would see Australian call centres for companies such as Gen-i and Xero relocated to Nelson. The plan was in response to Australian companies moving call and contact centres out of Asia because their Australian customers preferred English-speaking centres. If the plan was successful, Mr Miccio expected 100 to 300 jobs paying NZ$50,000-plus in the first year to be created in Nelson. [42]

Government

Local

The Nelson City Council Building in 2012 Nelson City Council Building.JPG
The Nelson City Council Building in 2012

As a unitary authority, the Nelson City Council has the combined responsibilities and functions of both a territorial (local) and regional council. This is different from most other local authorities in New Zealand. More often a regional council is a separate organisation with several territorial authorities (city or district councils) within its borders. Other unitary authorities are the Auckland Council, Gisborne District Council, Marlborough District Council, Tasman District Council and the Chatham Islands Council.

The Nelson City Council currently holds its elections under the First Past the Post electoral system once every three years, with the most recent election held on 12 October 2013. Electors vote by indicating their choice for Mayor by placing a tick beside one of the names and the person who receives the most votes becomes Mayor. Councillors are elected the same way, with the 12 candidates who each receive the most votes becoming Councillors. Voters in this system may vote for no more than 12 candidates. The elections are conducted by post over a three-week period to make it as convenient as possible for people to vote.

The other option permitted under the Local Electoral Act 2001, but not currently used in Nelson, is the Single Transferable Vote system. Electors vote by ranking candidates in order of preference by placing a number beside each candidate's name. The elector can vote for one or up to the total number of candidates on the paper. The number of votes required for a candidate to be elected, the quota, depends on the number of positions to be filled and the number of valid votes.

Under the Local Electoral Act 2002, the Nelson City Council can resolve to change the electoral system to be used for the next two elections, and it must review this decision every six years. A referendum was held in 2003 to decide which electoral system would be used for the 2004 and 2007 Nelson City Council elections. The outcome was that the First Past the Post system was retained. The 2008 review retains that system for the 2010 and 2013 elections. [43]

On 12 October 2013, Rachel Reese was elected as Nelson's first woman mayor after receiving 1,500 votes more than incumbent mayor Aldo Miccio. [44]

As of 12 October 2016, the current council members are:-

Mayor Rachel Reese
Deputy Mayor Paul Matheson
CouncillorsLuke Acland
Ian Barker
Mel Courtney
Bill Dahlberg
Kate Fulton
Matt Lawrey
Brian McGurk
Paul Matheson
Gaile Noonan
Mike Rutledge
Tim Skinner
Stuart Walker

National

Nelson is covered by one general electorate: Nelson and one Maori electorate: Te Tai Tonga.

As of the 2014 general election, Nelson is held by Nick Smith of the National Party. The Maori electorate Te Tai Tonga, which covers the entire South Island and part of Wellington in the North Island, is currently held by Labour and represented by Rino Tirikatene.

Education

Secondary schools

Tertiary institutions

Nelson hosts two tertiary education institutions, the main one being Nelson Marlborough Institute of Technology. The institute has two main campuses, one in Nelson and the other in Blenheim, in the neighbouring Marlborough region. The Institute has been providing tertiary education in the Nelson-Marlborough region for the last 100 years. [45]

Nelson also has a University of Canterbury College of Education campus which currently has an intake two out of every three years for the primary sector.

Healthcare

The main hospital in Nelson is the Nelson Hospital. It is the seat of the Nelson Marlborough District Health Board. The Manuka Street Hospital is a private institution.

Law enforcement

The Nelson Central Police Station, located in John Street, is the headquarters for the Tasman Police District. [46] The Tasman Police District has the lowest crime rate within New Zealand. [47]

Gangs

Several gangs have established themselves in Nelson. They include the now disbanded Lost Breed and the Red Devils a support club for the Hells Angels. The Rebels Motorcycle Club also have a presence in the wider Nelson-Tasman area. [48]

Media

Broadcasting

The city is served by all major national radio and television stations, with terrestrial television (Freeview) and FM radio. Local radio stations include The Hits (formerly Radio Nelson), More FM (formerly Fifeshire FM), The Breeze, ZM (formerly The Planet 97FM) and community station Fresh FM. The city has one local television station, Mainland Television.

Print

The Nelson Examiner was the first newspaper published in the South Island. It was established by Charles Elliott (1811–1876) in 1842, within a few weeks of New Zealand Company settlers arriving in Nelson. [49] Other early newspapers were The Colonist and the Nelson Evening Mail . Today the major daily newspaper is the Nelson Mail , which is part of the Fairfax Group. The Nelson Mail also publishes the weekly community papers The Nelson Leader and The Tasman Leader. The city is also served by the Nelson Weekly, a locally owned community newspaper.

WildTomato is a glossy monthly lifestyle magazine, focused on the Nelson and Marlborough regions – the Top of the South Island of New Zealand. The regional magazine was launched by Murray Farquhar as a 16-page local magazine in Nelson in July 2006.

Transport

Air transport

Nelson Airport is located southwest of the city, at Annesbrook. The airport operates a single terminal and 1,347-metre (4,420 ft) runway, and in 2018 was the fifth-busiest airport in New Zealand by passenger numbers. [50] There are more than a million passenger movements using the airport terminal annually and the airport averages 90 aircraft movements every day, with a plane taking off or landing every 4.5 minutes during scheduled hours.

It is primarily used for domestic flights, with regular flights to and from Auckland, Blenheim, Christchurch, Kapiti Coast, Palmerston North and Wellington. Nelson Airport is home to Air Nelson, which operates and maintains New Zealand's largest domestic airline fleet and was also the headquarters of Origin Pacific Airways until their collapse in 2006. Sounds Air offers flights from Nelson to Wellington.

In 2006, the airport received restricted international airport status to facilitate small private jets.

Maritime transport

Port Nelson is the maritime gateway for the Nelson, Tasman and Marlborough regions and a vital hub for economic activity. The following shipping companies call at Port Nelson:

In the mid-1994, a group of local businessmen, fronted by local politician Owen Jennings proposed building a deep-water port featuring a one-kilometre-long wharf extending from the Boulder Bank into Tasman Bay, where giant ships could berth and manoeuvre with ease. Known as Port Kakariki, the $97 million project was to become the hub to ship West Coast coal to Asia, as well as handling logs, which would be barged across Tasman Bay from Mapua. [51]

In January 2010 the Western Blue Highway, a Nelson to New Plymouth ferry service, was proposed by Port Taranaki. However, to date neither the Interislander or Bluebridge have shown any interest in the route. [52]

The Anchor Shipping and Foundry Company

The 'Anchor Shipping and Foundry Company' was formed 31 March 1901 from the earlier companies of Nathaniel Edwards & Co (1857–1880) and the Anchor Steam Shipping Company (1880–1901). The Anchor Company never departed from its original aim of providing services to the people of Nelson and the West Coast of the South Island and was never a large company; it only owned 37 ships during its history. At its peak around 1930 there were 16 vessels in the fleet. The company operated three nightly return trips per week ferry service between Nelson and Wellington and a daily freight service was maintained between the two ports in conjunction with the Pearl Kasper Shipping Company while another service carried general cargo on a Nelson-Onehunga route. In 1974, the Anchor Company was sold and merged into the Union Company. [53]

Public transport

The sign that welcomes visitors to Nelson Welcome to Nelson sign.JPG
The sign that welcomes visitors to Nelson

NBUS

NBus provides public transport services between Nelson and Richmond, as well as on four local routes around Nelson city. [54]

Route
numbers
central terminusviaOuter terminusNotes
1Nelson Bishopdale, Stoke Richmond Wheelchair symbol.svg Bike-icon.svg
2Nelson Tahunanui, Stoke Richmond Wheelchair symbol.svg Bike-icon.svg
3Nelson The Wood Atawhai
4Nelson Nelson Marlborough Institute of Technology The Brook
5Nelson Victory Square Nelson Hospital
6Nelson Washington Valley Tahunanui

The Late Late Bus is a weekend night transport service between Nelson and Richmond.

InterCity provides daily bus services connecting Nelson with towns and cities around the South Island.

Taxis and shuttle vans

Taxi companies in Nelson include the following: [55]

  • Nelson Bays Cabs
  • Nelson City Taxis

There are no conventional bus services to Nelson Airport: the airport is served by a fleet of shuttle vans provided by several operators including Nelson Bays Shuttles & Coaches and Super Shuttles. Airport shuttle vans typically travel non-stop to or from the airport and about the city and suburbs picking up or dropping passengers at each address.

Rail transport

Nelson is one of only three major urban areas in New Zealand without a rail connection – the others being Taupo and Queenstown. The Nelson Section was an isolated, 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge, government-owned railway line between Nelson and Glenhope. It operated for 79 years between 1876 and 1955.

In 1886, a route was proposed from Nelson to the junction of the Midland Railway Company at Buller via Richmond, Waimea West, Upper Moutere, Motueka, the Motueka Valley, Tadmor and Glenhope. [56]

The only sign of rail activity in Nelson today is a short heritage operation run by the Nelson Railway Society from Founders Heritage Park using their own line between Wakefield Quay Station and Grove Station. The society has proposed future extensions of their line, possibly into or near the city centre. There have been several proposals to connect Nelson to the South Island rail network, but none have come to fruition.

Road transport

The Nelson urban area is served by State Highway 6 NZ.svg State Highway 6, which runs in a north to southwest direction. The highway travels through the city and nearby town of Richmond, continuing southwest across the plains of the Wairoa and Motueka Rivers. Plans to construct a motorway linking North Nelson to Brightwater in the south have so far been successful. A number of studies have been undertaken since 2007 including the 2007 North Nelson to Brightwater Study, [57] the Southern Link Road Project [58] and the Arterial Traffic Study. [59] On 28 June 2013, the Nelson Mayor Aldo Miccio and Nelson MP Nick Smith jointly wrote to Transport Minister Gerry Brownlee seeking for the Southern Link to be given Road of National Significance (RoNS) status. [60]

Other significant road projects proposed over the years include a cross-city tunnel from Tahunanui Drive to Haven Road; or from Annesbrook (or Tahunanui) to Emano Street in Victory Square; or from Tahunanui to Washington Valley. [51]

Panoramas

A panorama of Nelson City from the Centre of New Zealand monument Nelsoncity.jpg
A panorama of Nelson City from the Centre of New Zealand monument
The Boulder Bank is an unusual natural formation in Nelson. Boulder Bank Pano.jpg
The Boulder Bank is an unusual natural formation in Nelson.

Culture and the arts

Suter Art Gallery, before its 2017 renovation Suter Art Gallery, Nelson 100.JPG
Suter Art Gallery, before its 2017 renovation

As the major regional centre, the city offers many lodgings, restaurants, and unique speciality shopping such as at the Jens Hansen Goldsmiths where "The One Ring" in The Lord of the Rings film trilogy was designed. [61]

The first rugby union match in New Zealand took place at the Botanic Reserve in Nelson on 14 May 1870, between the Nelson Suburbs FC and Nelson College, and an informative commemorative plaque was renovated at the western edge of the grassed area by Nelson City Council in 2006. [68]

Marae

Whakatū Marae, in the suburb of Atawhai, is the marae (meeting ground) of Ngāti Kōata, Ngāti Rārua, Ngāti Tama ki Te Tau Ihu, Ngāti Toa Rangatira and Te Atiawa o Te Waka-a-Māui. It includes the Kākāti wharenui (meeting house).

Events and festivals

Several major events take place:

Architecture

Rutherford Hotel Rutherford Hotel.jpg
Rutherford Hotel

The tallest building in Nelson is the Rutherford Hotel located on the west edge of Trafalgar Square. Unlike many towns and cities in New Zealand, Nelson has retained many Victorian buildings in its historic centre and the South Street area has been designated as having heritage value. [77]

Surviving historic buildings

Amber House, a weatherboard colonial characteristic of much of New Zealand's residential architecture Amber House, Nelson, New Zealand, 2005-11-16T01-33Z.jpg
Amber House, a weatherboard colonial characteristic of much of New Zealand's residential architecture

Museums

The Nelson region houses several museums.

Parks and zoo

Founders Heritage Park Founders Heritage Park main street.jpg
Founders Heritage Park

Nelson has a large number and variety of public parks and reserves maintained at public expense by Nelson City Council. [80] Major reserves include Grampians Reserve, close to the suburb of Braemar, and the botanical Reserve in the east of Nelson, close to The Wood.

Natureland Zoological Park is a small zoological facility close to Tahunanui Beach. The facility is popular with children, where they can closely approach wallabies, monkeys, meerkats, llamas and alpacas, Kune Kune pigs, otters, and peacocks. There are also turtles, tropical fish and a walk through aviary. [81] Although the zoo nearly closed in 2008, the Orana Wildlife Trust took over its running instead. [82] It looked like[ to whom? ] a bright future ahead for Natureland and its staff but since the repeated earthquakes in Christchurch in 2011 and the damage to Orana Park, Orana Wildlife Trust are uncertain of the future of Natureland. [83] Orana Wildlife trust have since pulled out of Natureland, which is now run independently.

Sport

Major sports teams

ClubSportFoundedLeagueVenue
Nelson Cricket Association Cricket 1858 Hawke Cup Saxton Oval

Nelson Giants
Basketball 1982 National Basketball League Trafalgar Centre

Nelson Suburbs FC
Football 1962 Mainland Premier League
Chatham Cup
Saxton Field

Tasman Makos
Rugby 2006 Mitre 10 Cup Trafalgar Park
Tasman Titans Rugby league 1995 Rugby League Cup

Tasman United
Football2015 ISPS Handa Premiership Trafalgar Park

Major venues

ImageVenue
Cricket oval panorama.jpg Saxton Oval
The Trafalgar Centre
Trafalgar Park.jpg Trafalgar Park
Theatre Royal, Nelson 106.JPG Theatre Royal

See also

Related Research Articles

d'Urville Island (New Zealand) island in New Zealand

d'Urville Island is an island in the Marlborough Sounds along the northern coast of the South Island of New Zealand. It was named after the French explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville. With an area of approximately 58 square miles (150 km2), it is the eighth-largest island of New Zealand, and has around 52 permanent residents. The local authority is the Marlborough District Council.

Canterbury, New Zealand Region of New Zealand in South Island

Canterbury is a region of New Zealand, located in the central-eastern South Island. The region covers an area of 44,508 square kilometres (17,185 sq mi), and is home to a population of 624,000.

Marlborough Region Place in New Zealand

The Marlborough Region, commonly known simply as Marlborough, is one of the regions of New Zealand, located in the northeast of the South Island. Marlborough is a unitary authority, both a region and a district, and its council is located at Blenheim. It has a population of 46,600.

Taranaki Region of New Zealand in North Island

Taranaki is a region in the west of New Zealand's North Island. It is named after its main geographical feature, the stratovolcano of Mount Taranaki.

Chatham Islands New Zealands most remote group of inhabited islands

The Chatham Islands are a New Zealand archipelago in the Pacific Ocean about 800 kilometres (500 mi) east of the South Island of New Zealand. The archipelago consists of about ten islands within an approximate 60-kilometre (37 mi) radius, the largest of which are Chatham Island and Pitt Island. Some of these islands, formerly cleared for farming, are now preserved as nature reserves to conserve some of the unique flora and fauna. As of 2013 the islands had a resident population of 600. The local economy depends largely on conservation, tourism, farming, and fishing.

Territorial authorities of New Zealand Councils for local administration in New Zealand

Territorial authorities are the second tier of local government in New Zealand, below regional councils. There are 67 territorial authorities: 13 city councils, 53 district councils and the Chatham Islands Council. District councils serve a combination of rural and urban communities, while city councils administer the larger urban areas. Five territorial authorities also perform the functions of a regional council and thus are unitary authorities. The Chatham Islands Council is a sui generis territorial authority that is similar to a unitary authority.

Tasman District Place in New Zealand

Tasman District is a local government district in the north of the South Island of New Zealand. It borders the Canterbury Region, West Coast Region, Marlborough Region and Nelson City. It is administered by the Tasman District Council, a unitary authority, which sits at Richmond, with community boards serving outlying communities in Motueka and Golden Bay / Mohua.

Ngāi Tahu Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

Ngāi Tahu, or Kāi Tahu, is the principal Māori iwi (tribe) of the southern region of New Zealand. Its takiwā is the largest in New Zealand, and extends from Blenheim, Mount Mahanga and Kahurangi Point in the north to Stewart Island in the south. The takiwā comprises 18 rūnanga corresponding to traditional settlements.

Motueka Town in Tasman District, New Zealand

The town of Motueka in the South Island of New Zealand lies close to the mouth of the Motueka River, on the western shore of Tasman Bay. It is, after Richmond, the second largest centre in the Tasman Region, with a population of 7125. The Motueka Ward had an estimated population of 10,900 at 30 June 2009.

Kawerau Minor urban area in Bay of Plenty, New Zealand

Kawerau is a town in the Bay of Plenty region of the North Island of New Zealand. It is situated 100 km south-east of Tauranga and 58 km east of Rotorua. It is the seat of the Kawerau District Council, and the only town in Kawerau District.

Ngāti Toa Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

Ngāti Toa, Ngāti Toarangatira or Ngāti Toa Rangatira, is a Māori iwi (tribe) in the lower North Island and upper South Island of New Zealand. Its rohe extends from Whanganui in the north, Palmerston North in the east, and Kaikoura and Hokitika in the south. Ngāti Toa remains a small iwi with a population of only about 4500. It has four marae: Takapūwāhia and Hongoeka in Porirua, and Whakatū and Wairau in the north of the South Island. Ngāti Toa's governing body has the name Te Rūnanga o Toa Rangatira.

Kawhia Harbour Place in King Country, New Zealand

Kawhia Harbour is one of three large natural inlets in the Tasman Sea coast of the Waikato region of New Zealand's North Island. It is located to the south of Raglan Harbour, Ruapuke and Aotea Harbour, 40 kilometres southwest of Hamilton. Kawhia is part of the Otorohanga District Council. It has a high-tide area of 68 km2 (26 sq mi) and a low-tide area of 18 km2 (6.9 sq mi).

Otaki, New Zealand Place

Otaki is a town in the Kapiti Coast District of the North Island of New Zealand, situated half way between the capital city Wellington, 70 km (43 mi) to the southwest, and Palmerston North, 70 km (43 mi) to the northeast. In the 2013 census the town's population was 5,778, a slight increase since the 2006 census.

Ngāti Pūkenga Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

Ngāti Pūkenga is a Māori iwi centred in Tauranga in the Bay of Plenty region of New Zealand. Its rohe extends to Mayor Island / Tuhua and Waihi in the north, to the Kaimai Range in the west, south of Te Puke and to Maketu in the east, and it has tribal holdings in Whangarei, Hauraki and Maketu.

Ngāti Kuia is a Māori iwi of the Northern South Island in New Zealand. They first settled in the Pelorus Sound, and later spread to the Marlborough Sounds, Nelson and Tasman districts to Taitapu on the West Coast, and as far south as the Nelson Lakes National Park. Ngāti Kuia tradition states that their founding tupuna Matua Hautere, a descendant of Kupe, came to Te Waipounamu in his waka Te Hoiere, guided by the kaitiaki Kaikaiawaro.

Rangitāne Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

Rangitāne is a Māori iwi (tribe). Their rohe (territory) is in the Manawatū, Horowhenua, Wairarapa and Marlborough areas of New Zealand.

Tahunanui is one of the suburbs of Nelson, New Zealand. It lies between Port Nelson and Nelson Airport and is the site of the main beach for Nelson with a shoreline on the Tasman Bay.

Ngāti Apa ki te Rā Tō is a Māori iwi (tribe) in the upper South Island of New Zealand. Its rohe include the areas around Golden Bay, Takaka, Tasman Bay, Motueka, Nelson and Saint Arnaud, including Taitapu and Kawatiri river catchments and Lakes Rotoiti, Rotoroa and the Tophouse.

Te Atiawa o Te Waka-a-Māui is a Māori iwi (tribe) in the upper South Island of New Zealand. Its rohe extends from Golden Bay and Marlborough Sounds at the top of the South Island to Cape Campbell, St Arnaud and Westport.

References

  1. "Subnational Population Estimates: At 30 June 2018 (provisional)". Statistics New Zealand. 23 October 2018. Retrieved 23 October 2018. For urban areas, "Subnational population estimates (UA, AU), by age and sex, at 30 June 1996, 2001, 2006-18 (2017 boundaries)". Statistics New Zealand. 23 October 2018. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  2. "Nelson Arts Festival" . Retrieved 22 April 2015.
  3. "World of Wearable Art" . Retrieved 22 April 2015.
  4. "NZ government Māori Language Commission" . Retrieved 25 August 2007.[ dead link ]
  5. "Papers Past – Colonist – 16 July 1867 – NELSON, COBDEN, AND WESTPORT RAILWAY". Paperspast.natlib.govt.nz.
  6. "Nelson - NZSL Online". nzsl.vuw.ac.nz. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
  7. Lowe, David J. (2008). "Polynesian settlement of New Zealand and the impacts of volcanism on early Maori society: an update" (PDF). University of Waikato. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  8. Somerville, Ross. "Frederick Tuckett". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  9. "German Settlement in Tasman Nelson New Zealand". Theprow.org.nz. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  10. "NZCMS". NZCMS . Archived from the original on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
  11. "Civic symbols". Nelson City Council. Archived from the original on 20 January 2011.
  12. "Nelson's Landmark Cathedral". Prow.
  13. "Nelson Anniversary Day". Theprow.org.nz. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  14. "A unique record of the Notable Trees of New Zealand". Register.notabletrees.org.nz.
  15. Jeff Newport: A Short History of the Nelson Province. Page 18.
  16. "News". Tasman District Council. Archived from the original on 23 May 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2007.
  17. Moorjani, Anita. "Tasman District Libraries". Taslib.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 12 March 2012.
  18. "Tasman District Council". Tdc.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 23 May 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2007.
  19. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 February 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  20. "Nelson – the early years". Nzine.co.nz. 3 December 1932. Archived from the original on 18 December 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  21. Paul C Denton, Mike R Johnston, Soils & Foundations Ltd, Nelson (12 May 2002). "Housing Development on a Large, Active Landslide: The Tahunanui Slump Story, Nelson, New Zealand". Geo-Logic Ltd. Archived from the original on 23 January 2016.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  22. "Where is Nelson?". Nelson City Council. 27 April 2011.
  23. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  24. "Mean Monthly Sunshine". NIWA.
  25. "Climate Data and Activities". NIWA Science. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  26. "The earliest version of this article first appeared in NZ Science Teacher71 21–23 1992" . Retrieved 27 August 2007.
  27. "Nelson City Council website: gravitational centre". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 27 August 2007.
  28. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  29. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 February 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  30. Amber, George. "Location Map of Amber House B&B in Nelson, New Zealand surrounded by Abel Tasman, Kahurangi and Nelson Lakes National Parks". New Zealand: Amber House.
  31. Nelson Regional Economic Development Agency (24 July 2014). "Nelson Regional Economic Development Strategy (REDS): Regional Prosperity" (PDF). Nelson Regional Economic Development Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 January 2015.
  32. "Port Nelson". Port Nelson. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
  33. 1 2 "Diversity puts region on sound footing". Stuff.co.nz. 2 July 2013.
  34. "Regional Gross Domestic Product". Statistics New Zealand. 2007. Archived from the original on 20 May 2010. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
  35. "Business". Tasman. Tasman District Council. 2011. Archived from the original on 11 March 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  36. "Nelson NZ". Nelson Tasman Tourism. NTT. 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  37. "Advertise with us". Nelson Tasman Tourism. NTT. 2011. Archived from the original on 21 August 2010. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  38. "Nelson Regional Economic Development Agency". Business: EDA. Tasman District Council. 2011. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  39. "home page". EDA. Nelson Regional Economic Development Agency. 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  40. "Fish Oils | Omega 3 | Shark Liver Oil". Seadragon.
  41. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  42. Basham, Laura (23 March 2013). "Nelson's future: a centre for calls?". Nelson Mail. Fairfax.
  43. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 February 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  44. Tracy Neal (12 October 2013). "Rachel Reese wins Nelson mayoralty – nelson-mail". Stuff.co.nz.
  45. "Development of tertiary education". Prow.
  46. "Tasman Police District | New Zealand Police". Police.govt.nz. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  47. "NEW ZEALAND CRIME STATISTICS 2012/2013" (PDF). Police.govt.nz. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  48. Sally Kidson (8 June 2013). "Gang's arrival in Nelson Part of Growing Trend". Stuff.co.nz.
  49. "Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle". Papers Past. National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga Aotearoa.
  50. DeRuyter, Martin (16 September 2018). "Nelson Airport profits grow as expansion nears first stage of completion". Nelson Mail. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  51. 1 2 "Pie in the (blue) sky ideas". The Nelson Mail. Stuff.co.nz. 31 July 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
  52. "Western Blue Highway Transport Study" (PDF). Nzta.govt.nz. January 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  53. "New Zealand Coastal Shipping – Anchor Shipping". Nzcoastalshipping.com.
  54. "Routes & Timetables". Nelson City Council.
  55. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 26 October 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  56. "The Motueka-Tadmoii Railway Route". Papers Past. 11 November 1886.
  57. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  58. "Southern Link Road, Nelson" (PDF). Tonkin.co.nz. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  59. "Arterial Traffic Study". Nelson City Council.
  60. Adam Roberts (28 June 2013). "Bid beefs up proposal for Victory road". Stuff.co.nz.
  61. "The Real Movie Ring". Jens Hansen Contemporary Gold and Silversmith. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  62. "Nelson Tasman Tourism – Visitor Information". Nelsonnz.com. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  63. "Nelson Market". Nelson Market. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  64. "Theatre Royal". Register of Historic Places. Heritage New Zealand . Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  65. "The Suter Gallery" . Retrieved 25 August 2007.
  66. "Nelson Arts Festival". Archived from the original on 8 August 2007. Retrieved 25 August 2007.
  67. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 April 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  68. "New Zealand's First Game of Rugby". theprow.org. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  69. "Nelson Jazz Fest". Nelson Jazz Fest. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  70. "22nd Annual Nelson Kite Festival – It's On". Itson.co.nz. 20 January 2013. Archived from the original on 3 January 2013.
  71. "Home". Nelson Regatta. 23 January 2013.
  72. "Adam Chamber Music Festival 2013, chamber music Nelson, New Zealand". Music.org.nz. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  73. "Evolve Festival of Opportunities | Evolve Festival is a celebration for health and wellbeing in the heart of Nelson City". Evolvefestival.co.nz. 24 February 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  74. "Nelson's Craft Beer & Musical Festival". Marchfest.com. 19 March 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  75. "McCashin's Taste Nelson". tastenelson. 2 March 2013. Archived from the original on 2 March 2001. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  76. "Home". Nelson Winter Festival. 22 July 2012. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  77. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 February 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  78. "Fairfield House". Register of Historic Places. Heritage New Zealand . Retrieved 21 June 2012.
  79. "Our History". Nelson Centre of Musical Arts. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  80. "Reserves and Parks". Nelson City Council.
  81. "Natureland Zoo, Nelson, New Zealand". Natureland.co.nz.
  82. "They bought a zoo - Natureland". Stuff. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  83. Tracy Neal (30 June 2011). "Future of Natureland again in doubt". Stuff.co.nz.

Bibliography