Blenheim, New Zealand

Last updated

Blenheim

Waiharakeke  (Māori)
ISS Blenheim, New Zealand.jpg
Blenheim pictured from the International Space Station (ISS)
New Zealand location map.svg
Disc Plain red.svg
Blenheim
Coordinates: 41°30′50″S173°57′36″E / 41.514°S 173.960°E / -41.514; 173.960 Coordinates: 41°30′50″S173°57′36″E / 41.514°S 173.960°E / -41.514; 173.960
Country Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Region Marlborough
Territorial authority Marlborough District
Named for Battle of Blenheim
Member of Parliament Stuart Smith, Kaikoura Electorate
Suburbs
Government
   Mayor John Leggett
Area
  Total103.89 km2 (40.11 sq mi)
Population
 (June 2018) [1]
  Total31,600
  Density300/km2 (790/sq mi)
Postcode
7201
Area code(s) 03

Blenheim ( /ˈblɛnɪm/ BLEN-im; Māori : Waiharakeke) is the most populous town in the region of Marlborough, in the north east of the South Island of New Zealand. It has an urban population of 31,600(June 2018). [1] The surrounding Marlborough wine region is well known as the centre of the New Zealand wine industry. It enjoys one of New Zealand's sunniest climates, with warm, relatively dry summers and cool, crisp winters.

Contents

Blenheim is named after the Battle of Blenheim (1704), where troops led by John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough defeated a combined French and Bavarian force.

The New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage gives a translation of "flax stream" for Waiharakeke. [2]

History

"Kia Ora Welcome to Blenheim" Wikipedia-blenheim.jpg
"Kia Ora Welcome to Blenheim"

The sheltered coastal bays of Marlborough supported a small Māori population possibly as early as the 12th century. Archaeological evidence dates Polynesian human remains uncovered at Wairau Bar to the 13th century. The rich sea and bird life of the area would easily have supported such small communities. As the Māori population of the area increased, they developed the land to sustain the growing population. In the early 1700s canals and waterways were dug among the natural river courses, allowing for the first forms of farming in the area including that of fish and native water fowl. A total of approximately 18 km of channels are known to have been excavated before the arrival of European settlers. Māori in the Marlborough Region also cultivated crops, including kumara (sweet potato).

The area is also home to the first serious clash of arms between Māori and the British settlers after the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. The Wairau Affray which occurred in what is now the village of Tuamarina.

The settlement was originally known to Europeans as The Beaver or Beaverton [3] due to its frequent flooding [4] .

Although the early history of Marlborough was closely associated with the Nelson settlement, the people of Marlborough desired independence from Nelson. In 1859, nineteen years after the original Nelson settlement, the request of Marlborough settlers was granted, and Marlborough became a separate province. Although gold was discovered in the province in the early 1860s the resulting boom did not last, and while the gold rush helped to expand the region, it was the development of pastoralism which provided the greatest long-term benefits. Marlborough squatters developed huge sheep runs that dominated the countryside, rivalling Canterbury's sheep stations in size and wealth.

Geography

View from above looking north from Blenheim Blenheim New Zeland.jpg
View from above looking north from Blenheim
The Taylor River in central Blenheim Blenheim, NZ.jpg
The Taylor River in central Blenheim

Situated on the Wairau Plain, the town is mostly flat with only its southern most fringe rising to the base of the Wither Hills. As the plain is surrounded by mountains on all but the eastern flank, which is open to Cook Strait, it is relatively well protected from the frequent southerly weather fronts occurring during winters. The area does however experience some high wind events during the course of the year, especially from the west where the wind is funneled down the Wairau Valley directly at the town. Open and exposed areas in and around Blenheim are also hit quite hard by winds blowing inland from Cook Strait. Blenheim sits at the confluence of the Taylor and Ōpaoa rivers. It is in a tectonically active zone and experiences several (usually small) earthquakes each year. The boundary between the Pacific plate (on which Blenheim sits) and the Indo-Australian plate passes just north of Blenheim.

Climate

The climate is generally very settled, largely due to the rainshadow effect of the mountain ranges to the west which shelter Blenheim from the heaviest of rains that hit the western part of the South Island.

Summers are typically warm and dry while winters are normally cool and frosty with clear sunny days that follow. Snowfall is rare as it is sheltered from cold southerly weather by the mountain ranges to the south.

Thunderstorms are an uncommon occurrence due to the sheltered climate. There is a higher likelihood in summer, when afternoon heating can generate a buildup of clouds above the ranges.

The highest recorded temperature is 37.8C, Recorded on 7 February 1973. [5] The lowest is −8.8C.

Climate data for Blenheim (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)24.1
(75.4)
23.8
(74.8)
21.9
(71.4)
19.0
(66.2)
16.0
(60.8)
13.3
(55.9)
12.6
(54.7)
13.8
(56.8)
15.8
(60.4)
18.0
(64.4)
20.0
(68.0)
22.2
(72.0)
18.4
(65.1)
Daily mean °C (°F)18.0
(64.4)
17.6
(63.7)
15.8
(60.4)
13.0
(55.4)
10.2
(50.4)
7.7
(45.9)
7.0
(44.6)
8.2
(46.8)
10.3
(50.5)
12.2
(54.0)
14.2
(57.6)
16.5
(61.7)
12.6
(54.7)
Average low °C (°F)11.8
(53.2)
11.5
(52.7)
9.8
(49.6)
6.9
(44.4)
4.5
(40.1)
2.2
(36.0)
1.5
(34.7)
2.6
(36.7)
4.7
(40.5)
6.5
(43.7)
8.4
(47.1)
10.8
(51.4)
6.8
(44.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)48.9
(1.93)
49.4
(1.94)
46.5
(1.83)
52.7
(2.07)
60.6
(2.39)
70.7
(2.78)
74.3
(2.93)
62.2
(2.45)
65.2
(2.57)
67.4
(2.65)
55.0
(2.17)
58.1
(2.29)
711.0
(27.99)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)5.05.15.55.36.77.97.68.08.58.36.96.781.5
Average relative humidity (%)68.774.274.977.581.582.383.780.873.372.167.767.575.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 262.2223.7230.8193.7172.7151.6157.1183.9189.5226.7234.7248.82,475.3
Source: NIWA Climate Data [6]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1996 26,100    
2001 27,300+0.90%
2006 29,100+1.29%
2013 30,100+0.48%
Source: [1]

At the 2006 census, Blenheim had a population of 28,700, a change of 7.0% since the 2001 census. The June 2018 estimate puts Blenheim's population at 31,600. [1] Following the 2013 census, Blenheim became the country's 17th main urban area, after Statistics New Zealand promoted the town from a secondary urban area.

Age

Education

Ethnic background

Most residents are of European origin, predominantly of British, Irish, German and Dutch descent. Small Māori, Pacific Island and Asian communities exist. Ethnic diversity has increased in recent years[ when? ] with the arrival of large numbers of South Americans (mostly Brazilians) and Asians (mainly Indonesian, Japanese, Korean and Filipino), who work in the expanding viticulture sector.

The 2006 New Zealand census found that of people in the Blenheim Urban Area who completed the census forms:

Suburbs

The Taylor River Geyser Taylor River Geyser, Blenheim.jpg
The Taylor River Geyser
CBD of Blenheim in 2012 Downtown Blenheim.JPG
CBD of Blenheim in 2012

Economy

The region's economy is rurally based with pastoral and horticultural farming providing a major source of income. The modern inhabitants, as their forebearers, continue to utilise the marine resources available. Lake Grassmere is the country's only salt works, producing 50% of its total salt requirement. Fishing and mussel farming are also extremely important in the region. Olive growing has also become popular in recent years.

Wine

Viticulture also has a very large impact on the local economy both directly, by way of employment and servicing required, and also by way of 'wine tourism'. The local cellars attracted hundreds of thousands of domestic and international tourists every year. The area also hosts the annual Marlborough Wine & Food Festival. The Marlborough wine region is now New Zealand's largest, and receives worldwide recognition for its Sauvignon Blanc wines.

With its growing international critical recognition, much of the Marlborough wine industry has come to be dominated by large firms, owned by major New Zealand companies or offshore investors. There are over 50 vineyards near Blenheim. Agricultural land prices in the Wairau Valley increased dramatically in the 1990s and 2000s.

Lifestyle

The sunny, pleasant climate has long attracted people to the region, as holiday-makers or as permanent settlers. The region is especially popular among retired people, as well as people seeking an alternative lifestyle. Rapid population growth and other factors though have led to a contemporary chronic shortage of affordable housing for low and middle income earners.

The Marlborough Region has a wide range of predominantly outdoor leisure activities and the relaxed lifestyle and the flourishing wine and gourmet food industry in Marlborough are enjoyed by both locals and visitors alike.

Events and points of interest

Seymour Square, the main square of Blenheim Blenheim2.JPG
Seymour Square, the main square of Blenheim
Seymour Sq, Blenheim in early spring 2012 Seymour sq, Blenheim.JPG
Seymour Sq, Blenheim in early spring 2012

Omaka Aerodrome, south of the town centre, is the setting for the two-yearly Classic Fighters Marlborough airshow. With a large emphasis on aircraft of World War One, it has been held since 2001.

Seymour Square and Pollard Park are two of the town centres main attractions for walks and general tourism. Seymour Square is an open public area in the centre, containing the War Memorial and Clock Tower, unveiled in 1928, classified as a "Category I" ("places of 'special or outstanding historical or cultural heritage significance or value'") historic place by Heritage New Zealand. [7] The Square was named after Henry Seymour. [8] Pollard Park is a large public park including children's play areas, native shrubbery, rose gardens, a landscaped waterway, and is home to the Blenheim Golf Club and its 9-hole course, the Marlborough Tennis club and its courts, and Blenheim Croquet Club. They are dry and arid ranges which have previously been the site of severe grass fires.

The GCSB Waihopai communications monitoring facility, part of the ECHELON network, is near Blenheim.

Transportation

Air

Woodbourne Airport is a domestic airport and an RNZAF operational base. There are direct flights from Auckland and Wellington with Air New Zealand and from Wellington, Napier, Christchurch, and Paraparaumu with Sounds Air. [9]

Omaka Aerodrome, to the south of the town centre, is used solely by private and vintage aircraft. The Classic Fighters airshow (based mainly on World War I and II aircraft) is held biennially at Easter.

Road

State Highway 1 runs through Blenheim and State Highway 6 terminates at the junction of the two state highways. Blenheim is notable for a town of its size in that it does not have traffic lights at any intersection. [10] Instead, roundabouts speed arterial traffic flow. Since the installation of roundabouts traffic volumes have quickly increased and upgrading options are being considered, e.g. traffic lights, longer two-lane approaches and even a bypass. [11]

Rail

Blenheim is on the Main North Line, the northern part of the unofficially-named South Island Main Trunk Railway. The Coastal Pacific, the daily summer-only long-distance passenger train between Picton and Christchurch, stops at Blenheim Railway Station. The 1906 station has been listed NZHPT Category II since 1982. [12] It is a standard Vintage station, with Tudor half-timbering and tile. [13]

A major rail freight facility is north of Blenheim at Spring Creek.

The narrow-gauge Blenheim Riverside Railway runs through the town.

Media

Print

Blenheim is served by a variety of print publications. The major daily newspaper serving the area is The Marlborough Express published by Fairfax NZ, with its headquarters in Blenheim. The Saturday Express and Midweek are community newspapers published by the same company and distributed throughout Marlborough. The Blenheim Sun is a twice-weekly free newspaper distributed each Wednesday and Friday.

Radio

This is a list of FM radio stations in Blenheim. The town can also receive most AM and FM radio stations from Wellington, across Cook Strait; these are not included.

FM FrequencyNickname Callsign Format
87.6Sunshine RadioEasy Listening
88.0World FMInternational/News
88.9 Fresh FM Nelson Alternative Community Radio
89.7 The Breeze Easy Listening (formerly known as Easy FM)
90.5 ZM Top 40
91.3 The Rock Modern Rock
92.1 Newstalk ZB News/Talk
92.9 MORE FM Marlborough Adult Contemporary (formerly known as Sounds FM)
93.7 Life FM Christian/Alternative
94.5 Radio Hauraki Modern/Alternative Rock
95.3 Radio Live News/Talk
96.1 The Sound Classic Rock
96.9 The Hits Marlborough 2ZZE-FMThe Hits (formerly known as Radio Marlborough)
98.5 Radio Sport Sports/Talk
99.3 Radio New Zealand Concert Classical
100.9Brian FMVariety Hits
101.7 Radio New Zealand National Public Radio
104.1 Rhema Christian Music & Talk
104.9 The Edge FM Top 40
105.7 Magic 50s, 60s, 70s
106.5Reelworld RadioPop Music
106.7Whisper FMNostalgia

Education

The first school opened in 1859. By 1875 there were three classes: Blenheim Upper Boys', Blenheim Lower Boys', and Blenheim Girls' and Infants'. Blenheim High School was formed within the school in 1879. [14]

Catholic schools for boys and girls were established in 1872, replaced by St Mary's Boys' school in 1886. In 1929 St Mary's was rebuilt after a fire. [15]

Marlborough High School, a coeducational secondary school, was founded in Blenheim in 1900. In 1919 it changed its name to Marlborough College. The intermediate section was split to form Bohally Intermediate in 1956. The college was split into separate boys' and girls' schools in 1963, with Marlborough Boys' College retaining the existing site and Marlborough Girls' College moving to a new site. [16]

There are currently 11 schools in the Blenheim urban area: [17]

Other primary schools are in the surrounding localities of Renwick, Fairhall, Grovetown, Rapaura and Riverlands.

The Nelson Marlborough Institute of Technology has a campus in Blenheim. [18]

Infrastructure and services

Electricity

The Marlborough Electric Power Board (MEPB) was formed in October 1923 and established the Blenheim's first public supply in April 1927, following the commissioning of the Waihopai hydroelectric power station 40 km southwest of Blenheim. Two diesel generators were commissioned at Springlands in 1930 and 1937 to supplement the supply from Waihopai. The town was connected to Cobb Power Station in 1948, which in turn was connected to the rest of the South Island grid in 1956. The diesel generators were relegated to standby duty, last generated power on 22 July 1992, and were decommissioned in 2003. The Energy Companies Act 1992 saw the MEPB corporatised and renamed Marlborough Electric. The 1998 electricity sector reforms required electricity companies to separate their lines and supply businesses. Marlborough Electric sold its generation and retailing business to Trustpower, with the remaining lines business renamed Marlborough Lines. [19]

Today, Marlborough Lines owns and operates the electricity distribution network servicing the city, with electricity fed from Transpower's national grid at its Blenheim substation in Springlands.

Notable people

Related Research Articles

Canterbury, New Zealand Region of New Zealand in South Island

Canterbury is a region of New Zealand, located in the central-eastern South Island. The region covers an area of 44,508 square kilometres (17,185 sq mi), and is home to a population of 617,700.

Marlborough Region Place in New Zealand

The Marlborough Region, commonly known simply as Marlborough, is one of the regions of New Zealand, located in the northeast of the South Island. Marlborough is a unitary authority, both a region and a district. Marlborough District Council is based at Blenheim, the largest town. The region has a population of 48,800.

Te Kuiti Minor urban area in Waikato, New Zealand

Te Kuiti is a town in the north of the King Country region of the North Island of New Zealand. It lies at the junction of State Highways 3 and 30 and on the North Island Main Trunk railway, 80 kilometres (50 mi) south of Hamilton. At the 2001 census it had a resident population of 4,374, a decrease of 5.1% since 1991. The town promotes itself as the sheep shearing capital of the world and is host to the annual New Zealand National Shearing Championships.

Picton, New Zealand Place in Marlborough, New Zealand

Picton is a town in the Marlborough Region of New Zealand's South Island. The town is located near the head of the Queen Charlotte Sound, 25 km (16 mi) north of Blenheim and 65 km (40 mi) west of Wellington. Waikawa lies just north-east of Picton.

Waihopai Valley

Waihopai Valley is an area near Blenheim in the Marlborough region of the South Island of New Zealand. The Waihopai River drains the area.

Renwick, New Zealand Place in Marlborough, New Zealand

Renwick is a small town in Marlborough, New Zealand, close to the south bank of the Wairau River. It is located on State Highway 6, 12 kilometres (7 mi) west of Blenheim. Havelock is 31 km (19 mi) north. State Highway 63 runs southwest from Renwick through the Wairau River valley.

Seddon, New Zealand town in Marlborough, New Zealand

Seddon is a small town in Marlborough, New Zealand. It is located 25 kilometres (16 mi) south of Blenheim, close to the mouths of the Awatere and Blind Rivers and the Lake Grassmere salt works. At the 2013 Census, the town had a population of 507 people.

Ward, New Zealand Place in Marlborough, New Zealand

Ward is a small town in Marlborough, New Zealand, with a population of about 900 residents. It is located on State Highway 1, 82 kilometres (51 mi) north of Kaikoura. The Flaxbourne River flows past to the north and into the Pacific Ocean to the south-east of Ward. A current initiative aims to have the town renamed as Flaxbourne.

Wairau River river in New Zealand

The Wairau River is one of the longest rivers in New Zealand's South Island. It flows for 170 kilometres (110 mi) from the Spenser Mountains, firstly in a northwards direction and then northeast down a long, straight valley in inland Marlborough.

Te Koko-o-Kupe / Cloudy Bay bay

Te Koko-o-Kupe / Cloudy Bay or simply Cloudy Bay is located at the northeast of New Zealand's South Island, to the south of the Marlborough Sounds and north of Clifford Bay. In August 2014, the name Cloudy Bay, given by Captain Cook in 1770, was officially altered to Te Koko-o-Kupe / Cloudy Bay, with the Māori name recalling the early explorer Kupe scooping up oysters from the bay.

Woodbourne Airport airport in New Zealand

Woodbourne Airport trading as Marlborough Airport is a small, controlled airport located 3 nautical miles (8 km) west of Blenheim in the Marlborough region of New Zealand, on State Highway Six, Middle Renwick Road. It is co-located with RNZAF Base Woodbourne in the Wairau Valley on the north-eastern corner of the South Island of New Zealand. The airport has a single terminal and 7 tarmac gates.

Rangitāne Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

Rangitāne is a Māori iwi (tribe). Their rohe (territory) is in the Manawatū, Horowhenua, Wairarapa and Marlborough areas of New Zealand.

Wairau Valley Place in Marlborough, New Zealand

Wairau Valley is the valley of the Wairau River in Marlborough, New Zealand and also the name of the main settlement in the upper valley. State Highway 63 runs through the valley. The valley opens onto the Wairau Plain, where Renwick and Blenheim are sited. The Alpine–Wairau Fault runs along the length of the valley.

Tuamarina Place in Marlborough, New Zealand

Tuamarina is a small town in Marlborough, New Zealand. State Highway 1 runs through the area. The Tuamarina River joins the Wairau River just south of the settlement. Picton is about 18 km to the north, and Blenheim is about 10 km to the south.

Spring Creek, New Zealand Place in Marlborough, New Zealand

Spring Creek is a small town in Marlborough, New Zealand. State Highway 1 runs past the settlement to the west, and the Wairau River flows past to the east. Picton is 22 km to the north, and Blenheim is 6 km to the south.

Grovetown, New Zealand Place in Marlborough, New Zealand

Grovetown is a small town in Marlborough, New Zealand. State Highway 1 runs past the settlement to the west, and the Wairau River flows past to the northeast. Spring Creek is about 2.5 km to the north, and Blenheim is about 3.5 km to the south. To the east is Grovetown Lagoon, an oxbow loop of the Wairau River.

Springlands is a suburb to the west of Blenheim's central district. It is located on and around SH 6, the main road to Renwick. It has a tavern, video shop, various takeaways, and a superstore.

Marlborough Girls' College is a state single-sex secondary school in Blenheim, New Zealand. The school was established in 1963 after splitting from Marlborough College. Serving Years 9 to 13, the college has 961 students as of March 2019.

Marlborough Lines Limited is an electricity distribution company, based in Blenheim, New Zealand.

References

Bibliography
Notes
  1. 1 2 3 4 "Subnational Population Estimates: At 30 June 2018 (provisional)". Statistics New Zealand. 23 October 2018. Retrieved 23 October 2018. For urban areas, "Subnational population estimates (UA, AU), by age and sex, at 30 June 1996, 2001, 2006-18 (2017 boundaries)". Statistics New Zealand. 23 October 2018. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  2. "1000 Māori place names". New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 6 August 2019.
  3. "Blenheim - NZHistory, New Zealand history online". web.archive.org. 12 February 2018.
  4. "Watery Marlborough settlement was never 'Beavertown'". Stuff.
  5. "Welcome to the Climate Database". cliflo.niwa.co.nz.
  6. "Climate Data and Activities". NIWA. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  7. "War Memorial and Clock Tower". Register of Historic Places. Heritage New Zealand . Retrieved 21 December 2009.
  8. McLintock, Alexander Hare; Brian Newton Davis, M. A.; Taonga, New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu. "BLENHEIM". An encyclopaedia of New Zealand, edited by A. H. McLintock, 1966.
  9. "Sounds Air – Routes" . Retrieved 26 September 2016.
  10. Maria Slade (20 January 2016). "New Zealand's biggest town without traffic lights: Blenheim". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  11. Selina Powell (25 May 2016). "New Zealand Transport Agency investigates State Highway 1 between Picton and Christchurch". Stuff.co.nz.
  12. "Search the List - Blenheim Railway Station - Heritage New Zealand". www.heritage.org.nz.
  13. "Rail Heritage Trust of New Zealand - Blenheim Station". www.railheritage.org.nz.
  14. A. D. McIntosh, ed. (1940). Marlborough – A Provincial History. pp. 338–349.
  15. A. D. McIntosh, pp 328–329
  16. "Marlborough Boys' College – History".
  17. "Directory of Schools - as at 3 April 2019". New Zealand Ministry of Education. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  18. "Marlborough Campus". Nelson Marlborough Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 3 May 2008.
  19. "The History of Marlborough Lines". www.marlboroughlines.co.nz.