Poet

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Victor Hugo was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist. Hugo is renowned for works such as Les Contemplations (The Contemplations) and La Legende des siecles (The Legend of the Ages). Victor Hugo by Etienne Carjat 1876 - full.jpg
Victor Hugo was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist. Hugo is renowned for works such as Les Contemplations (The Contemplations) and La Légende des siècles (The Legend of the Ages).
Poet
Occupation
Names Poet, Troubador, Bard
Occupation type
Vocation
Activity sectors
Literary
Description
Competencies Writing
Related jobs
Novelist, writer, lyricist

A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer of poetry, or may perform their art to an audience.

Contents

Postmortal fictional portrait of Slovak poet Janko Kral (1822-1876) - an idealized romanticized picture of "how a real poet should look" in Western culture. Janko Kral.jpg
Postmortal fictional portrait of Slovak poet Janko Kráľ (1822–1876) – an idealized romanticized picture of "how a real poet should look" in Western culture.

The work of a poet is essentially one of communication, either expressing ideas in a literal sense, such as writing about a specific event or place, or metaphorically. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, and have produced works that vary greatly in different cultures and periods. [1] Throughout each civilization and language, poets have used various styles that have changed through the course of literary history, resulting in a history of poets as diverse as the literature they have produced.

Many ancient poets may not have achieved fame in their lifetime, but there are exceptions; Johan Ludvig Runeberg (1804-1877), who later also rose to the position of a "national poet of Finland", was a well-respected person when lived in his home country. Johan Ludvig Runeberg, oil painting by J.E. Lindh 1832, Society of Swedish Literature in Finland, Runebergbibliotekets bildsamling, slsa1160 335.jpg
Many ancient poets may not have achieved fame in their lifetime, but there are exceptions; Johan Ludvig Runeberg (1804–1877), who later also rose to the position of a "national poet of Finland", was a well-respected person when lived in his home country.
The Italian Giacomo Leopardi was mentioned by the University of Birmingham as "one of the most radical and challenging of nineteenth-century thinkers". Leopardi, Giacomo (1798-1837) - ritr. A Ferrazzi, Recanati, casa Leopardi.jpg
The Italian Giacomo Leopardi was mentioned by the University of Birmingham as "one of the most radical and challenging of nineteenth-century thinkers".

History

In Ancient Rome, professional poets were generally sponsored by patrons, wealthy supporters including nobility and military officials. [3] For instance, Gaius Cilnius Maecenas, friend to Caesar Augustus, was an important patron for the Augustan poets, including both Horace and Virgil. While Ovid , a well established poet, was banished from Rome by the first Augustus.

Poets held an important position in pre-Islamic Arabic society with the poet or sha'ir filling the role of historian, soothsayer and propagandist. Words in praise of the tribe (qit'ah) and lampoons denigrating other tribes (hija') seem to have been some of the most popular forms of early poetry. The sha'ir represented an individual tribe's prestige and importance in the Arabian peninsula, and mock battles in poetry or zajal would stand in lieu of real wars. 'Ukaz, a market town not far from Mecca, would play host to a regular poetry festival where the craft of the sha'irs would be exhibited.

In the High Middle Ages, troubadors were an important class of poets and came from a variety of backgrounds. They lived and travelled in many different places and were looked upon as actors or musicians as much as poets. They were often under patronage, but many travelled extensively.

The Renaissance period saw a continuation of patronage of poets by royalty. Many poets, however, had other sources of income, including Italians like Dante Aligheri, Giovanni Boccaccio and Petrarch's works in a pharmacist's guild and William Shakespeare's work in the theater.

In the Romantic period and onwards, many poets were independent writers who made their living through their work, often supplemented by income from other occupations or from family. [4] This included poets such as William Wordsworth and Robert Burns.

Poets such as Virgil in the Aeneid and John Milton in Paradise Lost invoked the aid of a Muse.

Education

Poets of earlier times were often well read and highly educated people while others were to a large extent self-educated. A few poets such as John Gower and John Milton were able to write poetry in more than one language. Some Portuguese poets, as Francisco de Sá de Miranda, wrote not only in Portuguese but also in Spanish. [5] Jan Kochanowski wrote in Polish and in Latin, [6] France Prešeren and Karel Hynek Mácha [7] wrote some poems in German, although they were poets of Slovenian and Czech respectively. Adam Mickiewicz, the greatest poet of Polish language, wrote a Latin ode for emperor Napoleon III. Another example is Jerzy Pietrkiewicz, a Polish poet. When he moved to Great Britain, he ceased to write poetry in Polish, but started writing novel in English. [8] He also translated poetry from English and into English.

Many universities offer degrees in creative writing though these only came into existence in the 20th century. While these courses are not necessary for a career as a poet, they can be helpful as training, and for giving the student several years of time focused on their writing. [9]

Poets of sacred verse

Lyrical poets who write sacred poetry ("hymnographers") differ from the usual image of poets in a number of ways. A hymnographer such as Isaac Watts who wrote 700 poems in his lifetime, may have their lyrics sung by millions of people every Sunday morning, but are not always included in anthologies of poetry. Because hymns are perceived of as "worship" rather than "poetry," the term "artistic kenosis" is sometimes used to describe the hymnographer's success in "emptying out" the instinct to succeed as a poet. A singer in the pew might have several of Watts's stanzas memorized, without ever knowing his name or thinking of him as a poet.

See also

Related Research Articles

Horace Roman lyric poet

Quintus Horatius Flaccus, known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. The rhetorician Quintilian regarded his Odes as just about the only Latin lyrics worth reading: "He can be lofty sometimes, yet he is also full of charm and grace, versatile in his figures, and felicitously daring in his choice of words."

John Milton 17th-century English poet and civil servant

John Milton was an English poet and intellectual who served as a civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell. He wrote at a time of religious and political instability, and is best known for his epic poem Paradise Lost (1667). Written in blank verse, Paradise Lost is widely considered to be one of the greatest works of literature ever written.

Karel Hynek Mácha

Karel Hynek Mácha was a Czech romantic poet.

Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings written in the Latin language. The beginning of Latin literature dates to 240 BC, when the first stage play was performed in Rome. Latin literature would flourish for the next six centuries. The classical era of Latin literature can be roughly divided into the following periods: Early Latin literature, The Golden Age, The Imperial Period and Late Antiquity.

Gaius Maecenas

Gāius Cilnius Maecēnās was a friend and political advisor to Octavian, who later reigned as Augustus. He was also an important patron for the new generation of Augustan poets, including both Horace and Virgil. During the reign of Augustus, Maecenas served as a quasi-culture minister to the Emperor but in spite of his wealth and power he chose not to enter the Senate, remaining of equestrian rank.

Sonnet Poetic form, traditionally fourteen specifically-rhymed lines

A sonnet is a poetic form which originated in the Italian poetry composed at the Court of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in Palermo, Sicily. The 13th-century poet and notary Giacomo da Lentini is credited with the sonnet's invention for expressing courtly love. The Sicilian School of poets who surrounded him at the Emperor's Court are credited with its spread. The earliest sonnets, however, no longer survive in the original Sicilian language, but only after being translated into Tuscan dialect.

Virgil 1st-century BC Roman poet

Publius Vergilius Maro, usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He wrote three of the most famous poems in Latin literature: the Eclogues, the Georgics, and the epic Aeneid. A number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, are sometimes attributed to him as well.

Ovid Roman poet

Pūblius Ovidius Nāsō, known in English as Ovid, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus. He was a contemporary of the older Virgil and Horace, with whom he is often ranked as one of the three canonical poets of Latin literature. The Imperial scholar Quintilian considered him the last of the Latin love elegists. Although Ovid enjoyed enormous popularity during his lifetime, the emperor Augustus banished him to a remote province on the Black Sea, where he remained until his death. Ovid himself attributes his exile to carmen et error, "a poem and a mistake", but his discretion in discussing the causes has resulted in much speculation among scholars.

Czech literature The written works of the Czech Republic

Czech literature can refer to literature written in the Czech language, in the Czech Republic, or by Czech people.

English poetry

This article focuses on poetry from the United Kingdom written in the English language. The article does not cover poetry from other countries where the English language is spoken, including Southern Ireland after December 1922.

Jan Kochanowski

Jan Kochanowski was a Polish Renaissance poet who established poetic patterns that would become integral to the Polish literary language. He is commonly regarded as the greatest Polish poet before Adam Mickiewicz.

Arabic poetry Form of poetry

Arabic poetry is the earliest form of Arabic literature. Present knowledge of poetry in Arabic dates from the 6th century, but oral poetry is believed to predate that.

<i>Máj</i>

Máj is a romantic poem by Karel Hynek Mácha in four cantos. It was fiercely criticized when first published, but since then has gained the status of one of the most prominent works of Czech literature; in the Czech Republic, the poem is usually on must-read list for students and is said to be one of the most often published original Czech books with over 250 editions.

Christian poetry

Christian poetry is any poetry that contains Christian teachings, themes, or references. The influence of Christianity on poetry has been great in any area that Christianity has taken hold. Christian poems often directly reference the Bible, while others provide allegory.

Antanas Baranauskas

Antanas Baranauskas was a Lithuanian poet, mathematician and Catholic bishop of Sejny. Baranauskas is best known as the author of the Lithuanian poem Anykščių šilelis. He used various pseudonyms, including A.B., Bangputys, Jurksztas Smalaūsis, Jurkštas Smalaūsis, and Baronas. He also wrote poetry in Polish.

Konstantin Biebl

Konstantin Biebl was a Czech poet and writer. His first collection of poems was released in 1923, and his last in 1951, the year of his death by suicide. During that time he also travelled widely as a reporter. Biebl was a member of the Communist Party Czechoslovakia, and was closely associated with other Czech Communist writers and poets including Jiří Wolker and Vítězslav Nezval.

Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature.

The Diary was written in 1835 by Karel Hynek Mácha, the best-known Czech romantic poet. After deciphering of the parts recorded in code, there was a discussion of the decision to publish the author's private affairs.

<i>Máj</i> (literary almanac)

Máj was a Czech literary almanac published by a group of authors centred around Jan Neruda and Vítězslav Hálek.

Czech alexandrine is a verse form found in Czech poetry of the 20th century. It is a metre based on French alexandrine. The most important features of the pattern are number of syllables and a caesura after the sixth syllable. It is an unusual metre, exhibiting characteristics of both syllabic and syllabotonic (accentual-syllabic) metre. Thus it occupies a transitional position between syllabic and accentual patterns of European versification. It stands out from the background of modern Czech versification, which is modeled chiefly after German practice.

References

  1. Orban, Clara Elizabeth (1997). The Culture of Fragments: Word and Images in Futurism and Surrealism. Rodopi. p. 3. ISBN   90-420-0111-9.
  2. The Zibaldone project, University of Birmingham
  3. Barbara K. Gold, (2014) Literary and Artistic Patronage in Ancient Rome", University of Texas Press
  4. Peter T. Murphy (2005) "Poetry as an Occupation and an Art in Britain" Cambridge University Press
  5. Encyclopaedia Britanncia.
  6. Jan Kochanowski at Catholic Encyclopaedia.
  7. Karel Hynek Mácha: A leading poet of Czech Romanticism.
  8. Independent.
  9. Nikki Moustaki (2001), The Complete Idiot's Guide to Writing Poetry, Penguin.

Further reading