1972 New Zealand general election

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Flag of New Zealand.svg
  1969 25 November 1972 (1972-11-25) 1975  

All 87 seats in the New Zealand House of Representatives
44 seats were needed for a majority
Turnout1,340,168 (88.94%)
 First partySecond party
  Norman Kirk, 1973.jpg Jack Marshall, 1972.jpg
Leader Norman Kirk Jack Marshall
Party Labour National
Leader since 9 December 1965 7 February 1972
Leader's seat Sydenham Karori
Last election39 seats, 44.2%45 seats, 45.2%
Seats won5532
Seat changeIncrease2.svg 16Decrease2.svg 13
Popular vote677,669581,422
Percentage48.4%41.5%
SwingIncrease2.svg 4.2%Decrease2.svg 3.7%

Prime Minister before election

Jack Marshall
National

Elected Prime Minister

Norman Kirk
Labour

The New Zealand general election of 1972 was held on 25 November to elect MPs to the 37th session of the New Zealand Parliament. The Labour Party, led by Norman Kirk, defeated the governing National Party.

Contents

Background

The National Party had been in office since the 1960 election, when it had defeated the ruling Labour Party, led by Walter Nash. The Second Labour Government was the shortest-lasting of all New Zealand governments to that day; in contrast, the Second National Government, led for the majority of its tenure by Keith Holyoake, would be re-elected three times. National's policies were focused around stability and a "steady as she goes" approach, but Holyoake's Government was increasingly perceived as tired and worn-out. In February 1972, Holyoake stood aside and was replaced by his deputy, Jack Marshall, who took steps to reinvigorate the party.

Meanwhile, Norman Kirk had been at the helm of Labour since 1965. In this time, he had been modernising and updating the Labour Party, but narrowly lost the 1969 election. Kirk slimmed and dressed to improve his image, and visited several overseas Labour parties to broaden his knowledge. He activated a "spokesman" or shadow cabinet system to spread the responsibility, but it was difficult to avoid one composed largely of Auckland and Christchurch members. Despite the improvements, commentators speculated whether National would pull off another cliffhanger victory. Economic recession and voter fatigue had hurt National at the polls. Labour's slogan was "It's Time – Time for a change, time for Labour", which expertly captured the national mood.

1972 electoral redistribution

Since the 1969 election, the number of electorates in the South Island was fixed at 25, with continued faster population growth in the North Island leading to an increase in the number of general electorates. Including the four Māori electorates, there had been 80 electorates since the 1902 election. [1] This increased to 84 electorates through the 1969 election. [2] The 1972 electoral redistribution saw three additional general seats created for the North Island, bringing the total number of electorates to 87. [3]

Together with increased urbanisation in Christchurch and Nelson, the changes proved very disruptive to existing electorates. Only two South Island electorates were not altered by the redistribution (Clutha and Lyttelton). [4] Only eight of the North Island electorates were not altered (Franklin, Gisborne, Hobson, Island Bay, Miramar, North Shore, Tamaki, and Wairarapa). [3]

In the South Island, three electorates were abolished (Buller, Westland, and Selwyn), and three electorates were newly created (Rakaia, Tasman, and West Coast). [5] In the North Island, five electorates were abolished (Hauraki, Marsden, Otaki, Waimarino, and Waitomo), two electorates were recreated (Coromandel and Otahuhu), and six electorates were newly created (East Coast Bays, Hamilton East, Kapiti, King Country, Ruahine, and Whangarei). [6]

Election day

Kirk campaigning in Levin Norman Kirk Levin 1972.jpg
Kirk campaigning in Levin

The date for the 1972 elections was 25 November, a Saturday. 1,583,256 people were registered to vote. There was a turnout of 89.1%, slightly higher than the previous election and considerably higher than the following one. The number of electorates being contested was 87. [3]

Results

The 1972 election saw the Labour Party defeat the governing National Party, winning 55 seats to National's 32. Labour was therefore able to form its first government since 1960, with Norman Kirk becoming Prime Minister. The second National government thus gave way to the third Labour government. No minor parties managed to gain seats, and no independents were elected. There were 1,583,256 electors on the roll, with 1,401,152 (88.50%) voting.

Map of electorates. NewZealandElectorates1972.png
Map of electorates.
PartyCandidatesTotal votesPercentageSeats wonChange
Labour 87677,66948.3755+16
National 87581,42241.5032-13
Social Credit 8793,2316.65-±0
Values 4227,4671.96-±0
New Democratic 868,7830.63-±0
Liberal Reform 244,0770.29-±0
Socialist Unity 54440.03-±0
Independent 438,5030.61-±0
Total4561,401,15287+3

Votes summary

Popular Vote
Labour
48.37%
National
41.50%
Social Credit
6.65%
Values
1.96%
New Democratic
0.63%
Liberal Reform
0.29%
Independents
0.61%
Parliament seats
Labour
63.22%
National
36.78%

The table below shows the results of the 1972 general election:

Key

  National     Labour     Social Credit     Independent   

Electorate results for the 1972 New Zealand general election
ElectorateIncumbentWinnerMajorityRunner up
General electorates
Auckland Central Norman Douglas 2,009 Clive Edwards
Avon John Mathison Mary Batchelor 6,055Gordon Thomas
Awarua Hugh Templeton Aubrey Begg 723Hugh Templeton
Bay of Plenty Percy Allen 2,189G B Mead
Birkenhead Norman King 1,533 Don McKinnon
Christchurch Central Bruce Barclay 5,103Barbara Beaven
Clutha Peter Gordon 2,131Les McKay [7]
Coromandel New electorate Leo Schultz 2,181Mrs A Murphy
Dunedin Central Brian MacDonell 3,771Fred O'Neill [8]
Dunedin North Ethel McMillan 4,020John Wallis [9]
East Coast Bays New electorate Frank Gill 979B T Pauling
Eden John Rae Mike Moore 788Mary Kidd [10]
Egmont Venn Young 2,928R L Peck
Franklin Alfred E. Allen Bill Birch 4,188 Geoff Braybrooke
Gisborne Esme Tombleson Trevor Davey 488Esme Tombleson [11]
Grey Lynn Eddie Isbey 5,487Jens Meder
Hamilton East New electorate Rufus Rogers 397 Ross Jansen
Hamilton West Leslie Munro Dorothy Jelicich 544Derek Heather
Hastings Duncan MacIntyre Richard Mayson 1,148Duncan MacIntyre
Hawkes Bay Richard Harrison 600 David Butcher [12]
Henderson Martyn Finlay 4,221Ross C. MacFarlane [13]
Heretaunga Ron Bailey 2,964John Schnellenberg [14]
Hobson Logan Sloane 1,148Howard Manning
Hutt Trevor Young 3,397 Michael Fowler
Invercargill John Chewings J. B. Munro 765John Chewings
Island Bay Gerald O'Brien 3,495Bruce Farland
Kapiti New electorate Frank O'Flynn 706 Barry Brill
Karori Jack Marshall 4,408Adam Floyd
King Country New electorate Jim Bolger 1,240Brent Clifton Sakey
Lyttelton Tom McGuigan 3,235 John Blumsky
Manawatu Les Gandar Allan McCready 427Mervyn Hancock
Mangere Colin Moyle 3,939Stanley Lawson
Manukau Roger Douglas 2,844R O Price
Manurewa Phil Amos 2,397Pat Baker [15]
Marlborough Ian Brooks 1,290Bruno Dalliessi
Miramar Bill Young 434 Brian Edwards
Mt Albert Warren Freer 3,980John Malcolm
Napier Gordon Christie 3,725Merle Bell
Nelson Stanley Whitehead 1,933Ian McWhannell
New Lynn Jonathan Hunt 4,312G D McDermott
New Plymouth Ron Barclay 1,296Terry Boon
North Shore George Gair 2,821Colin Chiles
Oamaru Allan Dick Bill Laney 390Allan Dick
Onehunga Hugh Watt 4,835Peter Blakeborough
Otago Central Murray Rose Ian Quigley 1,483Murray Rose
Otahuhu New electorate Bob Tizard 6,403D C Brooker
Pahiatua Keith Holyoake 4,359L J Cairns
Pakuranga Bob Tizard Gavin Downie 1,802J B Irwin
Palmerston North Joe Walding 1,766Paul William Mitchell
Papanui Bert Walker 1,734Mollie Clark
Petone Fraser Colman 5,340N G Ursin
Piako Jack Luxton 4,472I L Howell
Porirua Gerry Wall 4,399Ross Doughty
Raglan Douglas Carter 1,350Allan John Smith
Rakaia New electorate Colin McLachlan 2,133Alex Clark
Rangiora Herbert Pickering Kerry Burke 866Adrian Hiatt
Rangitikei Norman Shelton Roy Jack 3,037N R Pearce [nb 1]
Remuera Allan Highet 6,118Rex Stanton
Riccarton Eric Holland 2,164David Jackson
Rodney Peter Wilkinson 4,507P W Trim
Roskill Arthur Faulkner 4,439John Maurice Priestley [16]
Rotorua Harry Lapwood 786N F Pachoud
Ruahine New electorate Les Gandar 552Taylor Samuel Mihaere
St Albans Roger Drayton 3,066R T Doak
St Kilda Bill Fraser 5,615Charles Kirby
South Canterbury Rob Talbot 2,035David Braithwaite
Stratford David Thomson 3,068D G Turney
Sydenham Norman Kirk 6,986J F Burn
Tamaki Robert Muldoon 4,590Allan Henry Hedger
Tasman New electorate Bill Rowling 1,834Gerald Hunt
Taupo Rona Stevenson Jack Ridley 783J F Higgins
Tauranga George Walsh Keith Allen 2,215Henry Uttinger [17]
Timaru Basil Arthur 3,954Dave Walker
Waikato Lance Adams-Schneider 4,208Bob Reese
Wairarapa Jack Williams 1,086 Ben Couch
Waitemata Frank Gill Michael Bassett 2,544 Ray La Varis
Wallace Brian Talboys 2,904Ian Lamont
Wanganui Bill Tolhurst Russell Marshall 2,879Bill Tolhurst
Wellington Central Dan Riddiford Ken Comber 27 David Shand [nb 2]
West Coast New electorate Paddy Blanchfield 4,242 Barry Dallas
Western Hutt Henry May 2,392Julian Watts [nb 3] [18]
Whangarei New electorate Murray Smith 1,180L G Carr
Wigram Mick Connelly 5,255D G Cox
Māori electorates
Eastern Maori Paraone Reweti 6,190Koro Dewes
Northern Maori Matiu Rata 5,260 Graham Latimer
Southern Maori Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan 8,251Kate Parahi
Western Maori Koro Wētere 8,686R Te A H Rawiri

Table footnotes:

  1. Bruce Beetham came third for Social Credit in Rangitikei
  2. Shand was first on election night, but lost when special votes were included
  3. Julian Watts was a son of Jack Watts

Notes

  1. McRobie 1989, p. 67.
  2. McRobie 1989, p. 111.
  3. 1 2 3 McRobie 1989, p. 115.
  4. McRobie 1989, p. 116.
  5. McRobie 1989, pp. 112, 116.
  6. McRobie 1989, pp. 111, 115.
  7. Norton 1988, p. 210.
  8. Norton 1988, p. 213.
  9. Norton 1988, p. 215.
  10. Gustafson 1986, p. 371.
  11. Norton 1988, p. 229.
  12. Norton 1988, p. 241.
  13. Norton 1988, p. 243.
  14. "From war refugee to liberal thinker, businessman and books man". Stuff.co.nz . 4 March 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  15. Gustafson 1986, p. 354.
  16. Gustafson 1986, p. 382.
  17. Norton 1988, p. 360.
  18. Gustafson 1986, p. 388.

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References