Waikato (New Zealand electorate)

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Waikato electorate boundaries used since the 2014 election Waikato electorate, 2014.svg
Waikato electorate boundaries used since the 2014 election

Waikato is the name of a current electorate in the New Zealand Parliament. The electorate first existed from 1871 to 1963, and then from 1969 to 1996 when MMP was introduced. The current electorate was re-established for the 2008 election and has been represented by Tim van de Molen for the National Party since the 2017 general election.

New Zealand Parliament legislative body of New Zealand

The New Zealand Parliament is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives. The Queen is usually represented by a governor-general. Before 1951, there was an upper chamber, the New Zealand Legislative Council. The Parliament was established in 1854 and is one of the oldest continuously functioning legislatures in the world.

Mixed-member proportional (MMP) representation is a mixed electoral system in which voters get two votes: one to decide the representative for their single-seat constituency, and one for a political party. Seats in the legislature are filled firstly by the successful constituency candidates, and secondly, by party candidates based on the percentage of nationwide or region-wide votes that each party received. The constituency representatives are elected using first-past-the-post voting (FPTP) or another plurality/majoritarian system. The nationwide or region-wide party representatives are, in most jurisdictions, drawn from published party lists, similar to party-list proportional representation. To gain a nationwide representative, parties may be required to achieve a minimum number of constituency candidates, a minimum percentage of the nationwide party vote, or both.

2008 New Zealand general election election

The 2008 New Zealand general election was held on 8 November 2008 to determine the composition of the 49th New Zealand parliament. The conservative National Party, headed by its parliamentary leader John Key, won the largest share of votes and seats, ending nine years of government by the social-democratic Labour Party, led by Helen Clark. Key announced a week later that he would lead a National minority government with confidence-and-supply support from the ACT, United Future and Māori parties. The Governor-General swore Key in as New Zealand's 38th Prime Minister on 19 November 2008. This marked an end to nine years of Labour Party government, and the beginning of the Fifth National Government of New Zealand which would govern for 9 years, until its loss to the Labour Party in the 2017 general election.

Contents

Population centres

Through an amendment in the Electoral Act in 1965, the number of electorates in the South Island was fixed at 25, an increase of one since the 1962 electoral redistribution. [1] It was accepted that through the more rapid population growth in the North Island, the number of its electorates would continue to increase, and to keep proportionality, three new electorates were allowed for in the 1967 electoral redistribution for the next election. [2] In the North Island, five electorates were newly created and one electorate was reconstituted (Waikato) while three electorates were abolished. [3] In the South Island, three electorates were newly created and one electorate was reconstituted while three electorates were abolished. [4] The overall effect of the required changes was highly disruptive to existing electorates, with all but three electorates having their boundaries altered. [5] These changes came into effect with the 1969 election. [2]

South Island Southernmost of the two main islands in New Zealand

The South Island, also officially named Te Waipounamu, is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand in surface area; the other being the smaller but more populous North Island. It is bordered to the north by Cook Strait, to the west by the Tasman Sea, and to the south and east by the Pacific Ocean. The South Island covers 150,437 square kilometres (58,084 sq mi), making it the world's 12th-largest island. It has a temperate climate.

North Island The northern of the two main islands of New Zealand

The North Island, also officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated from the larger but much less populous South Island by Cook Strait. The island's area is 113,729 square kilometres (43,911 sq mi), making it the world's 14th-largest island. It has a population of 3,749,200.

1969 New Zealand general election

The 1969 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of Parliament's 36th term. It saw the Second National Government headed by Prime Minister Keith Holyoake of the National Party win a fourth consecutive term.

The electorate was recreated after the 2006 census, as the successor to the former Piako electorate. Piako has been pulled north to account for changes both in Auckland (where population growth has pulled the boundary of Port Waikato around the Waikato River), and in the central North Island, where several electorates went into the boundary review under quota, forcing their boundaries further north. It has lost the towns of Te Aroha to Coromandel and Cambridge to Taupō, and in exchange gained the rural and semi-urban areas around Hamilton East, and Huntly, Te Kauwhata and Meremere from Port Waikato.

Piako was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate established in 1946 and disestablished in 2008. It was last held by Lindsay Tisch MP from 2002 to 2008.

Auckland Metropolitan area in North Island, New Zealand

Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. Auckland is the largest urban area in the country, with an urban population of around 1,628,900. It is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. A diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world. The Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki-makau-rau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions.

Port Waikato was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate that existed for four parliamentary terms from 1996 to 2008. It was held by Bill Birch for one term, and the remaining three terms by Paul Hutchison; both were members of the National Party.

History

The Waikato electorate was first contested in the 1871 election. [6] James McPherson was elected, but he resigned again on 20 December 1871. [7] William Jackson won the resulting 1872 by-election (held on 1 March). He retired at the end of the parliamentary term in 1875. [8] Frederick Whitaker won 5 January 1876 election. [9] In the 1879 election, Whitaker contested the Eden electorate but was beaten by Joseph Tole. [10] [11]

1871 New Zealand general election New Zealand general election

The New Zealand general election of 1871 was held between 14 January and 23 February to elect 78 MPs across 72 electorates to the fifth session of the New Zealand Parliament. 41,527 electors were registered.

James McPherson was a 19th-century Member of Parliament in the Waikato region of New Zealand.

William Jackson, generally known as Major Jackson, was a 19th-century Member of Parliament in the Waikato region of New Zealand.

The Waikato electorate was won by John Blair Whyte in the 1879 election, who served for eleven years until 1890 when he retired. Whyte was appointed to the Legislative Council in the following year. [12] John Bryce, who first became an MHR (Member of the House of Representatives) during the 4th Parliament, succeeded Whyte in the 1890 election, but he resigned in the following year. [13] The resulting 1891 by-election was won by Edward Lake, who retired at the end of the parliamentary term in 1893. [14]

John Blair Whyte New Zealand politician

John Blair Whyte was a Member of Parliament and Mayor in the Waikato Region of New Zealand.

New Zealand Legislative Council Upper House of the Parliament of New Zealand (1841 - 1951)

The Legislative Council of New Zealand existed from 1841 until 1951. When New Zealand became a colony in 1841 the Legislative Council was established as the country's first legislature; it was reconstituted as the upper house of a bicameral legislature when New Zealand became self-governing in 1852.

John Bryce New Zealand politician

John Bryce was a New Zealand politician from 1871 to 1891 and Minister of Native Affairs from 1879 to 1884. In his attitudes to Māori land questions, he favoured strict legal actions against Māori opposed to alienation, and he personally directed the invasion of Parihaka and the arrest of the leaders of the movement.

The 1893 election was won by Alfred Cadman for the Liberal Party, who had been an MP in various electorates since 1881. At the next election in 1896, Cadman successfully contested the Ohinemuri electorate. [15] The Waikato electorate was won by Frederic Lang in 1896, who represented the electorate until his defeat by the Liberal Party's Henry Greenslade in the 1905 election. [16] Greenslade held the electorate until 1911, [17] when he was defeated by the Reform candidate Alexander Young. [18]

1893 New Zealand general election

The New Zealand general election of 1893 was held on 28 November and 20 December in the European and Māori electorates, respectively, to elect 74 MPs to the 12th session of the New Zealand Parliament. The election was won by the Liberal Party, and Richard Seddon became Prime Minister.

Alfred Cadman New Zealand politician

Sir Alfred Jerome Cadman was a New Zealand politician of the Liberal Party. He was the Minister of Railways from 1895 to 1899 in the Liberal Government.

The New Zealand Liberal Party was the first organised political party in New Zealand. It governed from 1891 until 1912. The Liberal strategy was to create a large class of small land-owning farmers who supported Liberal ideals, by buying large tracts of Māori land and selling it to small farmers on credit. The Liberal Government also established the basis of the later welfare state, with old age pensions, developed a system for settling industrial disputes, which was accepted by both employers and trade unions. In 1893 it extended voting rights to women, making New Zealand the first country in the world to enact universal female suffrage.

Young won the subsequent elections in 1914 and 1919. In the 1922 election, he successfully contested the newly formed Hamilton electorate. [18] Young was succeeded by the Liberal candidate Frederick Lye in the Waikato electorate in 1922. [19] At the 1925 election, Lye was defeated by Reform's Daniel Stewart Reid. [20] Lye in turn defeated Reid at the 1928 election, but this time standing for the United Party. The United/Reform Coalition was established just before the 1931 election and Lye was again successful. [19] In the 1935 election, Lye was beaten by Robert Coulter of the Labour Party. [21] Coulter served only one term in Waikato, as he was defeated by the National Party candidate William Goosman in the 1938 election. Goosman also won the 1943 election, but successfully contested the 1946 election in the newly formed Piako electorate. [17]

Goosman was succeeded in Waikato by National's Geoffrey Sim in 1946. [22] Sim held the electorate until it was abolished in 1963, when he contested Piako instead. [23]

The Waikato electorate was re-established in 1969. The first representative was National's Lance Adams-Schneider, who had previously represented the Hamilton electorate. Adams-Schneider retired from Parliament in 1981 and became Ambassador of New Zealand to the United States in the following year. [23] Adams-Schneider was succeeded by National's Simon Upton, who won the 1981 election and started his long parliamentary career with one term in Waikato. Upton contested the Raglan in the 1984 election and was succeeded by National's Rob Storey in Waikato. Storey held the electorate until it was abolished with the introduction of Mixed-member proportional voting in 1996. It was re-established for the 2008 election.

Lindsay Tisch was the MP for Piako from its re-establishment in 2002, and became the MP for Waikato at the 2008 election. [24] Tisch was confirmed in the 2011 election. [25]

In June 2016, Tisch announced that he would not stand at the 2017 general election, [26] and the seat was won by Tim van de Molen, retaining it for the National Party.

In the 20th century Waikato was a safe National Party seat; and three of the five National Party members of parliament for Waikato were cabinet ministers.

Members of Parliament

Key

  Independent     Conservative     Liberal     Reform     United     Labour     National   

ElectionWinner
1871 election James McPherson
1872 by-election William Jackson
1876 election Frederick Whitaker
1879 election John Blair Whyte
1881 election
1884 election
1887 election
1890 election John Bryce
1891 by-election Edward Lake
1893 election Alfred Cadman
1896 election Frederic Lang
1899 election
1902 election
1905 election Henry Greenslade
1908 election
1911 election Alexander Young
1914 election
1919 election
1922 election Frederick Lye
1925 election Stewart Reid
1928 election Frederick Lye (2nd term)
1931 election
1935 election Robert Coulter
1938 election William Goosman
1943 election
1946 election Geoffrey Sim
1949 election
1951 election
1954 election
1957 election
1960 election
(Electorate abolished 1963–1969)
1969 election Lance Adams-Schneider
1972 election
1975 election
1978 election
1981 election Simon Upton
1984 election Rob Storey
1987 election
1990 election
1993 election
(Electorate abolished 1996–2008)
2008 election Lindsay Tisch
2011 election
2014 election
2017 election Tim van de Molen

List MPs

Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the Waikato electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.

ElectionWinner
2008 election Jacinda Ardern
2011 election Barbara Stewart
2014 election

Election results

2017 election

2017 general election: Waikato [27]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Tim van de Molen 24,56023,89158.5
Labour Brooke Loader9,1089,84424.1
NZ First Stu Husband3,7164,112
Green Philippa Stevenson2,1131,240
Opportunities  759
ACT  261
Māori  177
Legalise Cannabis  142
Conservative  123
Ban 1080  58
Outdoors  32
United Future  26
People's Party  18
Democrats  15
Mana  5
Internet  4
Informal votes548146
Total Valid votes40,04540,853
National holdMajority15,452

2014 election

2014 general election: Waikato [28]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Lindsay Tisch 22,91164.89-0.0121,59859.99+0.01
Labour Christine Greer6,74219.09+0.695,30314.73-1.71
NZ First Barbara Stewart 3,3309.43+4.283,87010.75+2.65
Conservative Brian Dobbs1,4424.08+0.342,0535.70+1.62
ACT Mike Burrow2900.82-0.911910.53-1.40
Democrats Katherine Ransom1720.49+0.14380.11-0.02
Green  2,0755.76-1.26
Māori  1960.54-0.05
Legalise Cannabis  1800.50-0.04
Internet Mana  1780.49+0.20
Ban 1080  890.25+0.25
United Future  780.22-0.55
Independent Coalition  100.03+0.03
Civilian  80.02+0.02
Focus  60.02+0.02
Informal votes421127
Total Valid votes35,30836,000
National holdMajority16,16945.79-0.71

2011 election

2011 general election: Waikato [25]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Lindsay Tisch 19,81764.90+1.4718,87559.98+2.54
Labour Kate Sutton5,61918.40-4.525,17316.44-6.13
Green Cameron Harper1,9706.45+1.772,2087.02+3.08
NZ First Barbara Stewart 1,5715.15+0.882,5498.10+2.81
Conservative Brian Dobbs1,1423.74+3.741,2844.08+4.08
ACT Robin Boom3071.01-2.436071.93-4.54
Democrats John Pemberton1070.35-0.03410.13+0.01
United Future  2430.77-0.11
Māori  1860.59-0.14
Legalise Cannabis  1700.54+0.16
Mana  910.29+0.29
Libertarianz  280.09+0.04
Alliance  120.04-0.04
Informal votes775298
Total Valid votes30,53331,467
National holdMajority14,19846.50+5.99

Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 42,084 [29]

2008 election

2008 general election: Waikato [24]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Lindsay Tisch 20,12263.4418,53257.45
Labour Jacinda Ardern 7,27222.937,28022.57
Green Wendy Harper1,4844.681,2713.94
NZ First Barbara Stewart 1,3534.271,7085.29
ACT Mark Davies1,0893.432,0886.47
Kiwi James Ross2780.881710.53
Democrats John Pemberton1220.38400.12
United Future  2850.88
Māori  2350.73
Bill and Ben  1950.60
Progressive  1880.58
Legalise Cannabis  1230.38
Family Party  870.27
Alliance  250.08
Libertarianz  150.05
Workers Party  80.02
Pacific  40.01
RAM  30.01
RONZ  10.003
Informal votes245107
Total Valid votes31,72032,259
National win new seatMajority12,85040.51

1935 election

1935 general election: Waikato [30]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Robert Coulter 4,258 44.01
United Frederick Lye 3,47435.90-20.95
Country Party Solomon Netheim Ziman [nb 1] 1,22112.62-30.53
Democrat Dr. H E Annett7227.46
Informal votes1551.60+0.69
Majority7848.10
Turnout 9,67587.38+9.46
Registered electors 11,072

Table footnotes:

  1. Ziman was the father of John Ziman [31]

1931 election

1931 general election: Waikato [32]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
United Frederick Lye 4,072 56.85
Country Party Solomon Netheim Ziman [nb 1] 3,09143.15
Majority98113.70
Informal votes660.91
Turnout 7,22977.92
Registered electors 9,277

Table footnotes:

  1. Ziman was the father of John Ziman [33]

1908 election

1908 general election: Waikato, first ballot [34]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Henry Greenslade 3,305 54.03
Conservative Allen Bell 2,81245.97
Majority4938.06
Turnout 6,11783.01
Registered electors 7,369

1899 election

1899 general election: Waikato [35] [36]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Frederic Lang 2,337 53.70
Liberal John Hosking2,01546.30
Majority3227.40
Turnout 4,35282.39
Registered electors 5,282

Notes

  1. McRobie 1989, pp. 108, 111, 112.
  2. 1 2 McRobie 1989, p. 111.
  3. McRobie 1989, pp. 107, 111.
  4. McRobie 1989, pp. 108, 112.
  5. McRobie 1989, pp. 111f.
  6. Scholefield 1950, p. 165.
  7. Scholefield 1950, p. 124.
  8. Scholefield 1950, p. 116.
  9. Scholefield 1950, p. 147.
  10. Stone, R. C. J. "Whitaker, Frederick – Biography". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 14 March 2012.
  11. Scholefield 1950, p. 144.
  12. Scholefield 1950, pp. 87, 147.
  13. Scholefield 1950, p. 97.
  14. Wilson 1985, p. 211.
  15. Scholefield 1950, p. 99.
  16. Scholefield 1950, p. 119.
  17. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 109.
  18. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 149.
  19. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 121.
  20. Scholefield 1950, p. 134.
  21. Scholefield 1950, p. 102.
  22. Scholefield 1950, p. 139.
  23. 1 2 Wilson 1985.
  24. 1 2 "Official Count Results – Waikato". Wellington: New Zealand Electoral Commission. Retrieved 14 March 2012.
  25. 1 2 "Official Count Results – Waikato". Wellington: New Zealand Electoral Commission. Retrieved 14 March 2012.
  26. "MP Lindsay Tisch not to seek re-election". Stuff.co.nz. 20 June 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  27. "Official Count Results – Waikato". Wellington: New Zealand Electoral Commission. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  28. "Official Count Results – Waikato". Wellington: New Zealand Electoral Commission. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  29. "Enrolment statistics". Electoral Commission. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
  30. The General Election, 1935. National Library. 1936. pp. 1–35. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  31. "Ziman, John Michael" (PDF). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  32. The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 5. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  33. "Ziman, John Michael" (PDF). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  34. AtoJs 1908 election 1909, p. 6.
  35. "The General Election, 1899". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. 19 June 1900. p. 1. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  36. "Official Declaration of Poll". Auckland Star . XXX (296). 30 November 1899. p. 5. Retrieved 7 March 2014.

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