Waikato (New Zealand electorate)

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Waikato electorate boundaries used since the 2014 election Waikato electorate, 2014.svg
Waikato electorate boundaries used since the 2014 election

Waikato is an electorate in the New Zealand Parliament. A Waikato electorate was first created in 1871 and an electorate by this name has existed from 1871 to 1963, 1969 to 1996, and 2008 to the present, though exact borders have often changed.

Contents

The Waikato electorate is represented by Tim van de Molen for the National Party, who has held the seat since the 2017 general election. Both the current Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern and the current Opposition Leader Judith Collins were born and raised within its borders.

Geography

The Waikato electorate, whose borders were last altered in 2020, [1] is in the Waikato region and includes largely rural areas to the north and the west of the city of Hamilton. The Waikato River flows along near its southern boundary then travels north through the electorate. It includes small portions of the outskirts of Hamilton and Cambridge. Towns within the electorate include Morrinsville, Huntly, and Matamata, [2] each of which have populations around 8,000.

In a piece for the 2020 election, journalist Tom Rowland described the area as "one of the country's most vital regions, home to farmers and agricultural industries that continue to hold New Zealand's economy steady in the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic". Rowland considered it to be a key area for future economic development, calling it "the key to activating the Golden Triangle between Auckland, Hamilton and Tauranga." [3]

The electorate is the birthplace of both Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern and Opposition Leader Judith Collins. [3]

History

Creation and seat holders prior to 1938

The Waikato electorate was first contested in the 1871 election. [4] James McPherson was elected, but he resigned the same year, on 20 December. [5] William Jackson won the resulting 1872 by-election. Jackson retired at the end of the parliamentary term in 1875. [6] Frederick Whitaker won 5 January 1876 election. [7] In the 1879 election, Whitaker contested the Eden electorate but was beaten by Joseph Tole. [8] [9]

The Waikato electorate was won by John Blair Whyte in the 1879 election, who served for eleven years until 1890 when he retired. Whyte was appointed to the Legislative Council in the following year. [10] John Bryce, who first became Member of the House of Representatives during the 4th Parliament, succeeded Whyte in the 1890 election, but he resigned in the following year. [11] The resulting 1891 by-election was won by Edward Lake, who retired at the end of the parliamentary term in 1893. [12]

The 1893 election was won by Alfred Cadman for the Liberal Party, who had been an MP in various electorates since 1881. At the next election in 1896, Cadman successfully contested the Ohinemuri electorate. [13] The Waikato electorate was won by Frederic Lang in 1896, who represented the electorate until his defeat by the Liberal Party's Henry Greenslade in the 1905 election. [14] Greenslade held the electorate until 1911, [15] when he was defeated by the Reform candidate Alexander Young. [16]

Young won subsequent elections in 1914 and 1919. In the 1922 election, he successfully contested the newly formed Hamilton electorate. [16] Young was succeeded by the Liberal candidate Frederick Lye in the Waikato electorate in 1922. [17] At the 1925 election, Lye was defeated by Reform's Daniel Stewart Reid. [18] Lye in turn defeated Reid at the 1928 election, but this time standing for the United Party. The United–Reform Coalition was established just before the 1931 election and Lye was again successful. [17] In the 1935 election, Lye was beaten by Robert Coulter of the Labour Party. [19] Coulter served only one term in Waikato, as he was defeated by the National Party candidate Stan Goosman in the 1938 election.

1938 onward

Since 1938, the Waikato electorate (when it has existed) has always been held by a National Party member. This trend has lasted through 2020, when the seat was retained by National MP Tim van de Molen. [3] [20] Other electorates which covered parts of this region have also strongly supported National. The electorates of Piako, Matamata, and Karapiro were entirely National-held during their time as electorates, the Hamilton electorate was held by National from 1943 until it was dissolved in 1969, and the Waipa electorate was held by National from 1954 until its dissolution in 1996.

Goosman, who had taken Waikato in 1938, also won the 1943 election, but successfully contested the 1946 election in the newly formed Piako electorate. [15] Goosman was succeeded in Waikato by Geoffrey Sim in 1946. [21] Sim held the electorate until it was abolished in 1963, when he contested Piako instead. [22]

The Waikato electorate was re-established in 1969 following the Electoral Act of 1965, which led to substantial changes in the number, shape, and size of electorates across the country. [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] These changes came into effect with the 1969 election. [24] The first representative was National's Lance Adams-Schneider, who had previously represented the Hamilton electorate. Adams-Schneider retired from Parliament in 1981 and became Ambassador of New Zealand to the United States in the following year. [22] Adams-Schneider was succeeded by National's Simon Upton, who won the 1981 election and started his long parliamentary career with one term in Waikato. Upton contested the Raglan in the 1984 election and was succeeded by National's Rob Storey in Waikato. Storey held the electorate until it was abolished again in the electorate changes that came with the introduction of Mixed-member proportional voting in 1996.

The Waikato electorate was re-established in 2006 for the 2008 election. [28]

Lindsay Tisch, who had been the MP for Piako since 2002, won Waikato at the 2008 election. [29] Tisch retained his seat in the 2011 election [30] and the 2014 election, but he announced he would not stand for the 2017 general election. [31] The seat was won by Tim van de Molen, retaining it for the National Party, who won it again in 2020.

The most recent boundary changes to Waikato occurred in 2020, when more area was added in its north and its south, as well as areas just outside Hamilton and Cambridge. [2]

Three of the five National Party members of parliament for Waikato were cabinet ministers.[ citation needed ]

Members of Parliament

Key

  Independent     Conservative     Liberal     Reform     United     Labour     National   

ElectionWinner
1871 election James McPherson
1872 by-election William Jackson
1876 election Frederick Whitaker
1879 election John Blair Whyte
1881 election
1884 election
1887 election
1890 election John Bryce
1891 by-election Edward Lake
1893 election Alfred Cadman
1896 election Frederic Lang
1899 election
1902 election
1905 election Henry Greenslade
1908 election
1911 election Alexander Young
1914 election
1919 election
1922 election Frederick Lye
1925 election Stewart Reid
1928 election Frederick Lye (2nd term)
1931 election
1935 election Robert Coulter
1938 election Stan Goosman
1943 election
1946 election Geoffrey Sim
1949 election
1951 election
1954 election
1957 election
1960 election
(Electorate abolished 1963–1969)
1969 election Lance Adams-Schneider
1972 election
1975 election
1978 election
1981 election Simon Upton
1984 election Rob Storey
1987 election
1990 election
1993 election
(Electorate abolished 1996–2008)
2008 election Lindsay Tisch
2011 election
2014 election
2017 election Tim van de Molen
2020 election

List MPs

Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the Waikato electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.

ElectionWinner
2008 election Jacinda Ardern
2011 election Barbara Stewart
2014 election
2020 election James McDowall

Election results

2017 election

2017 general election: Waikato [32]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Tim van de Molen 24,56061.33-3.5623,89158.48-1.51
Labour Brooke Loader9,10822.74+3.659,84424.1+9.73
NZ First Stu Husband3,7169.28-0.154,11210.07-0.68
Green Philippa Stevenson2,1135.281,2403.04-2.72
Opportunities  7591.86
ACT  2610.64+0.11
Māori  1770.43-0.11
Legalise Cannabis  1420.35-0.15
Conservative  1230.3-5.4
Ban 1080  580.14-0.11
Outdoors  320.08
United Future  260.06-0.16
People's Party  180.04
Democrats  150.04-0.07
Mana  50.01-0.48 [lower-alpha 1]
Internet  40.01-0.48 [lower-alpha 2]
Informal votes548146
Total Valid votes40,04540,853
National holdMajority15,45238.59-7.2

2014 election

2014 general election: Waikato [33]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Lindsay Tisch 22,91164.89-0.0121,59859.99+0.01
Labour Christine Greer6,74219.09+0.695,30314.73-1.71
NZ First Barbara Stewart 3,3309.43+4.283,87010.75+2.65
Conservative Brian Dobbs1,4424.08+0.342,0535.70+1.62
ACT Mike Burrow2900.82-0.911910.53-1.40
Democrats Katherine Ransom1720.49+0.14380.11-0.02
Green  2,0755.76-1.26
Māori  1960.54-0.05
Legalise Cannabis  1800.50-0.04
Internet Mana  1780.49+0.20
Ban 1080  890.25+0.25
United Future  780.22-0.55
Independent Coalition  100.03+0.03
Civilian  80.02+0.02
Focus  60.02+0.02
Informal votes421127
Total Valid votes35,30836,000
National holdMajority16,16945.79-0.71

2011 election

2011 general election: Waikato [30]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Lindsay Tisch 19,81764.90+1.4718,87559.98+2.54
Labour Kate Sutton5,61918.40-4.525,17316.44-6.13
Green Cameron Harper1,9706.45+1.772,2087.02+3.08
NZ First Barbara Stewart 1,5715.15+0.882,5498.10+2.81
Conservative Brian Dobbs1,1423.74+3.741,2844.08+4.08
ACT Robin Boom3071.01-2.436071.93-4.54
Democrats John Pemberton1070.35-0.03410.13+0.01
United Future  2430.77-0.11
Māori  1860.59-0.14
Legalise Cannabis  1700.54+0.16
Mana  910.29+0.29
Libertarianz  280.09+0.04
Alliance  120.04-0.04
Informal votes775298
Total Valid votes30,53331,467
National holdMajority14,19846.50+5.99

Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 42,084 [34]

2008 election

2008 general election: Waikato [29]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
National Green check.svgY Lindsay Tisch 20,12263.4418,53257.45
Labour Jacinda Ardern 7,27222.937,28022.57
Green Wendy Harper1,4844.681,2713.94
NZ First Barbara Stewart 1,3534.271,7085.29
ACT Mark Davies1,0893.432,0886.47
Kiwi James Ross2780.881710.53
Democrats John Pemberton1220.38400.12
United Future  2850.88
Māori  2350.73
Bill and Ben  1950.60
Progressive  1880.58
Legalise Cannabis  1230.38
Family Party  870.27
Alliance  250.08
Libertarianz  150.05
Workers Party  80.02
Pacific  40.01
RAM  30.01
RONZ  10.003
Informal votes245107
Total Valid votes31,72032,259
National win new seatMajority12,85040.51

1935 election

1935 general election: Waikato [35]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Robert Coulter 4,258 44.01
United Frederick Lye 3,47435.90-20.95
Country Party Solomon Netheim Ziman [nb 1] 1,22112.62-30.53
Democrat Dr. H E Annett7227.46
Informal votes1551.60+0.69
Majority7848.10
Turnout 9,67587.38+9.46
Registered electors 11,072

Table footnotes:

  1. Ziman was the father of John Ziman [36]

1931 election

1931 general election: Waikato [37]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
United Frederick Lye 4,072 56.85
Country Party Solomon Netheim Ziman [nb 1] 3,09143.15
Majority98113.70
Informal votes660.91
Turnout 7,22977.92
Registered electors 9,277

Table footnotes:

  1. Ziman was the father of John Ziman [38]

1928 election

1928 general election: Waikato [39] [40]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
United Frederick Lye 2,979 38.34
Reform Stewart Reid 2,89337.24
Country Party Patrick Keegan1,89724.42
Majority861.11
Informal votes700.89
Turnout 7,83985.04
Registered electors 9,218

1908 election

1908 general election: Waikato, first ballot [41]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Liberal Henry Greenslade 3,305 54.03
Conservative Allen Bell 2,81245.97
Majority4938.06
Turnout 6,11783.01
Registered electors 7,369

1899 election

1899 general election: Waikato [42] [43]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Frederic Lang 2,337 53.70
Liberal John Hosking2,01546.30
Majority3227.40
Turnout 4,35282.39
Registered electors 5,282

1891 by-election

1891 Waikato by-election [44]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Edward Lake 697 60.14
Independent William Murray 46239.86
Majority23520.28
Informal votes100.86
Turnout 1,16952.28

Notes

  1. 2017 Mana Party swing is relative to the votes for Internet-Mana in 2014; it shared a party list with the Internet Party in the 2014 election
  2. 2017 Internet Party swing is relative to the votes for Internet-Mana in 2014; it shared a party list with Mana Party in the 2014 election

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Bibliography