Waikato is the name of a current electorate in the New Zealand Parliament. The electorate first existed from 1871 to 1963, and then from 1969 to 1996 when MMP was introduced. The current electorate was re-established for the 2008 election and has been represented by Tim van de Molen for the National Party since the 2017 general election.
The New Zealand Parliament is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives. The Queen is usually represented by her governor-general. Before 1951, there was an upper chamber, the New Zealand Legislative Council. The New Zealand Parliament was established in 1854 and is one of the oldest continuously functioning legislatures in the world. It has met in Wellington, the capital of New Zealand, since 1865.
Mixed-member proportional (MMP) representation is a mixed electoral system in which voters get two votes: one to decide the representative for their single-seat constituency, and one for a political party. Seats in the legislature are filled firstly by the successful constituency candidates, and secondly, by party candidates based on the percentage of nationwide or region-wide votes that each party received. The constituency representatives are elected using first-past-the-post voting (FPTP) or another plurality/majoritarian system. The nationwide or region-wide party representatives are, in most jurisdictions, drawn from published party lists, similar to party-list proportional representation. To gain a nationwide representative, parties may be required to achieve a minimum number of constituency candidates, a minimum percentage of the nationwide party vote, or both.
The 2008 New Zealand general election was held on 8 November 2008 to determine the composition of the 49th New Zealand Parliament. The liberal-conservative National Party, headed by its parliamentary leader John Key, won the largest share of votes and seats, ending nine years of government by the social-democratic Labour Party, led by Helen Clark. Key announced a week later that he would lead a National minority government with confidence-and-supply support from the ACT, United Future and Māori parties. The Governor-General swore Key in as New Zealand's 38th Prime Minister on 19 November 2008. This marked an end to nine years of Labour Party government, and the beginning of the Fifth National Government which governed for the next nine years, until its loss to the Labour Party in the 2017 general election.
Through an amendment in the Electoral Act in 1965, the number of electorates in the South Island was fixed at 25, an increase of one since the 1962 electoral redistribution.It was accepted that through the more rapid population growth in the North Island, the number of its electorates would continue to increase, and to keep proportionality, three new electorates were allowed for in the 1967 electoral redistribution for the next election. In the North Island, five electorates were newly created and one electorate was reconstituted (Waikato) while three electorates were abolished. In the South Island, three electorates were newly created and one electorate was reconstituted while three electorates were abolished. The overall effect of the required changes was highly disruptive to existing electorates, with all but three electorates having their boundaries altered. These changes came into effect with the 1969 election.
The South Island, also officially named Te Waipounamu, is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand in surface area; the other being the smaller but more populous North Island. It is bordered to the north by Cook Strait, to the west by the Tasman Sea, and to the south and east by the Pacific Ocean. The South Island covers 150,437 square kilometres (58,084 sq mi), making it the world's 12th-largest island. It has a temperate climate.
The North Island, also officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated from the larger but much less populous South Island by Cook Strait. The island's area is 113,729 square kilometres (43,911 sq mi), making it the world's 14th-largest island. It has a population of 3,702,300.
The 1969 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of Parliament's 36th term. It saw the Second National Government headed by Prime Minister Keith Holyoake of the National Party win a fourth consecutive term.
The electorate was recreated after the 2006 census, as the successor to the former Piako electorate. Piako has been pulled north to account for changes both in Auckland (where population growth has pulled the boundary of Port Waikato around the Waikato River), and in the central North Island, where several electorates went into the boundary review under quota, forcing their boundaries further north. It has lost the towns of Te Aroha to Coromandel and Cambridge to Taupō, and in exchange gained the rural and semi-urban areas around Hamilton East, and Huntly, Te Kauwhata and Meremere from Port Waikato.
Piako was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate established in 1946 and disestablished in 2008. It was last held by Lindsay Tisch MP from 2002 to 2008.
Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. The most populous urban area in the country, Auckland has an urban population of around 1,570,100. It is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,618,400. Auckland is a diverse, multicultural and cosmopolitan city, home to the largest Polynesian population in the world. A Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki Makaurau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions.
Port Waikato was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate that existed for four parliamentary terms from 1996 to 2008. It was held by Bill Birch for one term, and the remaining three terms by Paul Hutchison; both were members of the National Party.
The Waikato electorate was first contested in the 1871 election.James McPherson was elected, but he resigned again on 20 December 1871. William Jackson won the resulting 1872 by-election (held on 1 March). He retired at the end of the parliamentary term in 1875. Frederick Whitaker won 5 January 1876 election. In the 1879 election, Whitaker contested the Eden electorate but was beaten by Joseph Tole.
The New Zealand general election of 1871 was held between 14 January and 23 February to elect 78 MPs across 72 electorates to the fifth session of the New Zealand Parliament. 41,527 electors were registered.
James McPherson was a 19th-century Member of Parliament in the Waikato region of New Zealand.
William Jackson, generally known as Major Jackson, was a 19th-century Member of Parliament in the Waikato region of New Zealand.
The Waikato electorate was won by John Blair Whyte in the 1879 election, who served for eleven years until 1890 when he retired. Whyte was appointed to the Legislative Council in the following year.John Bryce, who first became an MHR (Member of the House of Representatives) during the 4th Parliament, succeeded Whyte in the 1890 election, but he resigned in the following year. The resulting 1891 by-election was won by Edward Lake, who retired at the end of the parliamentary term in 1893.
John Blair Whyte was a Member of Parliament and Mayor in the Waikato Region of New Zealand.
The Legislative Council of New Zealand existed from 1841 until 1951. When New Zealand became a colony in 1841 the Legislative Council was established as the country's first legislature; it was reconstituted as the upper house of a bicameral legislature when New Zealand became self-governing in 1852.
John Bryce was a New Zealand politician from 1871 to 1891 and Minister of Native Affairs from 1879 to 1884. In his attitudes to Māori land questions, he favoured strict legal actions against Māori opposed to alienation, and he personally directed the invasion of Parihaka and the arrest of the leaders of the movement.
The 1893 election was won by Alfred Cadman for the Liberal Party, who had been an MP in various electorates since 1881. At the next election in 1896, Cadman successfully contested the Ohinemuri electorate.The Waikato electorate was won by Frederic Lang in 1896, who represented the electorate until his defeat by the Liberal Party's Henry Greenslade in the 1905 election. Greenslade held the electorate until 1911, when he was defeated by the Reform candidate Alexander Young.
The New Zealand general election of 1893 was held on 28 November and 20 December in the European and Māori electorates, respectively, to elect 74 MPs to the 12th session of the New Zealand Parliament. The election was won by the Liberal Party, and Richard Seddon became Prime Minister.
Sir Alfred Jerome Cadman was a New Zealand politician of the Liberal Party. He was the Minister of Railways from 1895 to 1899 in the Liberal Government.
The New Zealand Liberal Party was the first organised political party in New Zealand. It governed from 1891 until 1912. The Liberal strategy was to create a large class of small land-owning farmers who supported Liberal ideals, by buying large tracts of Māori land and selling it to small farmers on credit. The Liberal Government also established the basis of the later welfare state, with old age pensions, developed a system for settling industrial disputes, which was accepted by both employers and trade unions. In 1893 it extended voting rights to women, making New Zealand the first country in the world to enact universal female suffrage.
Young won the subsequent elections in 1914 and 1919. In the 1922 election, he successfully contested the newly formed Hamilton electorate.Young was succeeded by the Liberal candidate Frederick Lye in the Waikato electorate in 1922. At the 1925 election, Lye was defeated by Reform's Daniel Stewart Reid. Lye in turn defeated Reid at the 1928 election, but this time standing for the United Party. The United–Reform Coalition was established just before the 1931 election and Lye was again successful. In the 1935 election, Lye was beaten by Robert Coulter of the Labour Party. Coulter served only one term in Waikato, as he was defeated by the National Party candidate William Goosman in the 1938 election. Goosman also won the 1943 election, but successfully contested the 1946 election in the newly formed Piako electorate.
Goosman was succeeded in Waikato by National's Geoffrey Sim in 1946.Sim held the electorate until it was abolished in 1963, when he contested Piako instead.
The Waikato electorate was re-established in 1969. The first representative was National's Lance Adams-Schneider, who had previously represented the Hamilton electorate. Adams-Schneider retired from Parliament in 1981 and became Ambassador of New Zealand to the United States in the following year.Adams-Schneider was succeeded by National's Simon Upton, who won the 1981 election and started his long parliamentary career with one term in Waikato. Upton contested the Raglan in the 1984 election and was succeeded by National's Rob Storey in Waikato. Storey held the electorate until it was abolished with the introduction of Mixed-member proportional voting in 1996. It was re-established for the 2008 election.
Lindsay Tisch was the MP for Piako from its re-establishment in 2002, and became the MP for Waikato at the 2008 election.Tisch was confirmed in the 2011 election.
In June 2016, Tisch announced that he would not stand at the 2017 general election,and the seat was won by Tim van de Molen, retaining it for the National Party.
In the 20th century Waikato was a safe National Party seat; and three of the five National Party members of parliament for Waikato were cabinet ministers.
Independent Conservative Liberal Reform United Labour National
|1871 election||James McPherson|
|1872 by-election||William Jackson|
|1876 election||Frederick Whitaker|
|1879 election||John Blair Whyte|
|1890 election||John Bryce|
|1891 by-election||Edward Lake|
|1893 election||Alfred Cadman|
|1896 election||Frederic Lang|
|1905 election||Henry Greenslade|
|1911 election||Alexander Young|
|1922 election||Frederick Lye|
|1925 election||Stewart Reid|
|1928 election||Frederick Lye (2nd term)|
|1935 election||Robert Coulter|
|1938 election||William Goosman|
|1946 election||Geoffrey Sim|
|(Electorate abolished 1963–1969)|
|1969 election||Lance Adams-Schneider|
|1981 election||Simon Upton|
|1984 election||Rob Storey|
|(Electorate abolished 1996–2008)|
|2008 election||Lindsay Tisch|
|2017 election||Tim van de Molen|
Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the Waikato electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.
|2008 election||Jacinda Ardern|
|2011 election||Barbara Stewart|
|2017 general election: Waikato|
Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
|National||Tim van de Molen||24,560||23,891||58.5|
|NZ First||Stu Husband||3,716||4,112|
|Total Valid votes||40,045||40,853|
|2014 general election: Waikato|
Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
|NZ First||Barbara Stewart||3,330||9.43||+4.28||3,870||10.75||+2.65|
|Total Valid votes||35,308||36,000|
|2011 general election: Waikato|
Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
|NZ First||Barbara Stewart||1,571||5.15||+0.88||2,549||8.10||+2.81|
|Total Valid votes||30,533||31,467|
Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 42,084
|2008 general election: Waikato|
|NZ First||Barbara Stewart||1,353||4.27||1,708||5.29|
|Bill and Ben||195||0.60|
|Total Valid votes||31,720||32,259|
|National win new seat||Majority||12,850||40.51|
|Country Party||Solomon Netheim Ziman||1,221||12.62||-30.53|
|Democrat||Dr. H E Annett||722||7.46|
|Country Party||Solomon Netheim Ziman||3,091||43.15|
Coromandel is a New Zealand electoral division returning one member to the House of Representatives. It is currently represented by Scott Simpson, a member of the National Party.
Dunedin South is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It first existed from 1881 to 1890, then from 1905 to 1946 and was re-established for the introduction of MMP in 1996. A Labour Party stronghold, it has been represented by Clare Curran since the 2008 election.
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Waitaki is an electorate for the New Zealand House of Representatives that crosses the boundary of North Otago and South Canterbury towns on the East Coast of the South Island. The electorate was first established for the 1871 election that determined the 5th New Zealand Parliament. It has been abolished and re-established several times and in its early years was a two-member electorate for two parliamentary terms. The current electorate has existed since the 2008 election and is held by Jacqui Dean of the National Party.
Rangitata is an electorate in the South Island of New Zealand. It first existed for two parliamentary terms in the late 19th century and was re-established for the 2008 general election. It largely replaced the Aoraki electorate, but included parts of the Rakaia electorate as well. It is held by Andrew Falloon of the National Party. Rangitata is a relatively safe National seat, though not as safe relative to its surrounding neighbours Selwyn and Waitaki due to both Timaru and Temuka being Labour Party strongholds.
Karapiro was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate from 1996 to 2002.
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Wakatipu was a parliamentary electorate in the Otago region of New Zealand, from 1871 to 1928.
Te Aroha was a parliamentary electorate in the Waikato region of New Zealand from 1890 to 1893. The electorate was represented by two Members of Parliament. The current Te Aroha ward is represented by the Matamata-Piako District in the Waikato region of New Zealand.
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