|4th Parliament of New Zealand|
|Legislative body||New Zealand Parliament|
|Term||30 June 1866 – 13 September 1870|
|Election||1866 New Zealand general election|
|Government||Second Stafford ministry (until 1869)|
Third Fox ministry (from 1869)
|House of Representatives|
|Speaker of the House||David Monro|
|Colonial Secretary|| William Fox |
— Edward Stafford until 28 June 1869
|Members||35 (at start)|
|Speaker of the Council|| John Richardson |
— Thomas Bartley until 1 July 1868
|Governor||HE Rt. Hon Sir George Bowen |
— HE Rt. Hon Sir George Grey until 5 February 1868
The 4th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand.
Elections for this term were held in 61 electorates between 12 February and 6 April 1866 to elect 70 MPs. Parliament was prorogued in late 1870. During the term of this Parliament, two Ministries were in power. During this term, four Māori electorates were first established in 1867, and the first elections held in 1868.
The 4th Parliament opened on 30 June 1866,  following the 1866 general election. It sat for five sessions, and was prorogued on 6 December 1875. 
|first||30 June 1866||8 October 1866|
|second||9 July 1867||10 October 1867|
|third||9 July 1868||20 October 1868|
|fourth||1 June 1869||3 September 1869|
|fifth||14 June 1870||13 September 1870|
Political parties had not been established yet; this only happened after the 1890 election. Anyone attempting to form an administration thus had to win support directly from individual MPs. This made first forming, and then retaining a government difficult and challenging. 
The 4th Parliament sat during the time of the New Zealand Wars, with the Second Taranaki War proceeding at the beginning of this Parliament's term. The Central Otago Gold Rush was coming to an end, but the West Coast Gold Rush had only just begun.
The capital had moved from Auckland to Wellington in 1865. Parliament was meeting in the Provincial Council buildings. With the increase in the number of Members of Parliament to 70, conditions became very crowded.  The original building "grew like topsy" until the end of the 19th century, and was consumed by fire on 11 December 1907. 
In 1868, the first elections were held in the four Māori electorates that were created in the previous year. 
A few months before the 1866 general elections, Edward Stafford became Premier for the second time. On 16 October 1865, the second Stafford Ministry was formed. This lasted well into the term of the 4th Parliament on 28 June 1869.  
The premiership changed back to William Fox. The third Fox Ministry was in place from 28 June 1869 to 10 September 1872, well into the term of the 5th Parliament.  
61 electorates were used for the 1866 elections. This was a significant increase from the 43 electorates used in the previous (1860–1861) election, and resulted from the Representation Act 1865. The bill had its third reading  and was assented in October 1865. 
70 seats were created across the 61 electorates.  The City of Wellington electorate was the only three-member electorate, and seven electorates were represented by two members. The remaining 53 electorates were represented by a single member. 
|Member||Electorate||Province||MP's term||Election date|
|George Armstrong||Akaroa||Canterbury||First||21 February |
|Lancelot Walker||Ashley||Canterbury||Second||2 March |
|Archibald Clark||Auckland East||Auckland||Second||12 February |
|James Williamson||Auckland West||Auckland||Second||13 February |
|John Williamson||Auckland West||Auckland||Third||13 February |
|Crosbie Ward||Avon||Canterbury||Third||20 February |
|Hugh Carleton||Bay of Islands||Auckland||Fourth||5 March |
|John Cargill||Bruce||Otago||Third||7 March |
|Arthur Burns||Caversham||Otago||Second||16 March |
|David Monro ||Cheviot||Canterbury||Third||19 February |
|James FitzGerald||City of Christchurch||Canterbury||Fourth||12 February |
|John Ormond||Clive||Hawke's Bay||Second||17 March |
|James Macandrew||Clutha||Otago||Fourth||9 March |
|John Cracroft Wilson||Coleridge||Canterbury||Second||31 January |
|Andrew Richmond||Collingwood||Nelson||Second||9 March |
|William Reynolds||City of Dunedin||Otago||Second||9 March |
|James Paterson||City of Dunedin||Otago||Second||9 March |
|Theodore Haultain||Franklin||Auckland||Third||22 February |
|Robert Graham||Franklin||Auckland||Second||22 February |
|Francis Jollie||Gladstone||Canterbury||Second||23 February |
|Charles O'Neill||Goldfields||Otago||First||26 February |
|Julius Vogel||Goldfields||Otago||Second||26 February |
|James Bradshaw||Gold Field Towns||Otago||First||16 March |
|James Richmond||Grey and Bell||Taranaki||Second||2 March |
|Charles Haughton||Hampden||Otago||Second||5 March |
|John Hall||Heathcote||Canterbury||Second||1 March |
|William Fitzherbert||Hutt||Wellington||Third||28 February |
|Alfred Ludlam||Hutt||Wellington||Third||28 February |
|William Wood||Invercargill||Southland||First||9 March |
|Joseph Beswick||Kaiapoi||Canterbury||First||16 February |
|Edward Hargreaves||Town of Lyttelton||Canterbury||First||3 March |
|William Baldwin||Manuherikia||Otago||Second||17 March |
|Francis Hull||Marsden||Auckland||First||5 March |
|Dillon Bell||Mataura||Southland||Third||10 March |
|Thomas Ball||Mongonui||Auckland||First||20 March |
|Charles Parker||Motueka||Nelson||Second||2 March |
|William Sefton Moorhouse a||Mount Herbert||Canterbury||First||22 February |
|Donald McLean||Napier||Hawke's Bay||First||20 March  |
|Oswald Curtis||City of Nelson||Nelson||First||20 February |
|Edward Stafford||City of Nelson||Nelson||Third||20 February  |
|William Wells||Suburbs of Nelson||Nelson||Third||15 February |
|John Richardson||New Plymouth||Taranaki||Second||16 March |
|George Graham ||Newton||Auckland||Second||15 February |
|James O'Neill||Northern Division||Auckland||Third||14 February |
|Thomas Henderson||Northern Division||Auckland||Third||14 February |
|Robert Campbell||Oamaru||Otago||First||23 March |
|Arthur Atkinson ||Omata||Taranaki||First||9 March |
|Maurice O'Rorke||Town of Onehunga||Auckland||Second||20 February |
|Frederick Whitaker||Parnell||Auckland||First||16 February |
|Paul de Quincey||Pensioner Settlements||Auckland||First||15 February |
|Arthur Beauchamp ||Picton||Marlborough||First||14 March |
|Alfred Brandon||Porirua||Wellington||Third||5 March |
|Thomas Dick||Port Chalmers||Otago||Second||17 March |
|Joseph Newman||Raglan||Auckland||First||23 February |
|William Watt||Rangitiki||Wellington||First||8 March |
|Donald Hankinson ||Riverton||Southland||First||26 February |
|George Hepburn||Roslyn||Otago||First||22 March |
|Edward Stevens||Selwyn||Canterbury||First||26 February |
|Donald Reid||Taieri||Otago||First||7 March |
|Alfred Cox||Timaru||Canterbury||Second||20 February |
|William Murison||Waikouaiti||Otago||First||28 February |
|Arthur Oliver||Waimea||Marlborough||First||23 February  |
|Henry Bunny||Wairarapa||Wellington||Second||3 March |
|William Eyes||Wairau||Marlborough||Second||23 February |
|Alexander McNeill||Wallace||Otago||First||6 April |
|John Bryce||Wanganui||Wellington||First||3 March |
|William Taylor||City of Wellington||Wellington||Second||1 March |
|Isaac Featherston||City of Wellington||Wellington||Fourth||1 March |
|Charles Borlase||City of Wellington||Wellington||First||1 March |
|William Sefton Moorhouse a||Westland||Canterbury||Fourth||16 March |
a Moorhouse was elected in both the Mount Herbert and Westland electorates. He chose to represent Westland.
There were numerous changes during the term of the 4th Parliament.
|1866||Mount Herbert||27 July||William Moorhouse||Chose to represent Westland||Thomas Potts|
|1866||Port Chalmers||15 December||Thomas Dick||Resignation||Thomas Dick|
|1867||City of Dunedin||19 January||William Reynolds||Resignation||William Reynolds|
|1867||City of Christchurch||13 February||James FitzGerald||Resignation||William Travers|
|1867||Avon||11 March||Crosbie Ward||Resignation||William Reeves|
|1867||City of Auckland West||25 April||James Williamson||Resignation||Patrick Dignan|
|1867||Manuherikia||27 April||William Baldwin||Resignation||David Mervyn|
|1867||Wanganui||27 April||John Bryce||Resignation||Henry Harrison|
|1867||Town of New Plymouth||29 April||John Richardson||Resignation||Harry Atkinson|
|1867||Raglan||4 June||Joseph Newman||Resignation||James Farmer|
|1867||Parnell||5 June||Frederick Whitaker||Resignation||Charles Heaphy|
|1867||Port Chalmers||15 June||Thomas Dick||Resignation||David Main|
|1867||Waimea||28 June||Arthur Oliver||Resignation||Edward Baigent|
|1867||Lyttelton||1 July||Edward Hargreaves||Resignation||George Macfarlan|
|1867||Northern Division||1 July||Thomas Henderson||Resignation||Thomas Macfarlane|
|1867||Kaiapoi||5 July||Joseph Beswick||Resignation||John Studholme|
|1867||Picton||25 July||Arthur Beauchamp||Resignation||William Adams|
|1867||Pensioner Settlements||5 August||Paul de Quincey||Resignation||John Kerr|
|1867||Ashley||7 August||Lancelot Walker||Resignation||Henry Tancred|
|1868||Omata||7 February||Arthur Atkinson||Resignation||Charles Brown|
|1868||Collingwood||18 March||Andrew Richmond||Resignation||Arthur Collins|
|1868||Westland Boroughs||3 April||William Moorhouse||Resignation||William Harrison|
Supplementary election, 1868
|Westland North||9 April 1868 ||Timothy Gallagher|
|Westland South||6 April 1868 ||Edmund Barff|
First Māori elections
|Eastern Maori||15 April 1868 ||Tāreha Te Moananui|
|Northern Maori||15 April 1868 ||Frederick Russell|
|Southern Maori||20 June 1868 ||John Patterson|
|Western Maori||1 May 1868 ||Mete Kīngi Paetahi|
4th Parliament (continued)
|1868||Avon||8 June||William Reeves||Resignation||William Rolleston|
|1868||Picton||11 June||William Adams||Resignation||Courtney Kenny|
|1868||Rangitiki||22 June||William Watt||Resignation||William Fox|
|1868||Franklin||2 July||Robert Graham||Resignation||William Swan|
|1868||Waikouaiti||27 July||William Murison||Resignation||Robert Mitchell|
|1868||Lyttelton ||2 November||George Macfarlan||Death||John Peacock|
|1868||Timaru||20 November||Alfred Cox||Resignation||Edward Stafford|
|1868||City of Nelson||24 December||Edward Stafford||Resignation||Nathaniel Edwards|
|1869||Marsden||25 January ||Francis Hull||Resignation||John Munro|
|1869||Roslyn||12 February||George Hepburn||Resignation||Henry Driver|
|1869||City of Dunedin||5 March||James Paterson||Resignation||Thomas Birch|
|1869||Northern Division||15 March||James O'Neill||Resignation||Harry Farnall|
|1869||Newton||19 March||George Graham||Resignation||Robert Creighton|
|1869||Waikouaiti||27 April||Robert Mitchell||Resignation||Francis Rich|
|1869||Town of New Plymouth||28 April||Harry Atkinson||Resignation||Thomas Kelly|
|1869 (1st)||Wallace||30 April||Alexander McNeill||Resignation||Cuthbert Cowan|
|1869||Oamaru||25 May||Robert Campbell||Resignation||Charles Graham|
|1869||Taieri||19 June||Donald Reid||Resignation||Henry Howorth|
|1869 (2nd)||Wallace||17 September||Cuthbert Cowan||Resignation||George Webster|
|1870||Bruce||21 March||John Cargill||Resignation||James Brown|
|1870||Mongonui||30 March||Thomas Ball||Resignation||Thomas Gillies|
|1870||Caversham||25 April||Arthur John Burns||Resignation||James McIndoe|
|1870||Omata||27 April||Charles Brown||Resignation||Frederic Carrington|
|1870||Parnell||12 May||Charles Heaphy||Resignation||Reader Wood|
|1870||Riverton||18 May||Donald Hankinson||Resignation||Lauchlan McGillivray|
|1870||Westland North||2 July||Timothy Gallagher||Resignation||Thomas Kynnersley|
|1870||City of Christchurch||12 August||William Travers||Resignation||William Moorhouse|
Walker resigned in 1867. Henry Tancred won the subsequent 1867 by-election.
James Williamson resigned in 1867. He was succeeded by Patrick Dignan.
Ward resigned in 1867. He was succeeded by William Reeves, who himself resigned in 1868. William Rolleston won the subsequent 1868 by-election.
Cargill resigned in 1870 and was succeeded by James Clark Brown.
Burns resigned in 1870 and was succeeded by James McIndoe.
FitzGerald resigned in 1867 and was succeeded by William Travers, who himself resigned in 1870. William Sefton Moorhouse took the seat for the remaining months in 1870.
Paterson resigned in 1869 and was succeeded by Thomas Birch.
Stafford resigned in 1868 and was succeeded by Nathaniel Edwards.
Richmond resigned in 1868 and was succeeded by Arthur Shuckburgh Collins.
Beswick resigned in 1867. He was succeeded by John Studholme.
Baldwin resigned in 1867. He was succeeded by David Mervyn.
Hull resigned in 1868. He was succeeded by John Munro.
Ball resigned in 1870. He was succeeded by Thomas Gillies on 30 March 1870.
Moorhouse was elected in the Mount Herbert electorate on 22 February 1866.   He also stood in the Westland electorate and was returned 16 March 1866.   He chose to represent Westland.  A by-election was held on 27 July 1866 and Thomas Potts was returned unopposed.  
Richardson resigned in 1867 and was succeeded by Harry Atkinson, who himself resigned in 1869. Thomas Kelly won the 1869 by-election.
Graham resigned in 1869 and was succeeded by Robert James Creighton.
Henderson resigned in 1867. The 6 July 1867 by-election was won by Thomas Macfarlane. 
O'Neill resigned in 1869 and was succeeded by Henry Warner Farnall.
Campbell resigned in 1869 and was succeeded by Charles Christie Graham.
Atkinson resigned in 1867 and was succeeded in the 1868 by-election by Charles Brown, who himself resigned in 1870. Frederic Carrington was the successful candidate in the 1870 by-election.
Whitaker resigned in 1867 and was succeeded by Charles Heaphy.
De Quincey resigned in 1867. The 5 August 1867 by-election was won by John Kerr. A second person, a Mr Jackson, was nominated, but the returning officer would not accept the nomination, as Jackson was not on the electoral roll. Thus, Kerr was declared elected unopposed. 
Beauchamp resigned in 1867. He was succeeded by William Adams, who himself resigned in 1868. Courtney Kenny won the 1868 by-election.
Dick, who was elected on 17 March 1866, resigned on 15 October 1866. He successfully contested the 15 December 1866 by-election, but resigned again on 26 April 1867.  David Forsyth Main successfully contested the 1867 by-election.
Newman resigned in 1867. He was succeeded by James Farmer.
Watt resigned in 1868. He was succeeded by William Fox, who won the 1868 by-election.
Hepburn resigned in 1868. He was succeeded by Henry Driver.
Reid resigned in 1869. He was succeeded by Henry Howorth.
Cox resigned in 1868. He was succeeded by Edward Stafford.
Hargreaves resigned in 1867.  He was succeeded by George Macfarlan, who won the 1867 by-election. Macfarlan died on 9 October 1868  and was succeeded by John Thomas Peacock in a 2 November 1868 by-election. 
Murison resigned in 1868 and was succeeded by Robert Mitchell. Mitchell himself resigned in the following year and was replaced by Francis Rich.
Oliver resigned in 1867. He was succeeded by Edward Baigent.
McNeil resigned in 1869 and was succeeded by Cuthbert Cowan. Cowan himself resigned in the same year he got elected and was replaced by George Webster.
The Westland Representation Act 1867 introduced changes to the Waimea and Westland electorates. Their areas were reassigned and four electorates formed. Waimea lost some area, but continued to exist. Westland was abolished in 1867. A new electorate (Westland Boroughs) was established, and Moorhouse was transferred to it. Other new electorates, for which by-elections were to be held, were Westland North and Westland South.  
Westland Boroughs was established through the Westland Representation Act 1867, and Moorhouse transferred to it. He resigned in 1868, and William Henry Harrison won the resulting 1868 by-election.  
Westland North was established through the Westland Representation Act 1867. Timothy Gallagher was its first representative, elected in the 9 April 1868 by-election. He resigned on 13 May 1870 and was succeeded by Thomas Kynnersley following a 2 July 1870 by-election.  
Westland South was established through the Westland Representation Act 1867. Edmund Barff was its representative, elected in the 6 April 1868 by-election. 
The first elections for the new Māori electorates were held in 1868.
Tāreha Te Moananui was the first representative for the Eastern Maori electorate.
Frederick Nene Russell was the first representative for the Northern Maori electorate.
John Patterson was the first representative for the Southern Maori electorate.
Mete Kīngi Paetahi was the first representative for the Western Maori electorate.
William Sefton Moorhouse was a British-born New Zealand politician. He was the second Superintendent of Canterbury Province.
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The 1866 New Zealand general election was held between 12 February and 6 April to elect 70 MPs to the fourth term of the New Zealand Parliament.
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Waikouaiti was a parliamentary electorate in the Otago region of New Zealand, from 1866 to 1908.
Mount Herbert was a former parliamentary electorate in the Canterbury region of New Zealand, from 1866 to 1870.
Westland Boroughs was a parliamentary electorate in the West Coast of New Zealand from 1866 to 1870.
Westland North was a parliamentary electorate on the West Coast of New Zealand from 1868 to 1870.
Westland South was a parliamentary electorate on the West Coast of New Zealand from 1868 to 1870.
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Roslyn was a parliamentary electorate in the city of Dunedin in the Otago region of New Zealand from 1866 to 1890.
Picton was a parliamentary electorate in the Marlborough Region of New Zealand, from 1861 to 1887.
Waimea was a parliamentary electorate in the Nelson Province of New Zealand, from 1853 to 1887. Initially represented by two members, it was a single-member electorate from 1861.
Oamaru was a parliamentary electorate in the Otago region of New Zealand, during three periods between 1866 and 1978.
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