Wellington (originally City of Wellington), was a parliamentary electorate in Wellington, New Zealand. It existed from 1853 to 1905 with a break in the 1880s. It was a multi-member electorate. The electorate was represented, over the years, by 24 Members of Parliament.
An electorate is a geographical constituency used for electing members to the New Zealand Parliament. In informal discussion, electorates are often called seats. The most formal description, electoral district, is used in legislation. The size of electorates is determined on a population basis such that all electorates have approximately the same population.
Wellington is the capital city and second most populous urban area of New Zealand, with 418,500 residents. It is located at the south-western tip of the North Island, between Cook Strait and the Remutaka Range. Wellington is the major population centre of the southern North Island, and is the administrative centre of the Wellington Region, which also includes the Kapiti Coast and Wairarapa. Its latitude is 41°17′S, making it the world's southernmost capital of a sovereign state. Wellington features a temperate maritime climate, and is the world's windiest city by average wind speed.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, this category includes specifically members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title. Member of Congress is an equivalent term in other jurisdictions.
In December 1887, the House of Representatives voted to reduce its membership from general electorates from 91 to 70. The 1890 electoral redistribution used the same 1886 census data used for the 1887 electoral redistribution. In addition, three-member electorates were introduced in the four main centres. This resulted in a major restructuring of electorates, and Wellington was one of eight electorates to be re-created for the 1890 election.
The New Zealand House of Representatives is a component of the New Zealand Parliament, along with the Sovereign. The House passes all laws, provides ministers to form a Cabinet, and supervises the work of the Government. It is also responsible for adopting the state's budgets and approving the state's accounts.
The electorate was one of the original electorates used in the 1853 election for the 1st New Zealand Parliament. During the period until 1871, Wellington was a three-member electorate.
The 1853 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 1st term. It was the first national election ever held in New Zealand, although Parliament did not yet have full authority to govern the colony, which was part of the British Empire at that time.
The 1st New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. It opened on 24 May 1854, following New Zealand's first general election. It was dissolved on 15 September 1855 in preparation for that year's election. 37 Members of the House of Representatives (MHRs) represented 24 electorates.
In 1858, Isaac Featherston and William Fitzherbert resigned their seats in Parliament.Featherston apparently wanted to return to England. Instead, he successfully stood for re-election within months. The other person returned in the same by-election was William Barnard Rhodes.
Isaac Earl Featherston was a New Zealand politician, and was known for his advocacy for the establishment of New Zealand self-government, and the importance of the provincial governments.
Sir William Fitzherbert was a New Zealand politician. He served as Minister of Finance, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and Speaker of the Legislative Council.
William Barnard Rhodes, casually referred to as Barney Rhodes, was a New Zealand landowner, pastoralist, businessman and politician. He was probably born in Lincolnshire, England, but took up a career at sea at an early age. In 1839 he settled in Wellington New Zealand and remained there for the rest of his life. He brought three of his younger brothers to New Zealand and they co-ordinated their efforts.
The election for the 3rd Parliament was held on 11 December 1860,with the announcement of the official results on 15 December.
Independent Liberal Conservative Liberal–Labour Independent Liberal
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party. There are numerous reasons why someone may stand for office as an independent.
The New Zealand Liberal Party was the first organised political party in New Zealand. It governed from 1891 until 1912. The Liberal strategy was to create a large class of small land-owning farmers who supported Liberal ideals, by buying large tracts of Māori land and selling it to small farmers on credit. The Liberal Government also established the basis of the later welfare state, with old age pensions, developed a system for settling industrial disputes, which was accepted by both employers and trade unions. In 1893 it extended voting rights to women, making New Zealand the first country in the world to enact universal female suffrage.
Liberal–Labour was a political association in New Zealand in the last decade of the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries.
|1853 election||Charles Clifford||Robert Hart||James Kelham|
|1855 election||Isaac Featherston||William Fitzherbert|
|1858 by-election||Isaac Featherston||William Rhodes|
|1860 election||William Taylor|
|1866 election||Charles Borlase|
|1871 election||George Hunter||Edward Pearce|
|1877 by-election||William Travers|
|1878 by-election||George Elliott Barton|
|1879 election||William Hutchison||William Levin|
|(Electorate abolished 1881–1890)|
From 1881 to 1890, the Wellington electorate was replaced by three separate electorates: Te Aro and Thorndon during the whole nine years, and Wellington South (until 1887) then Wellington East (1887–1890)
|1890 election||George Fisher||Kennedy Macdonald||John Duthie|
|1892 by-election||William McLean|
|1893 election||Francis Bell||Robert Stout|
|1896 election||George Fisher||John Hutcheson|
|1898 by-election||John Duthie|
|1899 by-election||John Hutcheson|
|1899 election||Arthur Atkinson|
|1902 election||John Duthie||John Aitken|
|1905 by-election||Francis Fisher|
|(Electorate abolished 1905; see Wellington Central, Wellington East, and Wellington North)|
In 1905 the Wellington electorate was again replaced by three electorates: Wellington Central, Wellington East, and Wellington North. In the 1905 election, all three Wellington incumbents stood in the new electorates, with Fisher and Aitken winning in Central and East respectively, while Duthie lost to Charles Izard in Wellington North - ending his parliamentary career.
|Independent Liberal||Francis Fisher||4,692||42.06|
|Independent Liberal gain from Liberal||Swing|
|Independent Liberal||Patrick O'Regan||6,304||44.64|
|Liberal||Edwin George Jellicoe||1,384||9.80|
1 Majority is difference between lowest winning poll (Fisher: 6,685) and highest losing poll (O'Regan: 6,304)
|Participation by gender||%|
|Conservative||Arthur Richmond Atkinson||6,703||46.02||+1.75|
|Conservative||Thomas William Hislop||6,297||43.23|
|Independent Liberal||Edwin George Jellicoe||4,751||32.62|
|Independent Liberal||Thomas Carmichael||1,004||6.89|
|Independent Liberal||Denton Burnett Duncan||78||0.54|
1 Majority is difference between lowest winning poll (Fisher: 6,442) and highest losing poll (Macdonald: 6,320)
|Participation by gender||%|
|Independent||Edwin George Jellicoe||4,971||41.72|
|Liberal||Richard Clement Kirk||6,254||46.20|
|Conservative||Andrew Agnew Stuart Menteath||5,559||42.22|
|Independent||Justinian John Kivern Powell||185||1.40|
1 Majority is difference between lowest winning poll (Fisher: 5,858) and highest losing poll (Atkinson: 5,830)
2 Turnout is total number of voters - as voters had three votes each total votes cast was higher (37,618)
1893 was the first election in which women could vote (the electoral act giving women the vote was passed ten weeks prior to the election).Electoral returns quantified female enrolment and turnout, and showed women's turnout was higher than men's while women's enrolment was lower.
|Participation by gender||%|
1 Majority is difference between lowest winning poll (Duthie - 4,840) and highest losing poll (Mcdonald - 3,863)
2 Turnout is total number of voters - as voters had three votes each total votes cast was higher (36,102 valid, and 147 invalid votes)
|Liberal||Edwin George Jellicoe||1,921||35.98|
|Independent||George Elliott Barton||506||41.04|
|Independent||Colonel E. Pearce||463||21.41|
The 2nd New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. It opened on 15 April 1856, following New Zealand's 1855 election. It was dissolved on 5 November 1860 in preparation for 1860–61 election. The 2nd Parliament was the first under which New Zealand had responsible government, meaning that unlike previously, the Cabinet was chosen by Parliament rather than by the Governor.
The New Zealand general election of 1884 was held on 22 July to elect a total of 95 MPs to the 9th session of the New Zealand Parliament. The Māori vote was held on 21 July. A total number of 137,686 (60.6%) voters turned out to vote. In 11 seats there was only one candidate.
The New Zealand general election of 1887 was held on 26 September to elect 95 MPs to the tenth session of the New Zealand Parliament. The Māori vote was held on 7 September. 175,410 votes were cast. In 5 seats there was only one candidate.
New Plymouth is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It was first created for the 1st New Zealand Parliament in 1853 and has existed since, with one 32-year interruption. The electorate was initially called Town of New Plymouth.
Wairarapa is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It was first created in 1858 and existed until 1881. It was recreated in 1887 and has since existed continuously. In the early years, the electorate was for a time represented by two members. Wairarapa has been held by Alastair Scott since the 2014 election.
Taranaki was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate that existed for three periods between 1881 and 1996. It was represented by nine Members of Parliament.
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Wairarapa and Hawke's Bay is a former parliamentary electorate in the Wellington region of New Zealand, from 1853 to 1859, when it was extended into previously unincorporated territories, split in two and replaced by County of Hawke with its southern portion being the newly created Wairarapa electorate. It is the first general electorate to have been abolished in New Zealand.
Christchurch was a parliamentary electorate in Christchurch, New Zealand. It existed three times. Originally it was the Town of Christchurch from 1853 to 1860. From the 1860–61 election to the 1871 election, it existed as City of Christchurch. It then existed from the 1875–76 election until the 1881 election. The last period was from the 1890 election to the 1905 election. Since the 1946 election, a similarly named electorate called Christchurch Central has been in existence.
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Dunedin or the City of Dunedin or the Town of Dunedin was a parliamentary electorate in the city of Dunedin in Otago, New Zealand. It was one of the original electorates created in 1853 and existed, with two breaks, until 1905. It was the only New Zealand electorate that was created as a single-member, two-member and three member electorate.
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Suburbs of Auckland was a parliamentary electorate in Auckland, New Zealand from 1853 to 1860.
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The 9th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand.
The 10th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. Elections for this term were held in 4 Māori electorates and 91 European electorates on 7 and 26 September 1887, respectively. A total of 95 MPs were elected. Parliament was prorogued in October 1890. During the term of this Parliament, two Ministries were in power.