Waipawa (New Zealand electorate)

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Waipawa was a parliamentary electorate in the Hawke's Bay region of New Zealand, from 1881 to 1946.

New Zealand electorates voting district for elections to the New Zealand Parliament

An electorate is a geographical constituency used for electing members to the New Zealand Parliament. In informal discussion, electorates are often called seats. The most formal description, electoral district, is used in legislation. The size of electorates is determined on a population basis such that all electorates have approximately the same population.

Contents

Population centres

The previous electoral redistribution was undertaken in 1875 for the 1875–76 election. In the six years since, New Zealand's European population had increased by 65%. In the 1881 electoral redistribution, the House of Representatives increased the number of European representatives to 91 (up from 84 since the 1875–76 election). The number of Māori electorates was held at four. The House further decided that electorates should not have more than one representative, which led to 35 new electorates being formed, including Waipawa, and two electorates that had previously been abolished to be recreated. This necessitated a major disruption to existing boundaries. [1]

1875–76 New Zealand general election

The New Zealand general election of 1875–76 was held between 20 December 1875 and 29 January 1876 to elect a total of 88 MPs in 73 electorates to the 6th session of the New Zealand Parliament. The Māori vote was held on 4 and 15 January 1876. A total of 56,471 voters were registered.

New Zealand House of Representatives Sole chamber of New Zealand Parliament

The New Zealand House of Representatives is a component of the New Zealand Parliament, along with the Sovereign. The House passes all laws, provides ministers to form a Cabinet, and supervises the work of the Government. It is also responsible for adopting the state's budgets and approving the state's accounts.

The legislation defined the area as follows: [2]

This district is bounded towards the North by the Hawke's Bay Electoral District; towards the East by the sea; towards the South by the Waimata Stream to its source; thence by a right line to Trig. Station No. 41a; thence by a right line to Trig. Station on Whahatuaro; then by the Manawatu River to the Manawatu Gorge; thence towards the West by lines from peak to peak along the summit of the Ruahine Range to the Hawke's Bay Electoral District,

Hawke's Bay was a parliamentary electorate in the Hawke's Bay region of New Zealand from 1881 to 1996. In 1986 it was renamed Hawkes Bay.

Hawke Bay bay

Hawke Bay is a large bay on the east coast of the North Island of New Zealand. It stretches from Mahia Peninsula in the northeast to Cape Kidnappers in the southwest, a distance of some 100 kilometres.

Triangulation station fixed surveying station used in geodetic surveying

A triangulation station, also known as a triangulation pillar, trigonometrical station, trigonometrical point, trig station, trig beacon, or trig point, and sometimes informally as a trig, is a fixed surveying station, used in geodetic surveying and other surveying projects in its vicinity. The nomenclature varies regionally: they are generally known as trigonometrical or triangulation stations in North America, trig points in the United Kingdom, trig pillars in Ireland, trig stations or points in Australia and New Zealand, and trig beacons in South Africa; triangulation pillar is the more formal term for the concrete columns found in the UK.

History

The Waipawa electorate was established for the 1881 election. [3]

1881 New Zealand general election

The New Zealand general election of 1881 was held on 8 and 9 December in the Māori and European electorates, respectively, to elect 95 MPs to the 8th session of the New Zealand Parliament.

William Cowper Smith was the first representative. He was re-elected in 1884. [4] From 1887 to 1890 Smith represented the Woodville electorate, which only existed for those three years. [5]

William Cowper Smith was a Liberal Party Member of Parliament in New Zealand.

1884 New Zealand general election

The New Zealand general election of 1884 was held on 22 July to elect a total of 95 MPs to the 9th session of the New Zealand Parliament. The Māori vote was held on 21 July. A total number of 137,686 (60.6%) voters turned out to vote. In 11 seats there was only one candidate.

1887 New Zealand general election

The New Zealand general election of 1887 was held on 26 September to elect 95 MPs to the tenth session of the New Zealand Parliament. The Māori vote was held on 7 September. 175,410 votes were cast. In 5 seats there was only one candidate.

The representative for Waipawa for the period from 1887 to 1890 was Thomas Tanner; he retired at the end of the parliamentary term. [6] Tanner was succeeded by Smith in the 1890 election; Smith retired at the end of the parliamentary term. [4]

Thomas Tanner was a 19th-century Member of Parliament in New Zealand.

1890 New Zealand general election

The New Zealand general election of 1890 was one of New Zealand's most significant. It marked the beginning of party politics in New Zealand with the formation of the Liberal Government, which was to enact major welfare, labour and electoral reforms, including giving the vote to women.

Charles Hall represented Waipawa for the Liberal Party from 1893 to 1896, when he was defeated by George Hunter. [7] Hall in turn defeated Hunter in the 1899 election and then served the electorate until 1911, when he retired. [7] The 1911 election was won by Hunter, who continued to represent the electorate until 1930. [8]

An interesting situation arose in 1928. D. B. Kent was originally announced as an independent Liberal-Labour candidate. [9] He was then approached by the United Party and became their official candidate. The local supporters of the United Party had not been consulted on this, and did not support Kent, but backed Ernest Albert Goodger instead. Goodger thus stood as an independent United candidate. [10] This split the United Party vote, but Hunter again won with an absolute majority. [11]

Hunter's death on 20 August 1930 [8] caused the 1930 by-election, which was won by Albert Jull. [12] Jull was confirmed by the voters in the 1931 election, but was defeated in 1935 election by Hubert Christie. [13] Jull in turn defeated Christie in 1938, but he died on 24 September 1940. [13] Jull was succeeded by Cyril Harker, who won the 1940 by-election. Harker was confirmed by the voters in the 1943 election. He served until the end of the parliamentary term in 1946, [14] when the electorate was abolished. [3]

Members of Parliament

The electorate was represented by seven Members of Parliament: [3]

Key

  Independent     Liberal     Conservative     Reform     United     Labour     National   

ElectionWinner
1881 election William Cowper Smith
1884 election
1887 election Thomas Tanner
1890 election William Cowper Smith
1893 election Charles Hall
1896 election George Hunter
1899 election Charles Hall
1902 election
1905 election
1908 election
1911 election George Hunter
1914 election
1919 election
1922 election
1925 election
1928 election
1930 by-election Albert Jull
1931 election
1935 election Hubert Christie
1938 election Albert Jull
1940 by-election Cyril Harker
1943 election
(Electorate abolished 1946)

Election results

1940 by-election

1940 Waipawa by-election
PartyCandidateVotes%±
National Cyril Harker 4,913 60.64
Labour Hubert Christie 3,18939.36
Majority1,72421.28
Informal votes340.42
Turnout 8,13676.14
Registered electors 10,685
National hold Swing

1935 election

1935 general election: Waipawa [15]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Hubert Christie 3,089 35.92
United Albert Jull 2,83032.91-19.71
Independent John Davies Ormond, Jr. [lower-alpha 1] 2,12124.66-22.72
Democrat W L Barker5596.50
Informal votes480.55-1.04
Majority2593.01
Turnout 8,59993.37
Registered electors 9,209

1931 election

1931 general election: Waipawa [16]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
United Albert Jull 3,870 52.62
Reform John Davies Ormond, Jr. [lower-alpha 1] 3,48447.38
Majority3865.25
Informal votes1191.59
Turnout 7,47380.99
Registered electors 9,227

1930 by-election

1930 Waipawa by-election [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
United Albert Jull 3,747 52.06
Reform William Tucker3,45047.93
Majority2974.12
Turnout 7,197
United gain from Reform Swing

1928 election

1928 general election: Waipawa [11]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Reform George Hunter 3,983 53.33 -9.05
Independent Ernest Albert Goodger [18] 2,12328.43
United Douglas Barrington Kent1,36218.24
Majority1,86024.91+0.14
Informal votes771.02-0.22
Turnout 7,54585.80-4.34
Registered electors 8,794

1925 election

1925 general election: Waipawa [19]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Reform George Hunter 4,486 62.38 +4.31
Liberal William Ashton Chambers2,70537.62
Majority1,78124.77+8.62
Informal votes901.24+0.06
Turnout 7,28190.13+3.77
Registered electors 8,078

1922 election

1922 general election: Waipawa [20]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Reform George Hunter 3,870 58.07 +6.01
Liberal John Joshua Langridge2,79441.93
Majority1,07616.15+12.02
Informal votes791.17+0.10
Turnout 6,74386.36+1.20
Registered electors 7,808

1919 election

1919 general election: Waipawa [21]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Reform George Hunter 3,458 52.06 +0.99
Liberal Albert Jull 3,18447.94-0.99
Majority2744.13+1.98
Informal votes721.07-0.38
Turnout 6,71485.16-1.12
Registered electors 7,884

1914 election

1914 general election: Waipawa [22]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Reform George Hunter 3,282 51.07 -3.51
Liberal Albert Jull 3,14448.93+3.51
Majority1382.15-7.02
Informal votes951.46-0.03
Turnout 6,52186.28+4.69
Registered electors 7,558

1911 election

1911 general election: Waipawa, first ballot [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Reform George Hunter 3,389 54.58 +4.08
Liberal Albert Jull 2,82045.42
Majority5699.16+8.16
Informal votes941.49
Turnout 6,30381.59+2.75
Registered electors 7,725

1908 election

1908 general election: Waipawa, first ballot [24]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Charles Hall 2,507 50.50 +11.13
Conservative George Hunter 2,45749.50-11.13
Majority501.01-20.25
Turnout 4,96478.84-8.09
Registered electors 6,296

1905 election

1905 general election: Waipawa [25]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Charles Hall 3,576 60.63 -11.49
Conservative George Hunter 2,32239.37
Majority1,25421.26-22.98
Informal votes510.86
Turnout 5,94986.94+18.49
Registered electors 6,843

1902 election

1902 general election: Waipawa [26]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Charles Hall 2,556 72.12 +15.34
Independent Liberal James Taylor98827.88
Majority1,56844.24+30.68
Turnout 3,54468.44-15.27
Registered electors 5,178

1899 election

1899 general election: Waipawa [27]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Charles Hall 2,332 56.78 +9.62
Conservative George Hunter 1,77543.22-9.62
Majority55713.56+7.88
Turnout 4,10783.71-0.88
Registered electors 4,906

1896 election

1896 general election: Waipawa [28]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative George Hunter 1,961 52.84 +11.58
Liberal Charles Hall 1,75047.16-3.58
Majority2115.69-3.79
Turnout 3,71184.59+3.22
Registered electors 4,387

1893 election

1893 general election: Waipawa [29] [30]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Charles Hall 2,024 50.74
Conservative George Hunter 1,64641.26-4.54
Independent William Warrand Carlile [31] 3198.00
Majority3789.48-6.89
Turnout 3,98981.37+28.16
Registered electors 4,902

1890 election

1890 general election: Waipawa [32]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal William Cowper Smith 1,297 57.77
Conservative George Hunter 94842.23
Majority34915.55+10.04
Turnout 2,24560.92-5.81
Registered electors 3,685

1887 election

1887 general election: Waipawa [33] [34]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Independent Thomas Tanner 695 44.02 +5.60
Independent John Harker60838.51
Independent Fred Sutton 23614.95
Independent Arthur Rowley William Lascelles402.53
Majority875.51-17.67
Turnout 1,57966.74-0.49
Registered electors 2,366

1884 election

1884 general election: Waipawa [35]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Independent William Cowper Smith 768 61.59 +10.48
Independent Thomas Tanner 47938.41
Majority28923.18+20.97
Turnout 1,24767.22-4.21
Registered electors 1,855

1881 election

1881 general election: Waipawa [36]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Independent William Cowper Smith 579 51.10
Independent John Davies Ormond 55448.90
Majority252.21
Turnout 1,13371.44
Registered electors 1,586

Table footnotes

  1. 1 2 Ormond was the son of John Davies Ormond and the father of John Ormond

Notes

  1. McRobie 1989, pp. 43–48.
  2. "Representation Act 1881(45 VICT 1881 No 14)". New Zealand Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
  3. 1 2 3 Wilson 1985, p. 274.
  4. 1 2 Wilson 1985, p. 235.
  5. Wilson 1985, pp. 235, 277.
  6. Wilson 1985, p. 238.
  7. 1 2 Wilson 1985, pp. 202, 207.
  8. 1 2 Wilson 1985, p. 207.
  9. "A Change in Name". Auckland Star . LIX (251). 23 October 1928. p. 5. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
  10. "Waipawa Seat". The Evening Post . CVI (90). 27 October 1928. p. 10. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
  11. 1 2 AtoJs 1928 election 1929, p. 5.
  12. Wilson 1985, p. 209.
  13. 1 2 Wilson 1985, pp. 189, 209.
  14. Wilson 1985, p. 203.
  15. The General Election, 1935. National Library. 1936. pp. 1–35. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  16. The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 5. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  17. "Waipawa Seat". Auckland Star . LXI (243). 14 October 1930. p. 11. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  18. "Personal Items". The Evening Post . CIX (72). 26 March 1930. p. 13. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
  19. AtoJs 1925 election 1926, p. 3.
  20. Hislop 1923, p. 3.
  21. Hislop 1921, p. 3.
  22. Hislop 1915, p. 10.
  23. AtoJs 1911 election 1912, p. 2.
  24. AtoJs 1908 election 1909, p. 8.
  25. Mansfield 1906, p. 2.
  26. The General Election, 1902. National Library. 1903. p. 1. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  27. AtoJs 1899 election 1900, p. 1.
  28. "The Waipawa Seat". Hawke's Bay Herald . XXXI (10478). 7 December 1896. p. 3. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  29. AtoJs 1893 election 1894, p. 1.
  30. "The General Election". Otago Daily Times . 28 November 1893. p. 6. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  31. "Waipawa Electoral District". Bush Advocate. XI (863). 25 November 1893. p. 3. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  32. Cooper, G. S. (1891). The General Election, 1890. National Library. p. 1. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  33. Cooper, G. S. (1887). The General Election, 1887. National Library. p. 2. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  34. "Declaring the Poll at Waipawa". Hawke's Bay Herald . XXII (7861). 30 September 1887. p. 3. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  35. Cooper, G. S. (1884). The General Election, 1884. National Library. p. 1. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  36. Cooper, G. S. (1882). Votes Recorded for Each Candidate. Government Printer. p. 2. Retrieved 24 December 2014.

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References