City of Dunedin (New Zealand electorate)

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City of Dunedin, during the first two parliaments called Town of Dunedin, was a parliamentary electorate in Dunedin in Otago, New Zealand. It was one of the original electorates created in 1853 and existed, with two breaks, until 1905. The first break, from 1862 to 1866, was caused by an influx of people through the Otago Gold Rush, when many new electorates were formed in Otago. The second break occurred from 1881 to 1890. It was the only New Zealand electorate that was created as a single-member, two-member and three member electorate.

Contents

Population centres

In December 1887, the House of Representatives voted to reduce its membership from general electorates from 91 to 70. The 1890 electoral redistribution used the same 1886 census data used for the 1887 electoral redistribution. In addition, three-member electorates were introduced in the four main centres. This resulted in a major restructuring of electorates, and Dunedin was one of eight electorates to be re-created for the 1890 election. [1]

History

From 1853 to 1860, the electorate was known as the Town of Dunedin. From 1860 to 1905, it was the City of Dunedin. [2]

James Macandrew was the first elected member. He resigned on 2 November 1858 and was re-elected in a 14 January 1859 by-election. [3] [4]

Elections for the first two-member electorate were held on 24 December 1860. Three people contested the poll, with Thomas Dick and Edward McGlashan returned. [5]

In 1863, the electorate was abolished and replaced with Dunedin and Suburbs North and Dunedin and Suburbs South. It was recreated for the 1866 general election.

James Gordon Stuart Grant was a local eccentric and a frequent candidate from 1867 to 1884.

The 1875 election was contested by eight candidates. The three candidates on the anti-centralist ticket, James Macandrew, William Larnach and Robert Stout, were all successful. They beat William Reynolds, James Macassey [6] Henry Fish, James Grant and John Armstrong. [7]

Larnach resigned on 31 May 1878. [8]

The 1893 election was contested by eight candidates, who contested three available positions. William Hutchison and David Pinkerton were incumbents who were successful, William Earnshaw was the third successful candidate (he had represented the Peninsula electorate in the previous Parliament), the previous representative Henry Fish came fourth, Hugh Gourley was fifth, with other unsuccessful candidates being James Gore, Charles Haynes, and David Nicol. [9]

Dunedin was recreated for the 2020 general election as a single-member electorate, as Dunedin no longer has a population large enough to support two electorates. The electorate, however, does not include South Dunedin, as that is now part of a recreated Taieri electorate. [10]

Members of Parliament

The multi-member electorate was represented by 23 Members of Parliament:

Single-member electorate

From 1853 to 1860, Town of Dunedin was a single-member electorate.

ElectionWinner
1853 election James Macandrew
1855 election
1859 by-election James Macandrew

Two-member electorate

From 1860 to 1863, and 1866 to 1875 City of Dunedin was a two-member electorate. Under the Representation Act 1862 [11] the City of Dunedin electorate was abolished, with two new electorates, Dunedin and Suburbs North and Dunedin and Suburbs South replacing it, with elections being held on 28 March to 6 April 1863 respectively. All electorates before and after changes returned two members, with each of the previous incumbents in City of Dunedin being assigned an incumbency in one of the Dunedin Suburbs electorates, although Thomas Dick resigned before taking up his entitlement in Dunedin and Suburbs North, forcing the 1863 by-election.

ElectionWinners
1860 election Thomas Dick Edward McGlashan [12] [13]
1st 1862 by-election Thomas Dick
2nd 1862 by-election John Richardson
3rd 1862 by-election James Paterson
Electorate abolished 1862 see Dunedin and Suburbs North and Dunedin and Suburbs South)
1866 election William Reynolds James Paterson
1867 by-election William Reynolds
1869 by-election Thomas Birch [14]
1871 election John Bathgate
1874 by-election Nathaniel Wales

Three-member electorate

From 1875 to 1881, and 1890 to 1905 City of Dunedin was a three-member electorate.

Key:

  Independent     Liberal     Conservative     Liberal–Labour     Independent Liberal   

ElectionWinners
1875 election James Macandrew William Larnach Robert Stout [15]
1878 by-election Richard Oliver
1879 by-election William Stewart
1879 election Thomas Dick
(Electorate abolished 1881–1890, see Dunedin Central, Dunedin East and Dunedin West)
1890 election William Hutchison David Pinkerton Henry Fish
1893 election William Earnshaw
1896 election Scobie Mackenzie John A. Millar Henry Fish
1897 by-election Alexander Sligo
1899 election James Arnold Alfred Barclay
1902 election Harry Bedford
(Electorate abolished 1905, see Dunedin Central, Dunedin North and Dunedin South)

Election results

1899 election

1899 general election: Dunedin [16] [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Liberal–Labour John A. Millar 9,045 61.70 +14.78
Liberal–Labour James Arnold 8,290 56.55
Liberal Alfred Richard Barclay 7,363 50.23
Conservative Scobie Mackenzie 6,72645.88-12.96
Conservative Alexander Sligo 6,41543.76
Conservative Charles Haynes 4,91933.55
Liberal Charles Robert Chapman 1,2228.34
Majority6374.35+1.50
Turnout 14,66072.99+1.99
Registered electors 20,084

1897 by-election

1897 City of Dunedin by-election [18]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Alexander Sligo 5,045 45.29
Liberal Hugh Gourley 4,06536.49
Independent Liberal William Hutchison 2,03018.22
Informal votes55
Majority980
Turnout 11,14075.59
Registered electors 14,811

1896 election

1896 general election: Dunedin [19] [20]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Scobie Mackenzie 7,821 58.84
Liberal–Labour John A. Millar 6,236 46.92
Conservative Henry Fish 6,067 45.64 -1.87
Liberal David Pinkerton 5,68942.80-15.94
Liberal William Hutchison 4,98337.49-12.57
Conservative Alexander Campbell Begg [21] 4,40933.17
Liberal–Labour William Earnshaw 2,42118.21-34.41
Conservative James Gore 1,2999.77-22.57
Independent Alfred Henry Burton 2742.06
Conservative Murray Aston2722.05
Independent Frederick Marler Lester2091.57
Independent David Nicol1961.47-2.06
Majority378 [nb 1] 2.840.29
Turnout 13,29271.012.94
Registered electors 18,719 [22]

Table footnotes:

  1. Majority is difference between lowest winning poll (Fish - 6,067) and highest losing poll (Pinkerton - 5,689)

1893 election

1893 general election: Dunedin [23] [24]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Liberal–Labour David Pinkerton 6,771 58.74 -4.88
Liberal–Labour William Earnshaw 6,066 52.62
Liberal William Hutchison 5,771 50.06 -6.10
Conservative Henry Fish 5,47747.51-10.65
Liberal Hugh Gourley 4,08135.40
Conservative James Gore 3,72832.34
Conservative Charles Haynes [25] 2,28319.80
Independent David Nicol4073.53
Majority2942.55-2.90
Turnout 11,52868.07+12.79
Registered electors 16,936

1890 election

1890 general election: City of Dunedin [26]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Liberal–Labour David Pinkerton 3,209 63.61
Liberal Henry Fish 2,934 58.16
Liberal William Hutchison 2,833 56.16
Conservative James Allen [27] 2,48549.26
Conservative Richard Henry Leary [27] 1,83836.43
Liberal Alfred Lee Smith [27] 1,83536.38
Majority3486.90
Turnout 5,04555.28
Registered electors 9,126

1875 election

1875 general election: Dunedin [28] [6]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent James Macandrew 891 71.22
Independent Robert Stout 865 69.14
Independent William Larnach 843 67.38
Independent William Reynolds 47638.04
Independent James Macassey40932.69
Independent Henry Fish 23819.02
Independent James Grant 292.31
Turnout 1,251

1879 City of Dunedin by-election

1879 City of Dunedin by-election [29] [30]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent William Downie Stewart Sr 726 54.18
Independent Charles Reeves 56342.01
Independent James Gordon Stuart Grant 513.81
Turnout 1340
Majority16312.16

1878 City of Dunedin by-election

1878 City of Dunedin by-election [31] [32]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Richard Oliver 769 53.89
Independent Charles Stephen Reeves 65846.11
Majority1117.78
Turnout 1427

1874 City of Dunedin by-election

1874 City of Dunedin by-election [33]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Nathaniel Wales 629 52.03
Independent George Elliott Barton 54144.75
Independent James Gordon Stuart Grant 393.23
Turnout 1209
Majority887.28

1869 City of Dunedin by-election

1869 City of Dunedin by-election [34]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Thomas Birch 578 76.35
Independent James Gordon Stuart Grant 17923.65
Turnout 757
Majority39952.71

1867 City of Dunedin by-election

1867 City of Dunedin by-election [35]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent William Reynolds 333 86.49
Independent James Gordon Stuart Grant 5213.51
Turnout 385
Majority28172.99

May 1862 City of Dunedin by-election

May 1862 City of Dunedin by-election [36]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent John Richardson 45 54.88
Independent James Paterson 3745.12
Turnout 82
Majority89.76

1860 election

1860 general election: Town of Dunedin [37]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Thomas Dick 96 44.04
Independent Edward McGlashan 88 40.37
Independent William John Dyer 3415.60
Turnout 218

1859 by-election

1859 Town of Dunedin by-election [4]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent James Macandrew 40 93.02 -
Independent James Gordon Stuart Grant [38] 36.98-
Majority3786.05-
Total votes43 - -

Notes

  1. McRobie 1989, pp. 54ff.
  2. Wilson 1985, p. 261.
  3. Wilson 1985, p. 213.
  4. 1 2 "Election of a Member for the House of Representatives". Otago Witness . No. 372. 15 January 1859. p. 5. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  5. "Dunedin Representatives". Otago Witness . No. 474. 29 December 1860. p. 5. Retrieved 6 July 2010.
  6. 1 2 "The Late Mr James Macassey". Otago Daily Times . No. 5695. 21 May 1880. p. 7. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
  7. "The General Elections". New Zealand Tablet. Vol. III, no. 138. 24 December 1875. p. 12. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
  8. Wilson 1985, p. 212.
  9. "The General Election, 1893". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1894 Session I, H-19. 1894. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
  10. "Report of the Representation Commission 2020" (PDF). 17 April 2020.
  11. "Representation Act 1862".
  12. Wilson 1985, p. 215.
  13. Cyclopedia Company Limited (1905). "Ex-Members". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Otago & Southland Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 30 June 2010.
  14. Wilson 1985, p. 184.
  15. Morrell, William Parker (22 April 2009). "STOUT, Sir Robert, P.C., K.C.M.G." An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
  16. "The General Election, 1899". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. 19 June 1900. p. 2. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
  17. "City of Dunedin Electoral District". Otago Daily Times . No. 11593. 29 November 1899. p. 6. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  18. "The Dunedin Election". The Marlborough Express . Vol. XXXII, no. 224. 14 October 1897. p. 2. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
  19. "Otago". Auckland Star . Vol. XXVII, no. 305. 23 December 1896. p. 6. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  20. "City of Dunedin Electoral District". Otago Daily Times . No. 10666. 4 December 1896. p. 1. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
  21. Scholefield 1940, p. 55.
  22. McRobie 1989, p. 64.
  23. "The General Election, 1893". National Library. 1894. p. 3. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  24. "The General Election". Otago Daily Times . 28 November 1893. p. 6. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  25. Cyclopedia Company Limited (1905). "Mr. Charles Haynes, J. P". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Otago & Southland Provincial Districts. Christchurch: The Cyclopedia of New Zealand . Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  26. "The General Election, 1890". National Library. 1891. p. 2. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  27. 1 2 3 "Election Notices". Otago Daily Times . No. 9975. 29 November 1890. p. 3. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  28. "Dunedin Election". North Otago Times. 21 December 1875. p. 2. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  29. "Dunedin Election". Oamaru Mail. 15 July 1879.
  30. "Meeting of Mr Reeves' Supporters". Otago Daily Times . No. 5427. 11 July 1879. p. 3. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  31. "The City Election". Evening Star. 1 July 1878.
  32. "The City Election". Otago Daily Times . No. 5131. 29 July 1878. p. 7. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  33. "The City Election". Evening Star . No. 3487. 27 April 1874. p. 2. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  34. "The City Election". Otago Daily Times . No. 2212. 9 March 1869. p. 2. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  35. "Dunedin Election". Otago Daily Times . 21 January 1867.
  36. "Dunedin City Election". Otago Witness . No. 548. 31 May 1862. p. 4. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  37. "Local Intelligence". Otago Witness . No. 474. 29 December 1860. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
  38. "List of Persons Qualified to Serve as Jurors for the Province of Otago, for the Year 1859-60". Otago Witness . No. 375. 5 February 1859. p. 1. Retrieved 19 December 2016.

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