Franklin (New Zealand electorate)

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Franklin was a rural New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It existed from 1861 to 1996 during four periods.

Contents

Population centres

The original electorate from 1861 to 1881 included the South Auckland towns of Papatoetoe, Papakura, Pukekohe and Waiuku, and west of Waiuku to the West Coast. When reconstituted in 1890 the northern boundary was north of Papakura, and (with the growth of Auckland) now excluded Papatoetoe.

In December 1887, the House of Representatives voted to reduce its membership from general electorates from 91 to 70. The 1890 electoral redistribution used the same 1886 census data used for the 1887 electoral redistribution. In addition, three-member electorates were introduced in the four main centres. This resulted in a major restructuring of electorates, and Franklin was one of eight electorates to be re-created for the 1890 election. [1]

The 1981 census had shown that the North Island had experienced further population growth, and three additional general seats were created through the 1983 electoral redistribution, bringing the total number of electorates to 95. [2] The South Island had, for the first time, experienced a population loss, but its number of general electorates was fixed at 25 since the 1967 electoral redistribution. [3] More of the South Island population was moving to Christchurch, and two electorates were abolished, while two electorates were recreated. In the North Island, six electorates were newly created, three electorates were recreated (including Franklin), and six electorates were abolished. [4]

The 1987 electoral redistribution took the continued population growth in the North Island into account, and two additional general electorates were created, bringing the total number of electorates to 97. In the South Island, the shift of population to Christchurch had continued. [5] Overall, three electorates were newly created, three electorates were recreated, and four electorates were abolished (including Franklin). All of those electorates were in the North Island. Changes in the South Island were restricted to boundary changes. [6] These changes came into effect with the 1987 election. [7]

History

The electorate existed from 1861 to 1881 as a two-member electorate, when it was split into the Franklin North and Franklin South electorates. One of the first MPs, Marmaduke Nixon was killed in action in 1864 whilst leading an assault on a Māori village during the Invasion of the Waikato, forcing the 1864 by-election. [8] In 1890 it was reconstituted, to 1978 and then from 1984 to 1987, and 1993–96. From 1978 to 1984 it was renamed the Rangiriri electorate, and from 1987 to 1993 it was renamed the Maramarua electorate but in 1993 it reverted to "Franklin". In 1996 with MMP, the area became part of the Port Waikato electorate.

The single-member electorate was first represented by Ebenezer Hamlin from 1890 to 1893 when he retired. [9] Benjamin Harris defeated the future Prime Minister William Massey in 1893, but the 1896 contest had the opposite outcome. [10] From 1896 to 1925 Franklin was represented by the Reform Party's Massey, known as Farmer Bill, the Prime Minister from 1912 to 1925. Ewen McLennan then held the electorate for one term before he retired, and was replaced by Massey's son Jack Massey. [11]

In 1935 Franklin was won by Arthur Sexton of the Country Party, but he lost the seat in 1938 to Jack Massey, now standing for the National Party. He held the seat until 1957, when he was deselected by the National Party in favour of Alfred E. Allen. Alf Allen held the seat until 1972, when he retired [12] and was replaced by future National minister Bill Birch, who held the seat over the remaining three periods that the seat existed. [13]

Members of Parliament

Multi-member electorate

Key

  Independent     Conservative     Liberal     Reform     Country Party     National   

ElectionWinners
1861 election Robert Graham Marmaduke Nixon
1864 by-election Theodore Haultain
1866 election
1868 by-election William Turnbull Swan
1871 election William Buckland Archibald Clark
1874 by-election Joseph May
1876 election Hugh Lusk Ebenezer Hamlin
1878 by-election Richard Hobbs
1879 election Benjamin Harris
(Electorate abolished 1881–1890, see Franklin North and Franklin South)

Single-member electorate

ElectionWinner
1890 election Ebenezer Hamlin
1893 election Benjamin Harris
1896 election William Massey
1899 election
1902 election
1905 election
1908 election
1911 election
1914 election
1919 election
1922 election
1925 by-election Ewen McLennan
1925 election
1928 election Jack Massey
1931 election
1935 election Arthur Sexton
1938 election Jack Massey
1943 election
1946 election
1949 election
1951 election
1954 election
1957 election Alfred E. Allen
1960 election
1963 election
1966 election
1969 election
1972 election Bill Birch
1975 election
(Electorate abolished 1978–1984, see Rangiriri)
1984 election Bill Birch
(Electorate abolished 1987–1993, see Maramarua)
1993 election Bill Birch
(Electorate abolished in 1996; see Port Waikato)

Election results

1993 election

1993 general election: Franklin [14]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
National Bill Birch 7,723 43.01
Alliance Judy Bischoff4,18023.28
Labour Shane Te Pou2,77615.46
NZ First Patra de Coudray2,56714.29
Christian Heritage Roelof Voschezang3211.78
McGillicuddy Serious Dominic Charles Worthington1921.06
Independent Ian Wilson1320.73
Natural Law Jan Flynn620.34
Majority3,54319.73
Turnout 17,95380.17
Registered electors 22,392

1984 election

1984 general election: Franklin [15]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
National Bill Birch 10,501 51.46
Labour Roy Haywood5,29125.93
NZ Party Noel McGuire2,88014.11
Social Credit Alan Scott1,6007.84
Values M Haines1310.64
Majority5,21025.53
Turnout 20,40389.87
Registered electors 22,701

1975 election

1975 general election: Franklin [16]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
National Bill Birch 10,844 64.89 +6.97
Labour Ron Ng-Waishing3,23919.38
Social Credit Geoff Morell1,6579.91-0.36
Values Jock Hutton9505.68
Socialist Unity Grahame Roberts210.12
Majority7,60545.50+16.28
Turnout 16,71181.13-6.60
Registered electors 20,597

1972 election

1972 general election: Franklin [16]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
National Bill Birch 8,300 57.92
Labour Geoff Braybrooke 4,11228.69
Social Credit Geoff Morell1,47210.27
Liberal Reform Thomas Edward Keven3612.51
New Democratic M H Lawson840.58
Majority4,18829.22
Turnout 14,32987.73+1.88
Registered electors 16,333

1969 election

1969 general election: Franklin [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
National Alfred E. Allen 8,900 62.76 +5.97
Labour Tai Tuhimata3,40524.01
Social Credit Thomas Allan Wheeler1,87513.22-1.52
Majority5,49538.75-0.56
Turnout 14,18085.85-0.70
Registered electors 16,516

1966 election

1966 general election: Franklin [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
National Alfred E. Allen 7,343 56.79 -9.15
Labour Ron Ng-Waishing2,26017.48-4.08
Social Credit Thomas Allan Wheeler1,90714.74+2.25
Independent Malcolm John Muir1,41910.97
Majority5,08339.31-5.07
Turnout 12,92986.55-0.75
Registered electors 14,938

1963 election

1963 general election: Franklin [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
National Alfred E. Allen 8,690 65.94 +2.60
Labour Ron Ng-Waishing2,84121.56
Social Credit Thomas Allan Wheeler1,64612.49+4.32
Majority5,84944.38+9.52
Turnout 13,17787.30-1.90
Registered electors 15,093

1960 election

1960 general election: Franklin [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
National Alfred E. Allen 9,442 63.34 +3.28
Labour Howard Preston4,24528.47
Social Credit Thomas Allan Wheeler1,2198.17-1.59
Majority5,19734.86+4.98
Turnout 14,90689.20-1.86
Registered electors 16,710

1957 election

1957 general election: Franklin [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
National Alfred E. Allen 8,522 60.06
Labour Christopher Mountford4,28130.17
Social Credit Thomas Allan Wheeler1,3869.76-2.49
Majority4,24129.88
Turnout 14,18991.06+3.49
Registered electors 15,581

1954 election

1954 general election: Franklin [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
National Jack Massey 7,299 63.97 -5.13
Labour Percival Peacock2,71223.77
Social Credit Thomas Allan Wheeler1,39812.25
Majority4,58740.20+2.00
Turnout 11,40987.57-0.55
Registered electors 13,027

1951 election

1951 general election: Franklin [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
National Jack Massey 9,691 69.10 -0.77
Labour Arthur Faulkner 4,33330.89
Majority5,35838.20-1.54
Turnout 14,02488.12-4.33
Registered electors 15,914

1949 election

1949 general election: Franklin [18]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
National Jack Massey 9,635 69.87 +4.48
Labour John Parsons4,15430.12
Majority5,48139.74+8.96
Turnout 13,78992.45-1.57
Registered electors 14,915

1946 election

1946 general election: Franklin [19]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
National Jack Massey 8,545 65.39 +4.42
Labour Alex Gunn4,52234.60
Majority4,02330.78+0.31
Turnout 13,06794.02+3.51
Registered electors 13,898

1943 election

1943 general election: Franklin [20]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
National Jack Massey 6,572 60.97 +8.64
Labour Aaron Best3,28730.49
Democratic Labour Daniel Patrick Lloyd5985.54
Real Democracy Ernest Moss2352.18
Informal votes860.79-0.44
Majority3,28530.47+11.05
Turnout 10,77890.51-4.19
Registered electors 11,907

1938 election

1938 general election: Franklin [21] [22]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
National Jack Massey 5,542 52.33 +8.27
Labour Ernest Piggott3,48532.91
Country Party Arthur Sexton 1,56414.77-36.62
Majority2,05719.42
Informal votes370.35
Turnout 10,62894.70
Registered electors 11,223

1935 election

1935 general election: Franklin [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Country Party Arthur Sexton 4,803 51.39
Reform Jack Massey 4,11844.06-12.77
Democrat B C Fyers3683.93
Majority6857.32
Informal votes570.60
Turnout 9,346+13.49

1931 election

1931 general election: Franklin [24] [25]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Reform Jack Massey 4,968 64.16
Country Party Harry Mellsop2,51132.43
Independent John Humphries Edwards [nb 1] 2643.41
Majority2,45731.73
Informal votes550.71
Turnout 7,79882.56
Registered electors 9,445

Table footnotes:

  1. Edwards was chosen by the local committee of the Labour Party, but was not endorsed by the national executive [26]

1928 election

1928 general election: Franklin [27]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Reform Jack Massey 4,025 50.85
Country Party Harry Mellsop3,89149.15
Majority1341.69
Informal votes510.64
Turnout 7,96786.86
Registered electors 9,172

1925 by-election

1925 Franklin by-election
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Reform Ewen McLennan 6,056 72.96
Labour John Sommerville Montgomerie [28] 2,24527.04
Informal votes430.5
Majority3,81145.91
Turnout 8,344
Reform hold Swing

1922 election

1922 general election: Franklin [29] [30]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Reform William Massey 5,276 66.70 -1.72
Liberal Joseph Rea2,52631.94+12.92
Informal votes1081.36+0.82
Majority2,75034.76-14.66
Turnout 7,91088.73-3.40
Registered electors 8,914

1919 election

1919 general election: Franklin [31]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Reform William Massey 4,195 68.42 -3.40
Liberal Joseph Rea1,16519.02
Labour Ernest Piggott63710.38
Informal votes1342.18+1.17
Majority3,03049.42+5.78
Turnout 6,13185.33+0.99
Registered electors 7,185

1914 election

1914 general election: Franklin [32]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Reform William Massey 4,818 71.82 +4.83
Liberal Arthur Glass1,89028.17
Informal votes681.01+0.30
Majority2,92843.64-8.85
Turnout 6,70884.34+3.87
Registered electors 7,953

1911 election

1911 general election: Franklin [33]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Reform William Massey 3,779 66.99 -4.37
Liberal John McLarin1,81632.20-3.69
Informal votes460.81-0.67
Majority1,96334.79+8.07
Turnout 5,64180.47+2.04
Registered electors 7,010

1908 election

1908 general election: Franklin [34]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative William Massey 2,781 62.62 +5.04
Liberal John McLarin1,59435.89
Informal votes661.48-0.97
Majority1,18726.72-9.10
Turnout 4,44178.43-7.48
Registered electors 5,662

1905 election

1905 general election: Franklin [35]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative William Massey 3,120 57.58 -9.29
Liberal William Wilson McCardle 2,16539.95
Informal votes1332.45+1.96
Majority95517.62-16.61
Turnout 5,41885.91+15.10
Registered electors 6,306

1902 election

1902 general election: Franklin [36]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative William Massey 2,297 66.87 +1.08
Liberal Alfred Richard Harris1,12132.63
Informal votes170.49
Majority1,17634.23+2.65
Turnout 3,43570.81-7.09
Registered electors 4,851

1899 election

1899 general election: Franklin [37]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative William Massey 2,458 65.79 -10.03
Liberal W Findlay Wilson1,27834.21
Majority1,18031.58-19.48
Turnout 3,73677.90
Registered electors 4,796

1896 election

1896 general election: Franklin [38] [39] [40]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative William Massey 2,184 55.76 +7.12
Liberal Benjamin Harris 1,71043.66-7.70
Informal votes230.58
Majority47412.10
Turnout 3,917

1893 election

1893 general election: Franklin [41] [42]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Liberal Benjamin Harris 1,684 51.36 +3.21
Conservative William Massey 1,59548.64
Majority892.71
Turnout 3,27979.55+18.16
Registered electors 4,122

1890 election

1890 general election: Franklin [43]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Ebenezer Hamlin 732 51.84
Independent Liberal Benjamin Harris 68048.15
Majority523.68
Turnout 1,41261.39
Registered electors 2,300

1874 by-election

1874 Franklin by-election [44]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Joseph May 180 38.14
Independent William Goodfellow15633.05
Independent Frank Henry Troup12125.64
Independent William Woodward91.91
Independent Joseph Dargaville 61.27
Turnout 472
Majority245.08

1868 by-election

1868 Franklin by-election [45] [46] [47]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent William Turnbull Swan 619 53.04
Independent William Thorne Buckland 54846.96
Turnout 1167
Majority716.08

Notes

  1. McRobie 1989, pp. 54ff.
  2. McRobie 1989, pp. 123f.
  3. McRobie 1989, pp. 111, 123.
  4. McRobie 1989, pp. 119–124.
  5. McRobie 1989, pp. 127f.
  6. McRobie 1989, pp. 123–128.
  7. McRobie 1989, p. 127.
  8. Barber, Laurie. "Nixon, Marmaduke George". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 22 June 2007.
  9. Wilson 1985, p. 202.
  10. Gustafson, Barry. "Massey, William Ferguson". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  11. Wilson 1985, pp. 217, 219.
  12. Wilson 1985, p. 172.
  13. Wilson 1985, p. 184.
  14. Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1993. p. 28.
  15. Norton 1988.
  16. 1 2 Norton 1988, p. 227.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Norton 1988, p. 226.
  18. "The General Election, 1949". National Library. 1950. pp. 1–5, 8. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
  19. "The General Election, 1946". National Library. 1947. pp. 1–11, 14. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  20. "The General Election, 1943". National Library. 1944. p. 11. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
  21. "The General Election, 1938". National Library. 1939. p. 2. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  22. "Electoral". The New Zealand Herald . LXXV (23181). 29 October 1938. p. 25. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  23. The New Zealand Official Year-Book. Government Printer. 1936. Archived from the original on 1 May 2012. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  24. The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 2. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  25. "Electoral". The New Zealand Herald . LXVIII (21053). 11 December 1931. p. 22. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  26. "Election Notes". The New Zealand Herald . LXVIII (21042). 28 November 1931. p. 17. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  27. Skinner, W. A. G. (1929). The General Election, 1928. Government Printer. p. 2. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  28. "Reform Triumph". The Northern Advocate . 18 June 1925. p. 5. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
  29. The New Zealand Official Year-Book. Government Printer. 1924. Archived from the original on 21 January 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
  30. Hislop 1923, pp. 1–6.
  31. Hislop, J. (1921). The General Election, 1919. National Library. pp. 1–6. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  32. Hislop, J. (1915). The General Election, 1914. National Library. pp. 1–33. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  33. "The General Election, 1911". National Library. 1912. pp. 1–14. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  34. "The General Election, 1908". National Library. 1909. pp. 1–34. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
  35. The General Election, 1905. p. 3. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  36. The General Election, 1902. National Library. 1903. p. 1. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  37. "The General Election, 1899". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. 19 June 1900. p. 2. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  38. "List of Candidates". Hawera & Normanby Star. XXXIII (3411). 2 December 1896. p. 2. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
  39. "The New Parliament". Hawke's Bay Herald. XXXI (10478). 7 December 1896. p. 3. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  40. "The Elections". The Star (5739). Christchurch. 5 December 1896. p. 6. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
  41. "The General Election, 1893". National Library. 1894. p. 1. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  42. "The General Election". Otago Daily Times . 28 November 1893. p. 6. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  43. "The General Election, 1890". National Library. 1891. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
  44. "The Franklin Election". The New Zealand Herald . XI (3876). 15 April 1874. p. 3. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
  45. "Franklin Election". Daily Southern Cross. 14 July 1868.
  46. "Franklyn Election". The New Zealand Herald . 23 June 1868.
  47. "Public Meeting at Tapu". Daily Southern Cross. 29 June 1868.

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