Barry Selwyn Gustafson
|Born||1938 (age 79–80)|
Auckland, New Zealand
|Alma mater||University of Auckland, Massey University, Glasgow University|
|Known for||Political scientist, historian and biographer|
|Political party||Labour (until 1986), National (after 1986)|
Barry Selwyn Gustafson (born 1938) is a New Zealand political scientist and historian, and a leading political biographer. He served for nearly four decades as Professor of Political Studies at the University of Auckland, and as Acting Director of the New Zealand Asia Institute from 2004 to 2006. He has contested various general elections, first for the Labour Party and later for the National Party, coming second each time.
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all history in time. If the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is a historian of prehistory. Some historians are recognized by publications or training and experience. "Historian" became a professional occupation in the late nineteenth century as research universities were emerging in Germany and elsewhere.
The University of Auckland is the largest university in New Zealand, located in the country's largest city, Auckland. It is the highest-ranked university in the country, being ranked 85th worldwide in the 2018/19 QS World University Rankings. Established in 1883 as a constituent college of the University of New Zealand, the university is made up of eight faculties; these are spread over six campuses. It has more than 40,000 students, and more than 30,000 "equivalent full-time" students.
New Zealand is a representative democracy. Members of the unicameral New Zealand Parliament gain their seats through nationwide general elections, or in by-elections. General elections are usually held every three years; they may be held at an earlier date at the discretion of the Prime Minister, although it usually only happens in the event of a vote of no confidence or other exceptional circumstances. A by-election is held to fill a vacancy arising during a parliamentary term. The most recent general election took place on 23 September 2017.
Barry Selwyn Gustafson was born in Auckland in 1938. He was educated at Auckland, Massey and Glasgow Universities (BA 1960, MA 1962, PhD 1974).
Massey University is a university based in Palmerston North, New Zealand, with significant campuses in Albany and Wellington. Massey University has approximately 30,883 students, 13,796 of whom are extramural or distance-learning students, making it New Zealand's second largest university when not counting international students. Research is undertaken on all three campuses, and more than 3,000 international students from over 100 countries study at the university.
He was a member of the Labour Party from 1954 to 1981, and stood in two general elections as a candidate; in 1960 and in 1966. In 1960, he contested the "blue-ribbon" Remuera electorate and lost by 6109 votes to National's Ronald Algie. In 1966, he contested the Taupo electorate and narrowly lost by 258 votes by National's Rona Stevenson. He wrote that National was afraid of losing the seat so poured thousands of dollars into the campaign. A hundred Waikato women canvassed every house in Tokoroa and Putaruru over two days, using the street lists and blue dot system.
The 1960 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 33rd term. It saw the governing Labour Party defeated by the National Party, putting an end to the short second Labour government.
The 1966 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 35th term. It saw the governing National Party win a third consecutive term in office. It was also the first time since the 1943 election that a minor party won a seat in Parliament.
Remuera is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate, in the city of Auckland. It existed from 1938, when it replaced the Parnell electorate, until 1996. It was consistently held by members of the National Party.
In 1968 he joined the staff at Auckland University, and during his long tenure at Auckland he has authored several leading books on the topic of New Zealand politics. He wrote Social Change and Party Reorganisation (1976) and Labour’s Path to Political Independence (1980) while still a Labour Party member, but after completing The First 50 Years: A History of the New Zealand National Party (1986) changed allegiance to National. In 1986 he also published From the Cradle to the Grave: A Biography of Michael Joseph Savage .
Michael Joseph Savage was a New Zealand politician who served as the 23rd Prime Minister of New Zealand, heading the First Labour Government from 6 December 1935 until his death.
In 1987 he stood as a National candidate for the Birkenhead electorate to replace the retiring Jim McLay, but was defeated by the Labour candidate, Jenny Kirk.
Birkenhead was a New Zealand Parliamentary electorate, from 1969 to 1996.
Sir James Kenneth McLay is a New Zealand diplomat and former politician. He served as the Deputy Prime Minister from 15 March to 26 July 1984. McLay was also Leader of the National Party and Leader of the Opposition from 29 November 1984 to 26 March 1986. Following his ousting as party leader, he retired from parliamentary politics in 1987. In June 2009, he became New Zealand's Permanent Representative to the United Nations. In May 2015, McLay became New Zealand's Representative to the Palestinian Authority. From May 2016 to January 2017, he was New Zealand's Consul General in Honolulu.
The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism, while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance.
During the 1990s Gustafson was given a number of international academic appointments, including visiting researcher at Stanford University and the European Union in 1990, and research at a number of American and British Universities in 1994. In 1997 Gustafson was Fulbright Visiting Professor at Georgetown University. From 1998 to 2002 Gustafson was appointed Head of the Political Studies Department, and he was also Pro Vice-Chancellor (International) of the University from 2001 to 2002. In 2000 he published His Way: A Biography of Robert Muldoon .
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland but more commonly known as the UK or Britain, is a sovereign country lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.
The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright–Hays Program, is one of several United States Cultural Exchange Programs whose goal is to improve intercultural relations, cultural diplomacy, and intercultural competence between the people of the United States and other countries through the exchange of persons, knowledge, and skills. It is one of the most prestigious and competitive fellowship programs in the world. Via the program, competitively-selected American citizens including students, scholars, teachers, professionals, scientists and artists may receive scholarships or grants to study, conduct research, teach, or exercise their talents abroad; and citizens of other countries may qualify to do the same in the United States of America. The program was founded by United States Senator J. William Fulbright in 1946 and is considered to be one of the most widely recognized and prestigious scholarships in the world. The program provides 8,000 grants annually.
Gustafson's teaching interests are predominantly the European Union, civil society, the development of New Zealand’s political culture and parties, political leadership and power, and interdisciplinary studies. For 25 years he also taught Soviet and East European Studies.
In 2004 Gustafson retired as Professor of Political Studies, and was appointed Acting Director of the New Zealand Asia Institute, a position he held until 2006. In this time he helped to establish a New Zealand Studies Centre at Peking University. In 2007 he published Kiwi Keith: A Biography of Keith Holyoake .
|Electoral history of Barry Gustafson|
Gustafson has also served as Chairman of the Council of the Auckland College of Education (1992–1997), and Associate Dean of Arts (Research 2000). He chaired the Advisory Committee to the School of European Languages and Literatures from 1999 to 2001, and was a member of the Board and Management Committee of the New Zealand Asia Institute, 2001–2002.
Sir Keith Jacka Holyoake was the 26th Prime Minister of New Zealand, serving for a brief period in 1957 and then from 1960 to 1972, and also the 13th Governor-General of New Zealand, serving from 1977 to 1980. He is the only New Zealand politician to date to have held both positions.
The 1975 New Zealand general election was held on 29 November to elect MPs to the 38th session of the New Zealand Parliament. It was the first general election in New Zealand where 18- to 20-year-olds and all permanent residents of New Zealand were eligible to vote, although only citizens were able to be elected.
The 1949 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 29th term. It saw the governing Labour Party defeated by the opposition National Party. This marked the end of the First Labour government and the beginning of the First National government.
The 1951 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 30th term. The First National Government was re-elected, with the National Party increasing its parliamentary majority over the opposition Labour Party.
The 1963 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of New Zealand Parliament's 34th term. The results were almost identical to those of the previous election, and the governing National Party remained in office.
Sir Leslie Knox Munro was a New Zealand lawyer, journalist, and politician of international standing.
Jack Thomas Watts was a New Zealand politician of the National Party and the twenty-seventh Minister of Finance, from November 1954 to 12 December 1957, when he retired.
Hugh Campbell Templeton is a former New Zealand diplomat, politician and member of parliament for the National Party.
William Edward Parry was a New Zealand Minister and trade unionist.
James Thorn was a New Zealand politician and trade unionist. He was an organiser and candidate for the Independent Political Labour League, Social Democratic Party then the Labour Party.
Sir Ernest Hyam Davis was a New Zealand businessman, and was Mayor of Auckland City from 1935 to 1941. He was also on other Auckland local bodies and on various philanthropic and sporting organisations. He was Mayor of Newmarket 1909–1910.
The 29th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. It opened in 1950, following the 1949 general election. It was dissolved in 1951 in preparation for the 1951 general election. The governing Labour Party had been defeated in the election by the National Party. This marked the end of the First Labour government and the beginning of the First National government.
The 28th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1946 general election in November of that year.
The New Zealand Labour Party leadership election, 1933 was held on 12 October 1933 to choose the third leader of the New Zealand Labour Party. The election was won by Auckland West MP and incumbent deputy-leader Michael Joseph Savage.
The New Zealand National Party leadership election 1957 was held to choose the next leader of the New Zealand National Party. The election was won by Pahiatua MP Keith Holyoake.
The New Zealand National Party leadership election was held to determine the leadership of the New Zealand National Party. The election was won by Karori MP Jack Marshall.
The New Zealand National Party leadership election was held to determine the future leadership of the New Zealand National Party. The election was won by Tamaki MP Robert Muldoon.
The New Zealand National Party leadership election, 1984 was held to determine the future leadership of the New Zealand National Party. The election was won by former Deputy Prime Minister Jim McLay.
The New Zealand National Party leadership election was an election for the National leadership position in 1986.