Sir Jim McLay
|9th Deputy Prime Minister of New Zealand|
15 March 1984 –26 July 1984
|Prime Minister||Robert Muldoon|
|Preceded by||Duncan MacIntyre|
|Succeeded by||Geoffrey Palmer|
|24th Leader of the Opposition|
29 November 1984 –26 March 1986
|Preceded by||Robert Muldoon|
|Succeeded by||Jim Bolger|
|Born||21 February 1945|
Devonport, Auckland, New Zealand
|Alma mater||University of Auckland|
Sir James Kenneth McLay KNZM QSO (born 21 February 1945) is a New Zealand diplomat and former politician. He served as the Deputy Prime Minister from 15 March to 26 July 1984. McLay was also Leader of the National Party and Leader of the Opposition from 29 November 1984 to 26 March 1986. Following his ousting as party leader, he retired from parliamentary politics in 1987. In June 2009, he became New Zealand's Permanent Representative to the United Nations. In May 2015, McLay became New Zealand's Representative to the Palestinian Authority. From May 2016 to January 2017, he was New Zealand's Consul General in Honolulu.
The Deputy Prime Minister of New Zealand is the second-most senior minister in the Government of New Zealand, although this seniority does not necessarily translate into power. The office was created as a ministerial portfolio in 1954. The officeholder usually deputises for the prime minister at official functions. The current Deputy Prime Minister is Winston Peters, the Leader of New Zealand First.
The Leader of the National Party is the highest ranked politician within the National Party in New Zealand. Under the constitution of the party, he or she is required to be a member of the House of Representatives.
The New Zealand National Party, shortened to National or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand. It is one of two major parties that dominate contemporary New Zealand politics, alongside its traditional rival, the New Zealand Labour Party.
McLay was born in Devonport, Auckland, the son of Robert and Joyce McLay.Peter Wilkinson was his half-brother. He was educated at King's College, Auckland and the University of Auckland, gaining a law degree in 1967. He worked as a lawyer for some time, and also became involved in a number of law associations. In 1983 he married Marcy Farden, who was an assistant to American congressman Daniel Akaka.
Devonport is a harbourside suburb of Auckland, New Zealand. It is located on the North Shore, at the southern end of a peninsula that runs southeast from near Lake Pupuke in Takapuna, forming the northern side of the Waitematā Harbour. East of Devonport lies North Head, the northern promontory guarding the mouth of the harbour.
Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. Auckland is the largest urban area in the country, with an urban population of around 1,628,900. It is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. A diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world. The Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki-makau-rau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions.
Peter Ian Wilkinson was a New Zealand politician of the National Party.
|New Zealand Parliament|
McLay had joined the National Party in 1963, and held a number of prominent positions within the party's Auckland branch. He also served on the party's national council. In the 1975 election, he stood as the National Party's candidate for the Birkenhead electorate, and defeated the incumbent Labour MP, Norman King.
Birkenhead was a New Zealand Parliamentary electorate, from 1969 to 1996.
Norman James King,, was a New Zealand politician of the Labour Party, and a cabinet minister.
In Parliament, McLay was known as one of the more liberal members of the National Party, and had a particular focus on reforming laws that related to women's rights. In 1978, Prime Minister Robert Muldoon appointed McLay to the posts of Attorney General and Minister of Justice.
Sir Robert David Muldoon, also known as Rob Muldoon, was a New Zealand politician who served as the 31st Prime Minister of New Zealand, from 1975 to 1984, while Leader of the National Party.
The Attorney-General is a political and legal officer in New Zealand. The Attorney-General is simultaneously a ministerial position and the chief law officer of the Crown, and has responsibility for supervising New Zealand law and advising the government on legal matters. The Attorney-General serves both a political and apolitical function. The current Attorney-General is David Parker.
The Minister of Justice is a minister in the government of New Zealand. The minister has responsibility for the formulation of justice policy and for the administration of law courts.
In early 1984, following the retirement of Duncan MacIntyre, McLay became deputy leader of the National Party, and thus Deputy Prime Minister.
Brigadier Duncan MacIntyre was a New Zealand politician of the National Party. He served as Deputy Prime Minister from 1981 to 1984 under Prime Minister Robert Muldoon.
When National lost the 1984 election, there was widespread desire in the party for a leadership change. This desire came mainly from the younger and less conservative wing of the party, which saw Robert Muldoon as representing an era that had already passed. Muldoon, however, refused to leave the position voluntarily, thereby forcing a direct leadership challenge. The two main candidates in the leadership race (apart from Muldoon himself) were Jim McLay and Jim Bolger. McLay, in distinct contrast to Muldoon, promoted free market economic policies and a relatively liberal social outlook. Bolger, meanwhile, was seen as a more traditionalist and pragmatic candidate but less conservative as Muldoon. McLay won the caucus vote with slightly over half the votes.
James Brendan Bolger is a New Zealand politician of the National Party who was the 35th Prime Minister of New Zealand, serving from 1990 to 1997.
In economics, a free market is a system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and by consumers. In a free market, the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, or by other authority. Proponents of the concept of free market contrast it with a regulated market in which a government intervenes in supply and demand through various methods, such as tariffs, used to restrict trade and to protect the local economy. In an idealized free-market economy, prices for goods and services are set freely by the forces of supply and demand and are allowed to reach their point of equilibrium without intervention by government policy.
McLay's first major challenge was Muldoon himself. On his defeat, Muldoon refused to accept any portfolios offered him, thereby becoming a backbencher. McLay's attempts to give Muldoon an "elder statesman" role within the party were rebuffed, with Muldoon insisting on an active role. The relationship between McLay and Muldoon deteriorated further, as McLay outlined a major departure from Muldoon's interventionist economic policies. Muldoon's hostility was to prove a major problem for McLay's leadership, and undermined all attempts to promote unity within the party. Later, when Muldoon made a strong public criticism of the entire party leadership, Muldoon (along with loyalist Merv Wellington) was demoted to the lowest ranking within the National caucus.
Muldoon, apparently realising that there was little chance of him regaining the leadership, threw his support behind Bolger, who remained opposed to McLay. There was considerable media speculation that McLay would be deposed before the end of 1985. The rumoured challenge, however, failed to happen, and McLay remained leader. In early 1986, however, McLay made a fatal mistake: in an attempt to "rejuvenate" the party's upper ranks, he demoted George Gair and Bill Birch, both of whom were highly respected for their long service.
Gair and Birch had earlier been opponents of McLay's in the 1984 leadership election before they withdrew.
Gair and Birch, two of National's most experienced politicians, quickly allied themselves with Bolger. From then on, McLay's fall was almost guaranteed.
On 26 March, Gair, Birch, and party whip Don McKinnon presented McLay with a letter signed by a majority of MPs in the National Party caucus asking him to step aside. Bolger received a clear majority in the resulting caucus vote, ending McLay's leadership of the National Party.
McLay is the only leader of the National Party who neither became Prime Minister nor led his party to an election.
McLay retired from Parliament at the 1987 election. Between 1994 and 2002 he was the New Zealand representative on the International Whaling Commission. He served as chairman of the New Zealand Council for Infrastructure Development, an independent industry body which advances best practice in infrastructure development, investment and procurement, from 2005 to 2006 and remained as patron until 2009.
In July 2009 McLay took up the role of New Zealand's Permanent Representative to the United Nations.On 16 October 2014, McLay led New Zealand to victory in the United Nations Security Council election for a temporary seat on the United Nations Security Council winning in the first round of voting with 145 votes out of a possible 193 beating both Spain and Turkey. McLay took up New Zealand's seat on the United Nations Security Council on 1 January 2015.
On 20 February 2015, it was announced that McLay is to finish his role as Permanent Representative after the end of his second term. McLay is set to become New Zealand's Representative to the Palestinian Authority, as well as being a special advisor to Minister of Foreign Affairs Murray McCully and, when required, a Prime Ministerial special envoy.
McLay was appointed a Companion of the Queen's Service Order for public services in the 1987 Queen's Birthday Honours.In 1993, McLay was awarded the New Zealand Suffrage Centennial Medal. In the 2003 Queen's Birthday Honours he was made a Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit for services to conservation. In 2012, McLay was awarded an honorary degree, a Doctor of Humane Letters, by Juniata College. In the 2015 Queen's Birthday Honours, McLay was promoted to Knight Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit, for services to business and the State.
The McLay Glacier in Antarctica's Churchill Mountains is named in McLay's honour, in recognition of his service as the New Zealand representative on the International Whaling Commission during which he advocated for the establishment of a whale sanctuary in the Southern Ocean.
Ruthanasia, a portmanteau of "Ruth" and "euthanasia", is the pejorative name given to the period of free-market policies conducted during the first term of the fourth National government in New Zealand, from 1990 to 1993. As the first period of reform from 1984 to 1990 was known as Rogernomics after the Labour Party Minister of Finance, Roger Douglas, so the second period became known as "Ruthanasia", after the National Party's Minister of Finance, Ruth Richardson.
Ruth Richardson served as New Zealand's Minister of Finance from 1990 to 1993, is credited for being the first Finance Minister to have published a modern public sector balance sheet. Following the work of the preceding Labour Government that initiated the financial reforms and passed the necessary legislation, she supported and carried on the reforms, and extended them in a significant way with the fiscal responsibility Act 1994. And more than the Labour ministers who initiated the reforms, she advocated for the merits of modern accounting and financial systems subsequently introduced modern accounting to the national government. These Public Financial Management reforms were part of her wider economic reforms that helped to take New Zealand out of its economic and financial crisis, including the Mother of all Budgets as the first budget was called. This first budget formed the catalyst of her economic reforms known in the media as 'Ruthanasia', as they were widely unpopular at the time with huge, controversial changes following the works of the previous labour government. The successful reforms have been thoroughly researched and documented in academia and held up as a model reform program.
Sir John Ross Marshall, generally known as Jack Marshall, was a New Zealand politician of the National Party. He entered Parliament in 1946 and was first promoted to Cabinet in 1951. After spending twelve years as Deputy Prime Minister, he served as the 28th Prime Minister for most of 1972.
Marilyn Joy Waring is a New Zealand feminist, politician, activist for female human rights and environmental issues, development consultant and United Nations expert, and author and academic, known as a principal founder of the discipline of feminist economics.
George Frederick Gair was a New Zealand politician. He was once deputy leader of the National Party in the New Zealand Parliament, and was considered by many to be a possible contender for the leadership itself. He was known for his polite and diplomatic style, which often contrasted with the political situation around him – Michael Laws described him as "a refugee from the age of manners."
Derek Francis Quigley is a former New Zealand politician. He was a prominent member of the National Party during the late 1970s and early 1980s, and was known for his support of free market economics and trade liberalisation. Quigley left the National Party after clashing with its leadership, and later co-founded the ACT party.
Sir Brian Edward Talboys was a New Zealand politician who served as Deputy Prime Minister for the first two terms of Robert Muldoon's premiership. If the abortive "Colonels' Coup" against Muldoon had been successful, Talboys would have become Prime Minister himself.
Paul Clayton East is a former New Zealand politician of the National Party.
The 41st New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. Its composition was determined by the 1984 elections, and it sat until the 1987 elections.
The New Zealand constitutional crisis of 1984 was an important constitutional and political event in the history of New Zealand. The crisis arose following the 1984 general election, and was caused by a major currency crisis. The crisis led the incoming government to review New Zealand's constitutional structures, which resulted in the Constitution Act 1986.
Dame Thea Dale Muldoon was the wife of Robert Muldoon, who was the Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1975 to 1984. She was also known for her community service.
Robert Leslie Gapper (Rob) Talbot was a New Zealand politician who represented the National Party as a Member of Parliament. A Muldoon loyalist, he was a cabinet minister from 1981 to 1984 in the Third National Government, serving as Postmaster-General and Minister of Tourism.
As the National Party formed the largest party not in government at the time, the frontbench team was as a result the Official Opposition of the New Zealand House of Representatives.
The New Zealand National Party leadership election was held to determine the leadership of the New Zealand National Party. The election was won by Karori MP Jack Marshall.
The New Zealand National Party leadership election was held to determine the future leadership of the New Zealand National Party. The election was won by Tamaki MP Robert Muldoon.
The New Zealand National Party leadership election, 1984 was held to determine the future leadership of the New Zealand National Party. The election was won by former Deputy Prime Minister Jim McLay.
The New Zealand National Party leadership election was an election for the National leadership position in 1986.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jim McLay .|
| Deputy Prime Minister of New Zealand |
| Attorney-General |
| Minister of Justice |
|New Zealand Parliament|
| Member of Parliament for Birkenhead |
| Permanent Representative to the United Nations in New York |
Gerard van Bohemen