Fifth National Government of New Zealand

Last updated

Fifth National Government
Ministries of New Zealand
Date formed19 November 2008
Date dissolved26 October 2017
People and organisations
Monarch Elizabeth II
Governor-GeneralSir Anand Satyanand (2008-11)
Lt Gen Sir Jerry Mateparae (2011-16)
Dame Patsy Reddy (2016-17)
Prime Minister John Key (2008–2016)
Bill English (2016–2017)
Deputy Prime Minister Bill English (2008–2016)
Paula Bennett (2016–2017)
Member party National Party (2008-17)
ACT (2008-17)
United Future (2008-17)
Māori Party (2008-17)
Opposition party Labour Party
Opposition leader
Outgoing election 2017 general election
Legislature term(s)
Predecessor Fifth Labour Government of New Zealand
Successor Sixth Labour Government of New Zealand

The Fifth National Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand for three parliamentary terms from 19 November 2008 to 26 October 2017. John Key served as National Leader and Prime Minister until December 2016, after which Bill English assumed the premiership until the National Government's defeat following the October 2017 government-forming negotiations.

Government of New Zealand Central government of New Zealand

The Government of New Zealand, or New Zealand Government, is the administrative complex through which authority is exercised in New Zealand. As in most parliamentary democracies, the term "Government" refers chiefly to the executive branch, and more specifically to the collective ministry directing the executive. Based on the principle of responsible government, it operates within the framework that "the Queen reigns, but the government rules, so long as it has the support of the House of Representatives".

John Key 38th Prime Minister of New Zealand

Sir John Phillip Key is a former New Zealand politician who served as the 38th Prime Minister of New Zealand and Leader of the New Zealand National Party. He was elected leader of the party in November 2006 and appointed Prime Minister in November 2008, resigning from both posts in December 2016. After leaving politics, Key was appointed to board of director and chairmanship roles in New Zealand corporations.

Bill English 39th Prime Minister of New Zealand

Sir Simon William English is a retired New Zealand politician who served as the 39th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 2016 to 2017. He was the leader of the National Party from 2001 to 2003 and 2016 to 2018, also serving two terms as Leader of the Opposition.


After the 2008 general election the National Party and its allies were able to form a government, taking over from Helen Clark's Fifth Labour Government. It was subsequently reformed after the 2011 general election with a reduced number of seats, and after the 2014 general election with a reduced share of the party vote but the same number of seats. The Government had confidence and supply agreements with the following parties: ACT, United Future, and the Māori Party which gave the Government a majority on major legislation. The National Party also signed a memorandum of understanding with the Green Party after the 2008 election, but this lapsed in 2011 and was not renewed.

New Zealand National Party Major New Zealand political party

The New Zealand National Party, shortened to National or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand. It is one of two major parties that dominate contemporary New Zealand politics, alongside its traditional rival, the New Zealand Labour Party.

Helen Clark 37th Prime Minister of New Zealand

Helen Elizabeth Clark is a New Zealand politician who served as the 37th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1999 to 2008, and was the Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme from 2009 to 2017. She was New Zealand's fifth-longest-serving prime minister, and the second woman to hold that office.

The Fifth Labour Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 10 December 1999 to 19 November 2008. Labour Party leader Helen Clark negotiated a coalition with Jim Anderton, leader of the Alliance Party and later the Progressive Party, and New Zealand First. While undertaking a number of substantial reforms, it was not particularly radical compared to previous Labour governments.

Significant policies

John Key February 2015.jpg
John Key, Prime Minister, (2008–2016)
Prime Minister Bill English.jpg
Bill English, Prime Minister, (2016–2017)

Treaty of Waitangi/Settlements

The involvement of the National government within this particular area was seen through their approach in settlements. National government's involvement of Treaty affairs:

These involved discussion and planning of guidelines which were negotiated with two significant iwis of Taranaki. This also involved Minister for Treaty of Waitangi Negotiations Christopher Finlayson.

In relation to past Treaty breaches and the actions of the previous governments at the time of the land wars. John Key apologized for the actions and doings of the abuses to the Te Arawa iwi and hapu.


The Government was elected in the context of the late 2000s recession.

The Climate Change Response Amendment Act 2008 was a statute enacted in September 2008 by the Fifth Labour Government of New Zealand that established the first version of the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme, a national all-sectors all-greenhouse gases uncapped and highly internationally linked emissions trading scheme.

The Emissions Trading Scheme Review Committee was a special committee of the New Zealand Parliament which conducted a review of the Fifth Labour Government's Emissions Trading Scheme between December 2008 and late August 2009.

New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme

The New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme is a partial-coverage all-free allocation uncapped highly internationally linked emissions trading scheme. The NZ ETS was first legislated in the Climate Change Response Amendment Act 2008 in September 2008 under the Fifth Labour Government of New Zealand and then amended in November 2009 and in November 2012 by the Fifth National Government of New Zealand.


Electoral Finance Act 2007 Act of Parliament in New Zealand

The Electoral Finance Act 2007 was a controversial act in New Zealand. The Fifth Labour Government introduced the Electoral Finance Bill partly in response to the 2005 New Zealand election funding controversy, in particular to "third-party" campaigns.

Governor-General Act 2010 Act of Parliament in New Zealand

The Governor-General Act 2010 is an Act of the Parliament of New Zealand. It reformed the Governor-General of New Zealand's financial programme.

Governor-General of New Zealand Representative of the monarch of New Zealand

The Governor-General of New Zealand is the viceregal representative of the monarch of New Zealand, currently Queen Elizabeth II. As the Queen is concurrently the monarch of 15 other Commonwealth realms, and lives in the United Kingdom, she, on the advice of her Prime Minister of New Zealand, appoints a governor-general to carry out her constitutional and ceremonial duties within the Realm of New Zealand.

Social policy

New Zealand Superannuation Fund

The New Zealand Superannuation Fund is a sovereign wealth fund in New Zealand. New Zealand currently provides universal superannuation for people over 65 years of age and the purpose of the Fund is to partially pre-fund the future cost of the New Zealand Superannuation pension, which is expected to increase as a result of New Zealand's ageing population. The fund is a member of the International Forum of Sovereign Wealth Funds and is therefore signed up to the Santiago Principles on best practice in managing sovereign wealth funds.

Foreign affairs


National identity


Local government



2008 election

The 2008 general election saw the Fifth National Government elected to power with 44.93 per cent of the popular vote, ending nine years of Labour government. National formed a minority government with confidence-and-supply support from the ACT, United Future and Māori parties. The Governor-General swore Key in as New Zealand's 38th Prime Minister on 19 November 2008.

2011 election

The 2011 general election saw the Fifth National Government continue with confidence-and-supply from the ACT, United Future and Maori parties. National increased its share of the party vote to 47.3 percent, but gained only one additional seat to 59 due to a reduced wasted vote (down to 3.4 percent from 6.5 percent in 2008), largely stemming from the return of the New Zealand First party to Parliament after a one term absence. National's increased share of votes however largely came at the expense of its support parties, which saw decreases in vote share and seats. ACT only gained a third of its 2008 vote with 1.07 percent, reducing its seats from five to just one, while the defection of Hone Harawira to form the Mana Party saw the Maori Party's share of vote split, reducing the party to 1.43 percent and reducing the number of seats to three. The United Future Party saw its party vote drop by a quarter to 0.60 percent, but retained its single seat. The reformed Government and its supporters therefore held 50.41 percent of the party vote and 64 of the 121 seats in Parliament.

2014 election

The 2014 general election saw the Fifth National Government returned again, gaining a plurality with 47.0% of the party vote and 60 of the 121 seats. On election night counts the party appeared to hold the first majority since 1994 with 61 seats, but lost a list seat (for Maureen Pugh) to the Green Party on the official count (including special votes) of the party vote. [29] National re-entered confidence and supply agreements with the centrist United Future, [30] the classical liberal ACT Party, [31] and the indigenous rights-based Māori Party [32] to form a minority government.

Subsequently, with the sudden resignation of Mike Sabin the National MP for Northland in January 2015, and his replacement in the subsequent 2015 by-election by New Zealand First leader Winston Peters, the government became more dependent on the support parties.

Election results

The following table shows the total votes* for National, plus parties supporting the National-led government. For more details of election results, see the relevant election articles.

ElectionParliamentSeats*Total votes*PercentageGain/lossSeats won*ChangeMajority
2008 49th 1221,053,39844.93%-58--
49th Parliament New Zealand 49th Parliament.png
49th Parliament
2011 50th 1211,058,63647.31%+5.29%59+1-
50th Parliament New Zealand 50th Parliament.png
50th Parliament
2014 51st 1211,131,50147.04%-0.57%60+1-
51st Parliament New Zealand-01.svg
51st Parliament

* 'Votes' means party votes only. 'Seats' means both list and electorate seats.

[33] [34] [35]

Prime Minister

National Party leader John Key was Prime Minister between when the government was elected in the 2008 elections, up until his resignation on 12 December 2016.

The National Party held a leadership election to determine Key's successor as National Party leader and Prime Minister. Deputy Prime Minister Bill English announced that he would be standing for the leadership on 6 December 2016. [36] Health Minister Jonathan Coleman and Police and Corrections Minister Judith Collins also announced their intention to seek the leadership, but dropped out due to low support from National Party colleagues. After Coleman and Collins' withdrawal, English was sworn in as the 39th Prime Minister on 12 December 2016. [37] State Services Minister Paula Bennett and Transport Minister Simon Bridges announced they would contest the consequential vacancy for Deputy Leader; Bridges dropped out of the race after it was clear Bennett had greater support. [38]

Cabinet Ministers

Deputy Prime Minister Bill English 2008–2016
Paula Bennett 2016–2017
Minister of Finance Bill English 2008–2016
Steven Joyce 2016–2017
Minister of Tourism John Key 2008–2016
Paula Bennett 2016–2017
Minister for Infrastructure Bill English 2008–2011
Steven Joyce 2016–2017
Minister for Economic Development Gerry Brownlee 2008–2011
Steven Joyce 2011–2016
Simon Bridges 2016–2017
Minister of Justice Simon Power 2008–2011
Judith Collins 2011–2014
Amy Adams 2014–2017
Minister of Health Tony Ryall 2008–2014
Jonathan Coleman 2014–2017
Minister for the Environment Nick Smith 2008–2012
Amy Adams 2012–14
Nick Smith2014–2017
Minister of Police Judith Collins 2008–2011
Anne Tolley 2011–2014
Michael Woodhouse 2014-2015
Judith Collins 2015-2016
Paula Bennett 2016–2017
Minister of Education Anne Tolley 2008–2011
Hekia Parata 2011–2017
Nikki Kaye 2017
Attorney-General Chris Finlayson 2008–2017
Minister of Agriculture David Carter 2008–2011
Minister of Foreign Affairs Murray McCully 2008–2017
Gerry Brownlee 2017
Minister of Trade Tim Groser 2008–2015
Todd McClay 2015–2017
Minister of Defence Wayne Mapp 2008–2011
Jonathan Coleman 2011–2014
Gerry Brownlee 2014–2017
Mark Mitchell 2017
Minister of Transport Steven Joyce 2008–2011
Gerry Brownlee 2011–2014
Simon Bridges 2014–2017
Minister for Courts Georgina te Heuheu 2008–2011
Chester Borrows 2011–2014
Amy Adams 2014–2017
Minister for Social Development Paula Bennett 2008–2014
Anne Tolley 2014–2017
Minister of Fisheries Phil Heatley 2008–2011
Minister for Ethnic Affairs Pansy Wong 2008–2010
Hekia Parata 2011–2011
Judith Collins 2011–2014
Minister for Ethnic Communities Sam Lotu-Iiga 2014–2016
Judith Collins 2016–2017
Minister of Immigration Jonathan Coleman 2008–2011
Nathan Guy 2011-2014
Michael Woodhouse 2014–2017
Minister of Labour Kate Wilkinson 2008–2013
Simon Bridges 2013–2014
Minister for Workplace Health & Safety Michael Woodhouse 2014–2017
Minister of Internal Affairs Amy Adams 2011–2012
Chris Tremain 2012–2014
Peter Dunne 2014–2017
Minister of Local Government Nick Smith 2011–2012
David Carter 2012–2013
Chris Tremain 2013–2014
Paula Bennett 2014–2015
Sam Lotu-Iiga 2015–2016
Anne Tolley 2016–2017
Minister for Primary Industries David Carter 2011–2013
Nathan Guy 2013–2017
Minister for Arts, Culture & Heritage Maggie Barry 2014–2017

Ministers outside Cabinet

Minister of Customs Maurice Williamson 2008 – 2014
Nicky Wagner 2014 – 2017
Tim Macindoe 2017
Minister of Internal Affairs Richard Worth 2008 – June 2009
Nathan Guy June 2009 – 2011
Peter Dunne January 2014 – 2017
Minister of Civil Defence John Carter 2008 – July 2011
Craig Foss July 2011 – December 2011
Chris Tremain December 2011 – April 2012
Nikki Kaye December 2011 – December 2016
Gerry Brownlee December 2016 – May 2017
Nathan Guy May 2017 - October 2017
Minister of Local Government Rodney Hide 2008 – 2011
Minister of Consumer Affairs Heather Roy 2008 – 2010
John Boscawen 2010 – May 2011
Chris Tremain 2011 – 2014
Minister of Commerce and Consumer Affairs Paul Goldsmith October 2014 – December 2016
Jacqui Dean December 2016 - 2017
Minister of Māori Affairs Pita Sharples 2008 – 2014
Minister of Māori Development Te Ururoa Flavell 2014 – 2017
Minister for the Community and Voluntary Sector Tariana Turia 2008 – 2011
Jo Goodhew 2011 – 2014
Alfred Ngaro December 2016 - 2017
Minister of Revenue Peter Dunne 2008 – 2013
Todd McClay 2013 – 2015
Michael Woodhouse 2015 - 2016
Judith Collins 2016 - 2017

Related Research Articles

Politics of New Zealand Unitary parliamentary representative democracy

The politics of New Zealand function within a framework of a unitary parliamentary representative democracy. New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy in which a hereditary monarch—since 6 February 1952, Queen Elizabeth II—is the sovereign and head of state.

Winston Peters New Zealand politician

Winston Raymond Peters is a New Zealand politician who has served since 2017 as the Deputy Prime Minister of New Zealand and Minister of Foreign Affairs. He was previously Deputy Prime Minister from 1996 to 1998. Peters has led the populist New Zealand First party since its foundation in 1993. He has been a Member of Parliament since 2011, having previously served from 1979 to 1981 and 1984 to 2008.

New Zealand First, commonly abbreviated to NZ First, is a nationalist and populist political party in New Zealand. It was founded in July 1993, following the resignation on 19 March 1993 of its leader and founder, Winston Peters, from the then-governing National Party. It has formed governments with both major parties in New Zealand, first with the National Party from 1996 to 1998 and then with the Labour Party from 2005 to 2008 and from 2017 to present.

Tariana Turia New Zealand politician

Dame Tariana Turia is a New Zealand politician. She gained considerable prominence during the foreshore and seabed controversy, and eventually broke with her party as a result. She resigned from parliament, and successfully contested a by-election in her former electorate as a candidate of the newly formed Māori Party. She retired from Parliament in 2014.

Māori Party New Zealand political party promoting indigenous rights

The Māori Party is an indigenous rights-based political party in New Zealand, formed on 7 July 2004. Tariana Turia founded the party after resigning from the Labour Party, where she had been a minister in the Fifth Labour Government. She and Pita Sharples, a high-profile academic, became co-leaders. Since the 2008 election, the party supported a National Party-led government, and Turia and Sharples became ministers outside cabinet.

Pita Sharples New Zealand politician

Sir Pita Russell Sharples is a New Zealand Māori academic and politician, who was a co-leader of the Māori Party from 2004 to 2013, and a minister outside Cabinet in the National Party-led government from 2008 to 2014. He was the member of Parliament for the Tāmaki Makaurau electorate in Auckland from 2005 to 2014. He stepped down as co-leader role of the Māori Party in July 2013.

Nanaia Mahuta New Zealand politician

Nanaia Cybelle Mahuta is a New Zealand politician who currently serves as the Minister for Māori Development and Minister for Local Government. She was previously a cabinet minister in the Fifth Labour Government of New Zealand, serving then as Minister of Customs, Minister of Local Government, Minister of Youth Development, Associate Minister for the Environment, and Associate Minister of Tourism. She has strong links to the Māori King Movement, being the daughter of Sir Robert Mahuta, who was the adopted son of King Korokī and the elder brother of Māori Queen Te Atairangikaahu. She has an MA (Hons) in social anthropology. In 2016, she acquired a Māori facial tattoo and became the first female MP to wear one in the New Zealand parliament.

Raymond Tau Henare is a former New Zealand Māori parliamentarian. In representing three different political parties in parliament—New Zealand First, Mauri Pacific and the National Party—Henare served as a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1993 to 1999 and from 2005 to 2014.

Claims and settlements under the Treaty of Waitangi have been a significant feature of New Zealand race relations and politics since the Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975. Successive governments have increasingly provided formal legal and political opportunity for Māori to seek redress for breaches by the Crown of the guarantees set out in the Treaty of Waitangi. While it has resulted in putting to rest a number of significant longstanding grievances, the process has been subject to criticisms from a number of angles, from those who believe that the redress is insufficient to compensate for Māori losses, to those who see no value in revisiting painful and contentious historical issues. The settlements are typically seen as part of a broader Māori Renaissance.

Te Arawa is a confederation of Māori iwi and hapu based in the Rotorua and Bay of Plenty areas of New Zealand, with a population of around 40,000 who trace their ancestry to Te Arawa waka or canoe.

2008 New Zealand general election election

The 2008 New Zealand general election was held on 8 November 2008 to determine the composition of the 49th New Zealand parliament. The conservative National Party, headed by its parliamentary leader John Key, won the largest share of votes and seats, ending nine years of government by the social-democratic Labour Party, led by Helen Clark. Key announced a week later that he would lead a National minority government with confidence-and-supply support from the ACT, United Future and Māori parties. The Governor-General swore Key in as New Zealand's 38th Prime Minister on 19 November 2008. This marked an end to nine years of Labour Party government, and the beginning of the Fifth National Government of New Zealand which would govern for 9 years, until its loss to the Labour Party in the 2017 general election.

2011 New Zealand general election election in New Zealand

The 2011 New Zealand general election on Saturday 26 November 2011 determined the membership of the 50th New Zealand Parliament.

Kelvin Davis (politician) New Zealand politician

Kelvin Glen Davis is a New Zealand politician and a member of the House of Representatives who has served as Deputy Leader of the Labour Party since 1 August 2017.

The Mana Movement, formerly known as the Mana Party, is a New Zealand political party led by Hone Harawira which was formed in April 2011 following his resignation from the Māori Party. Harawira won the by-election in Te Tai Tokerau of 25 June 2011 for the Mana Party and retained the seat during the 2011 general election, but lost it in 2014 and 2017 to Labour Party candidate Kelvin Davis.

2011 Te Tai Tokerau by-election New Zealand by-election

The 2011 Te Tai Tokerau by-election was a by-election in the New Zealand electorate of Te Tai Tokerau that was caused by Hone Harawira's resignation from the seat. He chose to re-contest it with the Mana Party in order to seek a new mandate for his views. After generating several days of media interest and criticism Harawira announced on 4 May 2011 that he was delaying his resignation in order to consult his supporters in his electorate. On 11 May 2011 Harawira wrote to the Speaker of the House to resign from Parliament, with effect from 20 May 2011. On 12 May 2011 the Prime Minister John Key announced that the by-election would be held on 25 June.

2017 New Zealand general election Election on 23 September 2017

The 2017 New Zealand general election took place on Saturday 23 September 2017 to determine the membership of the 52nd New Zealand Parliament. The previous parliament was elected on 20 September 2014 and was officially dissolved on 22 August 2017. Voters elected 120 members to the House of Representatives under New Zealand's mixed-member proportional (MMP) voting system, a proportional representation system in which 71 members were elected from single-member electorates and 49 members were elected from closed party lists. Around 3.57 million people were registered to vote in the election, with 2.63 million (79.8%) turning out. Advance voting proved popular, with 1.24 million votes cast before election day, more than the previous two elections combined.

Ngāti Rongomai is a Māori iwi of New Zealand.

Sixth Labour Government of New Zealand

The Sixth Labour Government has governed New Zealand since 26 October 2017. It is headed by Labour Party leader and Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern.


  1. Crown and Ngai Tuhoe sign deed of settlement. 2013. Retrieved from:
  2. PM delivers Crown apology to Affiliate Te Arawa. 2009. Retrieved from:
  3. Terms of Negotiation signed with Te Atiawa and Taranaki iwi. 2010. Retrieved from:
  4. "Review of the Emissions Trading Scheme and related matters". I.23A. New Zealand Parliament. 31 August 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2009
  5. Fleming, Grant (16 November 2008). "Emissions trading scheme up for review under Act deal". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 1 December 2010.
  6. Hon Dr Nick Smith (25 November 2009). "Balanced new law important step on climate change". New Zealand Government Press Release. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
  7. Trevett, Claire (19 March 2009). "Spend tax cut or give it to the needy: PM". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
  8. "Can you survive on the minimum wage in NZ?". The New Zealand Herald. 27 January 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2010.
  10. Trevett, Claire (18 February 2009). "Unpopular electoral finance law fades into night". The New Zealand Herald . Retrieved 25 January 2010.
  11. "Governor-General Bill First Reading". Parliament of New Zealand . Retrieved 25 July 2010.[ dead link ]
  12. "Monarchy debate off-topic in constitutional review". TVNZ. 8 December 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
  13. Trevett, Claire (12 December 2008). "90-day bill passes first test under heavy fire". The New Zealand Herald . Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  14. Gower, Patrick (22 March 2009). "Govt to let employers buy back holidays". The New Zealand Herald . Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  15. Young, Audrey. "United States ship to visit NZ for the first time in 33 years." NZ Herald. July 21st 2016.
  16. Young, Audrey and Clair Trevett. "NZ Wins seat on security council 'a victory for the small states.'" NZ Herald. October 17th 2014.
  17. "Agreement with US sees NZ as 'de facto' ally". Stuff. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  18. "Minister for Disarmament and Arms Control disestablished | Scoop News". Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  19. "Defence White Paper: Government unveils $20b defence plan for new planes, boats and cyber security". Stuff. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  20. "Titles of Dames, Knights to be restored– Key". The New Zealand Herald . 8 March 2009. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
  21. "Honours Q and A" (PDF). Beehive. 8 March 2009. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  22. "Use of the title 'The Right Honourable' in New Zealand, 2 August 2010". The Queen's Printer. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  23. "Queen requests officials become lifelong 'Right Honourables'". NZ Herald News. 3 August 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  24. Trevett, Claire (7 June 2012). "Relief over class size backdown". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  25. "Food In Schools Bill Defeated". Scoop . 18 March 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  26. "Royal Commission on Auckland Governance". The New Zealand Herald . 17 September 2009. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
  27. "ECan council canned in favour of commissioners". TVNZ . 30 March 2010. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  28. "Electives may cut emergencies". The New Zealand Herald . 26 November 2009. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
  29. Rutherford, Hamish (4 October 2014). "National loses majority, Greens pick up one". Fairfax NZ News. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  30. Davison, Issac (29 September 2014). "Dunne deal: United Future signs agreement with National-led govt". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
  31. Davison, Issac (29 September 2014). "Act deal: No portfolio for David Seymour". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
  32. Bennett, Adam (5 October 2014). "National signs deal with Maori Party". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  36. "Bill English: Why I'm standing for Prime Minister". The New Zealand Herald . 6 December 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  37. "The race to be PM: how it happened". 8 December 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  38. Jo Moir (10 December 2016). "Paula Bennett has won the battle for deputy Prime Minister and will team up with Bill English". Retrieved 3 November 2017.