The Right Honourable

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The Right Honourable (abbreviation: The Rt Hon. or Rt Hon.) is an honorific style traditionally applied to certain persons and collective bodies in the United Kingdom, Australia, the former British Empire and the Commonwealth of Nations. The term is predominantly used today as a style associated with the holding of certain senior public offices in the United Kingdom, Canada, Kenya and New Zealand.

Contents

"Right" in this context is an adverb meaning "thoroughly" or "very".

Major current title

United Kingdom

The prefix is customarily abbreviated to "The" in many situations, e.g The Earl Mountbatten of Burma, but never for Privy Counsellors. [1] The following persons are entitled to the style in a personal capacity:

The following persons are entitled to the style ex officio . The style is added to the name of the office, not the name of the person:

All other lord mayors are "The Right Worshipful"; other lords provost do not use an honorific. By the 1920s, a number of city mayors, including the Lord mayor of Leeds, [9] were unofficially using the prefix "The Right Honourable", and the matter was consequently raised in Parliament. The Lord Mayor of Bristol at present still uses the prefix "Right Honourable", without official sanction. [10] [11] The Chairman of the London County Council (LCC) was granted the style in 1935 as part of the celebrations of the silver jubilee of King George V. [12] The chairman of the Greater London Council, the body that replaced the LCC in 1965, was similarly granted the prefix; [13] however, that body, and by extension the office of its chairman, was likewise abolished in 1986.

Privy Counsellors are appointed for life by the monarch, on the advice of the prime minister. All members of the British Cabinet (technically a committee of the Privy Council) are appointed to the Privy Council, as are certain other senior ministers in the government, senior members of the Shadow Cabinet, and leaders of the major political parties. The Privy Council thus includes all current and former members of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom, excepting those who have resigned from the Privy Council. The first ministers of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are also so appointed, as is the leader of the largest opposition party in the Scottish Parliament.

In order to differentiate peers who are Privy Counsellors from those who are not, the suffix "PC" should be added after the name (according to Debrett's Peerage). [14] [15] [16] This is not however considered correct by Who's Who . [17]

In the House of Commons, members are not permitted to address each other directly or name other members, but must instead address the Speaker and refer to each other indirectly by their job. A non-Privy Council member is thus "my hon. Friend (the member for constituency)" if in the same party as the person speaking, and "the hon. Member/Gentleman/Lady (the member for constituency)" otherwise. ("Honourable" is abbreviated as "hon." in Hansard.) "Honourable" becomes "right honourable" for those members entitled to this style, in particular Privy Counsellors. Members with government or opposition jobs may be referred to as such, for example "my right hon. Friend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer", "the right hon. Lady, the Leader of the Opposition", "his right hon. Friend, the Secretary of State for Department", "the Secretary of State" (where this is unambiguous, such as while asking questions of a minister), or "the Prime Minister". Other honorifics are used in addition for those members in relevant professions:

Provided they are Commonwealth citizens, foreign judges appointed to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council are entitled to the honorific as well, although the appellation may be ignored in the judge's home country.

Collective entities

In the United Kingdom, "The Right Honourable" is added as a prefix to the name of various collective entities such as:

  • The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal (of the United Kingdom, etc.) in Parliament Assembled (the House of Lords)
  • The Right Honourable the Knights, Citizens and Burgesses (of the House of Commons/Commons House) in Parliament Assembled [22] (the House of Commons) (archaic, now simply The Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom, etc.) [23]
  • The Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty (the former Board of Admiralty)
  • The Right Honourable the Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council appointed for the consideration of all matters relating to Trade and Foreign Plantations (the Board of Trade)

See also the collective use of "the Most Honourable", as in "The Lords of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council" (the Privy Council).

Canada

In Canada, occupants of the most senior public offices are styled as "The Right Honourable" (Le très honorable in French). Formerly, this was by virtue of their appointment to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom. However, Canadian appointments to the British Privy Council were ended by the government of Lester Pearson. Currently, individuals who hold, or have held, one of the following offices are awarded the style of Right Honourable for life:

The title is not to be confused with "His/Her Excellency", used by governors general during their term of office, or "The Honourable", used only while in office by premiers, and provincial cabinet ministers, and for life by senators and federal cabinet ministers.

The style may also be granted for life by the Governor General to eminent Canadians who have not held any of the offices that would otherwise entitle them to the style. This has been done on two occasions: once to mark the 125th anniversary of Canadian Confederation in 1992, and again upon the retirement of longtime politician Herb Gray in 2002.

The following individuals have been granted the title as an honorific:

Living Canadians holding the title The Right Honourable
PersonBirthplaceReasonBornGranted
Justin Trudeau Ottawa, ON Prime Minister 19712015
Stephen Harper Toronto, ON Former Prime Minister 19592006
Paul Martin Windsor, ON Former Prime Minister 19382003
Jean Chrétien Shawinigan, QC Former Prime Minister 19341993
Kim Campbell Port Alberni, BC Former Prime Minister 19471993
Brian Mulroney Baie-Comeau, QC Former Prime Minister 19391984
John Turner United Kingdom Former Prime Minister 19291984
Joe Clark High River, AB Former Prime Minister 19391979
Julie Payette Montreal, QC Governor General 19632017
David Johnston Sudbury, ON Former Governor General 19412010
Michaëlle Jean Haiti Former Governor General 19572005
Adrienne Clarkson Hong Kong Former Governor General 19391999
Ed Schreyer Beausejour, MB Former Governor General 19351979
Richard Wagner Montreal, QC Chief Justice 19572017
Beverley McLachlin Pincher Creek, AB Former Chief Justice 19432000
Don Mazankowski Viking, AB Honorific19351992

Over the years, a number of prominent Canadians became members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom and thus were entitled to use the style of Right Honourable, either because of their services in Britain (e.g. serving as envoys to London) or as members of the Imperial War Cabinet, or due to their prominence in the Canadian Cabinet. These included all but three of Canada's early prime ministers (Alexander Mackenzie, John Abbott, and Mackenzie Bowell), who governed before the title was used domestically.

New Zealand

In New Zealand, the prime minister and some other senior cabinet ministers were customarily appointed to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom and thus styled The Right Honourable. [24]

In her resignation honours, the former prime minister Helen Clark did not recommend the appointment of any new Privy Counsellors, and at present Winston Peters is the sole Privy Counsellor in the New Zealand parliament. Privy Counsellors recently retired from parliament include Clark, the former Speaker of the House Jonathan Hunt, and the former prime minister Jenny Shipley. [25] In 2009 it was announced that the new prime minister John Key had decided not to make any further recommendations to the Crown for appointments to the Privy Council. [26]

In August 2010, the Queen of New Zealand announced that, with immediate effect, individuals who hold, and those persons who after the date of the signing of these rules are appointed to, the following offices are awarded the style The Right Honourable for life: [24]

This change was made because the practice of appointing New Zealanders to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom had ceased. However, the change had little immediate effect, as all but two of the holders or living former holders of the offices granted the style had already been appointed to the Privy Council. [27] [28]

The living New Zealanders holding the style "The Right Honourable" as a result of membership of the Privy Council are:

The living New Zealanders holding the style "The Right Honourable" for life as a result of the 2010 changes are:

NameTitleDate Appointed
Sir Anand Satyanand Former Governor-General2 August 2010
Sir John Key Former Prime Minister
Sir Lockwood Smith Former Speaker of the House of Representatives
Sir Jerry Mateparae Former Governor-General31 August 2011
David Carter Former Speaker of the House of Representatives1 February 2013
Dame Patsy Reddy Governor-General28 September 2016
Sir Bill English Former Prime Minister12 December 2016
Jacinda Ardern Prime Minister26 October 2017
Trevor Mallard Speaker of the House of Representatives7 November 2017
Dame Helen Winklemann Chief Justice14 March 2019

Minor or historic title

Australia

In Australia, the lord mayors of Adelaide, Brisbane, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney are entitled to be styled "The Right Honourable" while in office.

Historically, a number of Australians were entitled to the style as members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom. Appointment to the Australian equivalent of the Privy Council, the Federal Executive Council, does not entitle a person to the style. Typical appointees to the Imperial Privy Council included senior politicians and judges at state and federal level. Malcolm Fraser in 1976 was the most recent prime minister to accept appointment to the Privy Council and thus to be styled "The Right Honourable". Of his 21 predecessors, only four were not members of the Privy Council – Alfred Deakin (declined appointment), Chris Watson (never offered), Arthur Fadden (accepted after leaving office), and Gough Whitlam (declined appointment). The last Governor-General to be entitled to the style was Sir Ninian Stephen, who left office in 1988. The last active politician to be entitled to the style was Ian Sinclair, who retired in 1998. The few Australian recipients of British peerages were also entitled to the style.

Present-day Australian governments no longer recommend Australians for elevation to the peerage or appointment to the Privy Council. However, some present-day Australian citizens either hold hereditary peerages (e.g. Malcolm Murray, 12th Earl of Dunmore) or have been awarded life peerages on the recommendation of the UK government (e.g. Robert May, Baron May of Oxford).

Living Australians holding the title The Right HonourableReasonFormerly
Doug Anthony, AC, CHMember of the Privy CouncilFormer Deputy Prime Minister of Australia
Ian Sinclair, ACMember of the Privy CouncilFormer Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives
Sir William Heseltine, GCB, GCVO, ACMember of the Privy CouncilFormer Private Secretary to the Sovereign
Trixie Gardner, Baroness Gardner of Parkes, AM, JP Life peer Former Councillor on the Westminster City Council
Malcolm Murray, 12th Earl of Dunmore Earl of Dunmore Former Member of the House of Lords
Robert Fiennes-Clinton, 19th Earl of Lincoln Earl of Lincoln
Simon Abney-Hastings, 15th Earl of Loudoun Earl of Loudoun
George Dawson-Damer, 7th Earl of Portarlington Earl of Portarlington
Keith Rous, 6th Earl of Stradbroke Earl of Stradbroke
Francis Grosvenor, 8th Earl of Wilton Earl of Wilton
Nicholas St John, 9th Viscount Bolingbroke, 10th Viscount St John Viscount Bolingbroke
Charles Cavendish, 7th Baron Chesham Baron Chesham
James Lindsay, 3rd Baron Lindsay of Birker Baron Lindsay of Birker
David Campbell, 7th Baron Stratheden and Campbell Baron Stratheden

Ireland

Members of the Privy Council of Ireland were entitled to be addressed as The Right Honourable, even after the Privy Council ceased to have any functions or to meet on the creation of the Irish Free State in December 1922. Nevertheless, the Lord Mayor of Dublin, like some of his counterparts in Great Britain, retained the use of the honorific style as a result of its having been conferred separately by legislation; in 2001 it was removed, as a consequence of local government law reform.

Kenya

The second prime minister Raila Amolo Odinga (2008 2013) has been referred to as Rt. Honourable Raila Odinga.[ citation needed ]

Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka (formerly known as Ceylon) the British practice was followed with Ceylonese members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom were styled The Right Honourable and were referred to as Mahamanya in Sinhala. Ceylonese appointees to the privy council included D. S. Senanayake and Sir John Kotelawala. [29]

See also

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References

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