|Speaker of the House of Commons|
|House of Commons of the United Kingdom|
(informal and within the house)
The Right Honourable
(within the UK and the Commonwealth)
|Residence||Palace of Westminster|
|Appointer||The House of Commons |
approved and sworn in by the Monarch
|Term length|| At Her Majesty's pleasure |
elected by the Commons at the start of each parliament, and upon a vacancy
|First holder||Thomas Hungerford (first recorded holder, though role existed before)|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
the United Kingdom
The Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, the United Kingdom's nominally lower, but more influential, chamber of Parliament. John Bercow was elected Speaker on 22 June 2009, following the resignation of Michael Martin. He was since re-elected, unopposed, three times, following the general elections in 2010, 2015and 2017.
The speaker of a deliberative assembly, especially a legislative body, is its presiding officer, or the chair. The title was first used in 1377 in England.
The House of Commons, officially the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Owing to shortage of space, its office accommodation extends into Portcullis House.
John Simon Bercow is a British politician who has been the Speaker of the House of Commons since June 2009. He concurrently serves as the Member of Parliament for Buckingham. Prior to his election to Speaker, he was a member of the Conservative Party. A former right-winger, he changed his views after becoming an MP and at one time was rumoured to be likely to defect to the Labour Party. Bercow's election to the Speaker's chair depended heavily on the backing of other parties, and was deeply unpopular with many of his former Conservative Party colleagues.
The Speaker presides over the House's debates, determining which members may speak. The Speaker is also responsible for maintaining order during debate, and may punish members who break the rules of the House. Unlike presiding officers of legislatures in many other countries, Speakers remain strictly non-partisan and renounce all affiliation with their former political parties when taking office and afterwards. The Speaker does not take part in debate or vote (except to break ties; and even then, the convention is that the speaker casts the tie-breaking vote according to Speaker Denison's rule). Aside from duties relating to presiding over the House, the Speaker also performs administrative and procedural functions, and remains a constituency Member of Parliament (MP). The Speaker has the right and obligation to reside in Speaker's House at the Palace of Westminster.
Speaker Denison's rule is a constitutional convention established by John Evelyn Denison, who was Speaker of the British House of Commons from 1857 to 1872, regarding how the Speaker decides on their casting vote in the event of a tie in the number of votes cast in a division.
The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Commonly known as the Houses of Parliament after its occupants, the Palace lies on the north bank of the River Thames in the City of Westminster, in central London, England.
The office of Speaker is almost as old as Parliament itself. The earliest year for which a presiding officer has been identified is 1258, when Peter de Montfort presided over the Parliament held in Oxford. Early presiding officers were known by the title parlour or prolocutor. The continuous history of the office of Speaker is held to date from 1376 [ citation needed ]when Sir Peter de la Mare spoke for the commons in the "Good Parliament" as they joined leading magnates in purging the chief ministers of the Crown and the most unpopular members of the king's household. Edward III was frail and in seclusion; his prestigious eldest son, Edward the Black Prince, terminally ill. It was left to the next son, a furious John of Gaunt, to fight back. He arrested De la Mare and disgraced other leading critics. In the next, "Bad Parliament", in 1377, a cowed Commons put forward Gaunt's steward, Thomas Hungerford, as their spokesman in retracting their predecessors' misdeeds of the previous year. Gaunt evidently wanted a "mirror-image" as his form of counter-coup and this notion, born in crisis, of one 'speaker', who quickly also became 'chairman' and organiser of the Commons' business, was recognised as valuable and took immediate root after 1376–7.
Peter de Montfort of Beaudesert Castle was an English magnate, soldier and diplomat. He is the first person recorded as having presided over Parliament as a parlour or prolocutor, an office now known as Speaker of the House of Commons. He was one of those elected by the barons to represent them during the constitutional crisis with Henry III in 1258. He was later a leading supporter of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, against the King. Both he and Simon de Montfort were slain at the Battle of Evesham on 4 August 1265.
Sir Peter de la Mare was an English politician and Speaker of the House of Commons during the Good Parliament of 1376.
The Good Parliament is the name traditionally given to the English Parliament of 1376. Sitting in London from April 28 to July 10, it was the longest Parliament up until that time.
On 6 October 1399, Sir John Cheyne of Beckford (Gloucester) was elected speaker. The powerful Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Arundel, is said to have voiced his fears of Cheyne's reputation as a critic of the Church. Eight days later, Cheyne resigned on grounds of ill-health, although he remained in favour with the king and active in public life for a further 14 years.[ citation needed ]
Sir John Cheyne or Cheney was a Member of Parliament and briefly the initial Speaker of the House of Commons of England in the Parliament of October 1399, summoned by the newly acclaimed Henry IV.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury. The current archbishop is Justin Welby, who was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 21 March 2013. Welby is the 105th in a line which goes back more than 1400 years to Augustine of Canterbury, the "Apostle to the English", sent from Rome in the year 597. Welby succeeded Rowan Williams.
Thomas Arundel was an English clergyman who served as Lord Chancellor during the reign of Richard II, as well as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1397 and from 1399 until his death, an outspoken opponent of the Lollards. He was instrumental in the usurpation of Richard by his Cousin Henry Bolingbroke, who became Henry IV.
Although the officer was elected by the Commons at the start of each Parliament, with at least one contested election known, in 1420 (Roger Hunt prevailing by a majority of just four votes), in practice the Crown was usually able to get whom it wanted, indicating that the famous 'defence of the Commons' privilege' should not be seen in isolation as the principal thread in the office's evolution. Whilst the principle of giving this spokesman personal immunity from recrimination[ vague ] as only being the voice of the whole body was quickly adopted and did enhance the Commons' role, the Crown found it useful to have one person with the authority to select and lead the lower house's business and responses to the Crown's agenda, much more often than not in the way the Crown wanted. Thus, Whig ideas of the Commons growing in authority as against royal power are somewhat simplistic; the Crown used the Commons as and when it found it advantageous to do so, and the speakership was one means to make the Commons a more cohesive, defined and effective instrument of the king's government.[ citation needed ]
Roger Hunt was an English MP and Speaker of the House of Commons.
Whig history is an approach to historiography that presents the past as an inevitable progression towards ever greater liberty and enlightenment, culminating in modern forms of liberal democracy and constitutional monarchy.
Throughout the medieval and early modern period, every speaker was an MP for a county, reflecting the implicit position that such shire representatives were of greater standing in the house than the more numerous burgess (municipality) MPs. Although evidence is almost non-existent, it has been surmised that any vote was by count of head, but by the same token perhaps the lack of evidence of actual votes suggests that most decisions, at least of a general kind, were reached more through persuasion and the weight by status of the county MPs. In such a situation, the influence of the speaker should not be underestimated. Sir Thomas More was the first speaker to go on to become Lord Chancellor.[ citation needed ]
Sir Thomas More, venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist. He was also a councillor to Henry VIII, and Lord High Chancellor of England from October 1529 to 16 May 1532. He wrote Utopia, published in 1516, about the political system of an imaginary, ideal island nation.
The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed regularly in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking the Prime Minister. The Lord Chancellor is outranked only by the Lord High Steward, another Great Officer of State, who is appointed only for the day of coronations. The Lord Chancellor is appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister. Prior to the Union there were separate Lord Chancellors for England and Wales, for Scotland and for Ireland.
Until the 17th century, members of the House of Commons often continued to view their speaker (correctly) as an agent of the Crown. As Parliament evolved, however, the Speaker's position grew to involve more duties to the House than to the Crown; this was definitely true by the time of the English Civil War. This change is sometimes said to be reflected by an incident in 1642, when King Charles I entered the House in order to search for and arrest five members for high treason. When the King asked him if he knew of the location of these members, the Speaker, William Lenthall, famously replied: "May it please your Majesty, I have neither eyes to see nor tongue to speak in this place but as the House is pleased to direct me, whose servant I am here."[ citation needed ]
The development of Cabinet government under King William III in the late 17th century caused further change in the role of the Speaker. Speakers were generally associated with the ministry, and often held other government offices. For example, Robert Harley served simultaneously as Speaker and as a Secretary of State between 1704 and 1705.[ citation needed ]
The speaker between 1728 and 1761, Arthur Onslow, reduced ties with the government, though the office remained to a large degree political.[ citation needed ]
The speakership evolved into its modern form—in which the holder is an impartial and apolitical officer who does not belong to any party—only during the middle of the 19th century.
Over 150 individuals have served as Speaker of the House of Commons. Their names are inscribed in gold leaf around the upper walls of Room C of the House of Commons Library. Betty Boothroyd , elected in 1992, was the first woman Speaker (the first woman to sit in the Speaker's chair was Betty Harvie Anderson, a Deputy Speaker from 1970). Michael Martin, elected in 2000, was the first Roman Catholic speaker since the Reformation. John Bercow, elected in 2009, is the first Jewish speaker.
The Speaker has significant influence on legislation, for example by selecting which amendments to a bill may be proposed, and by interpreting and enforcing the rules of Parliament as laid out in the official parliamentary rulebook, Erskine May . In 2019 Speaker John Bercow had significant influence in selecting which important amendments to legislation affecting Britain's exit from the European Union could be voted on,and later by not allowing the government to repeat a vote on the terms of exit, as the same motion may not be proposed twice in the same session of Parliament. Bercow was criticised for these interventions, but said that he was acting within his powers and enforcing clear rules in a non-partisan way.
Until 1992 all Speakers were men, and were always addressed in Parliament as "Mr Speaker", and their deputies as "Mr Deputy Speaker". Betty Boothroyd was, at her request, addressed as "Madam Speaker". When Betty Harvie Anderson served in the 1970s as a Deputy Speaker, on the other hand, she was addressed as "Mr Deputy Speaker". Eleanor Laing, a Deputy Speaker since 2013, is addressed as "Madam Deputy Speaker".
MPs elect the Speaker from amongst their own ranks.The House must elect a Speaker at the beginning of each new parliamentary term after a general election, or after the death or resignation of the incumbent. Once elected, a Speaker continues in office until the dissolution of Parliament, unless she or he resigns prior to this. Customarily, the House re-elects Speakers who desire to continue in office for more than one term. Theoretically, the House could vote against re-electing a Speaker, but such an event is contrary to historical convention.
The procedure for electing a Speaker has changed in recent years. Until 1971, the Clerk of the House of Commons became temporary Chairman of the House. As the Clerk is never a Member, and therefore is not permitted to speak, he would silently stand and point at the Member who was to speak. However, this procedure broke down at the election of a new Speaker in 1971 (see below) and had to be changed. Since that time, as recommended by a Select Committee, the Father of the House (the member of the House with the longest period of unbroken service who is not a minister) becomes the presiding officer.
Until 2001, the election of a Speaker was conducted as a routine matter of House of Commons business, as it used motions and amendments to elect. A member would move "That Mr(s) [X] do take the Chair of this House as Speaker", and following debate (which may have included an amendment to replace the name of the member on whom the speakership was to be conferred), a routine division of the House would resolve in favour of one candidate. There was, however, a considerable amount of behind-the-scenes lobbying before suitable candidates were agreed upon, and so it was very rare for a new speaker to be opposed. However, this system broke down in 2000 when twelve rival candidates declared for the job and the debate occupied an entire parliamentary day.The House of Commons Procedure Committee then re-examined the means of electing a speaker and recommended a new system that came into effect in 2007 and was first used in June 2009, following the resignation of Michael Martin.
Under the new system, candidates must be nominated by at least twelve members, of whom at least three must be of a different party from the candidate. Each member may nominate no more than one candidate. The House then votes by secret ballot; an absolute majority (i.e. more than 50% of the votes cast) is required for victory. If no candidate wins a majority, then the individual with the fewest votes is eliminated, as are any other candidates who receive less than 5% of the votes cast. The House continues to vote, for several rounds if necessary, until one member receives the requisite majority. Then, the House votes on a formal motion to appoint the member in question to the Speakership. (In the unlikely event that this motion fails, the House must hold a fresh series of ballots on all of the nominees.)
If only one candidate is nominated, then no ballot is held, and the House proceeds directly to the motion to appoint the candidate to the Speakership. A similar procedure is used if a Speaker seeks a further term after a general election: no ballot is held, and the House immediately votes on a motion to re-elect the Speaker. If this motion fails, candidates are nominated, and the House proceeds with voting (as described above).
Upon the passage of the motion, the speaker-elect is expected to show reluctance at being chosen; she or he is customarily "dragged unwillingly" by MPs to the speaker's bench.This custom has its roots in the speaker's original function of communicating the Commons' opinions to the monarch. Historically, the Speaker, representing the House to the monarch, potentially faced the monarch's anger and therefore required some persuasion to accept the post. Contrary to an often repeated tradition, no speaker has ever been executed for his actions in that capacity. Six former speakers have been executed (sometimes many years after their terms); for five of these, the execution was due to their close association with a former king after a new monarch had succeeded.
The speaker-elect must receive approbation by the sovereign before she or he may take office. On the day of the election, the speaker-elect leads the Commons to the Chamber of the House of Lords, where Lords Commissioners appointed by the Crown confirm him or her in the monarch's name. The speaker then requests "in the name and on behalf of the Commons of the United Kingdom, to lay claim, by humble petition to Her Majesty, to all their ancient and undoubted rights and privileges, especially to freedom of speech in debate, to freedom from arrest, and to free access to Her Majesty whenever occasion shall require." After the Lords Commissioners, on the behalf of the sovereign, confirm the Commons' rights and privileges, the Commons return to their chamber. If a speaker is chosen in the middle of a parliament due to a vacancy in the office, she or he must receive the royal approbation as described above but does not again lay claim to the Commons' rights and privileges.
Though the election of a Speaker is normally non-partisan, there have been several controversial elections in history. For example, in 1895, the sudden retirement of Arthur Peel came at a time when partisan feelings were running high. The Conservatives and Liberal Unionists put forward Sir Matthew White Ridley, a well-respected MP who had many years of experience, and hoped for a unanimous election as the previous Speaker had been a Liberal. However, the Liberals decided to oppose him and nominated William Court Gully who had been an MP for only nine years and had been a relatively quiet presence. On a party-line vote, Gully was chosen by 285 to 274. Although Gully proved his impartiality to the satisfaction of most of his opponents and was unanimously re-elected after the 1895 general election, the episode left many Unionists bitter. During that year's general election, Gully became one of the few Speakers to be opposed in his own constituency, a sign of the bitterness of the time. It was not until the mid-1930s that it became common for a Speaker to face some form of opposition for re-election.
The 1951 election was similarly controversial. After the incumbent speaker, Douglas Clifton Brown, retired at the 1951 general election, there was a great demand from the Labour Party for Major James Milner to become the first Labour speaker after he had served as deputy speaker for eight years. However, the Conservatives (who had just regained power) nominated William Shepherd Morrison against him. The vote again went down party lines, and Morrison was elected. Milner received a peerage as compensation.
In 1971, having had early warning that Horace King would be retiring, the Conservatives took the lead in offering to the Labour Party either Selwyn Lloyd or John Boyd-Carpenter as potential speakers. The Labour Party chose Selwyn Lloyd, partly because he was perceived as a weak figure. However, when the House of Commons debated the new speaker, Conservative MP Robin Maxwell-Hyslop and Labour MP Willie Hamilton nominated Geoffrey de Freitas, a senior and respected backbench Labour MP. De Freitas was taken aback by the sudden nomination and urged the House not to support him (a genuine feeling, unlike the feigned reluctance which all speakers traditionally show). Lloyd was elected, but there was a feeling among all parties that the system of election needed to be overhauled. Now, a candidate's consent is required before she or he can be nominated.
The last three instances of the election of a new speaker (1992, 2000 and 2009) have all been relatively controversial. Bernard Weatherill had announced his impending retirement a long time before the 1992 general election, leading to a long but suppressed campaign for support. Betty Boothroyd, a Labour MP who had been a deputy speaker, was known to be extremely interested in becoming the first woman speaker (and in doing so, finished the chances of fellow Labour MP Harold Walker who had also been a deputy speaker). The Conservative former Cabinet member Peter Brooke was put forward at a late stage as a candidate. Unlike previous elections, there was an active campaign among Conservative MPs to support Boothroyd and about 70 of them did so, ensuring her election. She was the only speaker elected in the 20th century not to be a member of the governing party at the time of her first election.
Betty Boothroyd announced her retirement shortly before the summer recess in 2000, which left a long time for would-be speakers to declare their candidature but little opportunity for Members of Parliament to negotiate and decide on who should be chosen. Many backbench Labour MPs advanced the claims of Michael Martin. Most Conservatives felt strongly that the recent alternation between the main parties ought to be maintained and a Conservative Speaker chosen. The most prominent Conservative choices were Sir George Young and Deputy Speaker Sir Alan Haselhurst. With several additional candidates announcing themselves, the total number of Members seeking the Speakership was 14, none of whom would withdraw. A lengthy sitting of the House saw Michael Martin first proposed, then each of the other candidates proposed in turn as amendments, which were all voted down. In points of order before the debate, many members demanded a secret ballot.
By convention the Speaker severs all ties with his or her political party, as it is considered essential that the Speaker be seen as an impartial presiding officer.In many cases, individuals have served in ministerial or other political positions before being elected Speaker. For example, Selwyn Lloyd and George Thomas had both previously served as high-ranking Cabinet members, whilst Bernard Weatherill was previously a party whip.
In the House, the Speaker does not vote on any motion, except in order to resolve ties (which would be done in accordance with the Speaker Denison's rule, rather than in a partisan way). By current convention, the speaker's deputies, who also do not vote, consist of one member from the Speaker's former party, and two from the other side of the house. Thus there is no net voting power lost for either the government or the opposition.
After leaving office, the Speaker normally takes no part in party politics; if elevated to the House of Lords, she or he would normally sit as a crossbencher.
If the current speaker decides to contest a general election, he/she does not stand under a party label, but is entitled to describe himself/herself on the ballot as "The Speaker seeking re-election", under the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act. In the past, the Speaker could sometimes be returned unopposed; this has not happened in the last few decades, but they have sometimes faced opposition only from fringe candidates.
When Speaker Edward FitzRoy, previously a Conservative MP, was opposed by a Labour Party candidate at the 1935 general election, there was strong disapproval from other parties and a sub-committee of the Cabinet considered whether a special constituency should be created for the speaker to remove the obligation to take part in electoral contests. The sub-committee came to the conclusion that parliamentary opinion would not favour this suggestion; however, in December 1938, with a general election expected within a year or so, a motion from the Prime Minister was put down to nominate a Select Committee to examine the suggestion.The committee, chaired by former Prime Minister David Lloyd George, reported in April 1939 that no change should be made; it found that preventing opposition to a sitting speaker would be "a serious infringement of democratic principles" and that "to alter the status of the Speaker so that he ceased to be returned to the House of Commons by the same electoral methods as other members or as a representative of a Parliamentary constituency would be equally repugnant to the custom and tradition of the House". With the outbreak of the Second World War, no general election was held until 1945.
More generally, the convention that major parties do not stand against the speaker is not as firmly established as is sometimes suggested. Generally, former Labour speakers have faced only fringe candidates, but former Conservative speakers have faced major party candidates. The Labour and Liberal parties stood against Selwyn Lloyd in both elections in 1974, and Labour and the SDP stood against Bernard Weatherill in 1987. Speakers who represented Scottish or Welsh constituencies have also faced nationalist opponents: Plaid Cymru stood against George Thomas in 1979, and the Scottish National Party stood against Michael Martin in 2001 and 2005. At the 2010 general election, Speaker John Bercow faced ten opponents, including Nigel Farage, former leader of UKIP, who obtained 17.4% of the vote, and John Stevens, from the Buckinghamshire Campaign for Democracy party, who obtained 21.4%. Bercow won with 47% of the vote.
The Speaker's primary function is to preside over the House of Commons.Traditionally, the Speaker when presiding wore court dress—a black coat with white shirt and bands, beneath a black gown, with stockings and buckled shoes, and a full-bottomed wig. But in 1992 Betty Boothroyd, the first female Speaker, eschewed the wig. Her successor, Michael Martin, also declined to wear the wig; moreover, he chose to simplify other aspects of the costume, doing away with the once customary buckled court shoes and silk stockings. His successor John Bercow abandoned traditional dress, wearing a plain black gown over his lounge suit when presiding. For ceremonial occasions such as the State Opening, the Speaker wears a black and gold robe with a train; previously, this was worn over court dress with a white waterfall cravat, but the present Speaker wears plain morning dress.
Whilst presiding, the Speaker sits in a chair at the front of the House. Traditionally, members supporting the Government sit on his or her right, and those supporting the Opposition on his or her left. The Speaker's powers are extensive—much more so than those of his or her Lords counterpart, the Lord Speaker. Most importantly, the Speaker calls on members to speak;no member may make a speech without the Speaker's prior permission. By custom, the Speaker alternates between members supporting the Government and those supporting the Opposition. Members direct their speeches not to the whole House, but to the Speaker, using the words "Mister Speaker" or "Madam Speaker". Members must refer to each other in the third person by the name of their constituency or their ministerial titles (not their names); they may not directly address anyone other than the Speaker (who does call them by name). In order to remain neutral, the Speaker generally refrains from making speeches, although there is nothing to prevent him or her from doing so. For example, on Wednesday 3 December 2008, Speaker Martin addressed the House on the subject of the arrest of Damian Green MP and the subsequent searching of his office within the precincts of the House of Commons.
During debate, the Speaker is responsible for maintaining discipline and order,and rules on all points of order (objections made by members asserting that a rule of the House has been broken); the decisions may not be appealed. The Speaker bases decisions on the rules of the House and on precedent; if necessary, she or he may consult with the Parliamentary Clerks before issuing a ruling. In addition, the Speaker has other powers that may be used to maintain orderly debate. Usually, the Speaker attempts to end a disruption, or "calls members to order", by loudly repeating "ORDER! ORDER!". If members do not follow instructions, the Speaker may punish them by demanding that they leave the House for the remainder of the day's sitting. For grave disobedience, the Speaker may "name" a member, by saying "I name [Mr/Mrs X]." (deliberately breaching the convention that members are only referred to by reference to their constituency, "The [Right] Honourable Member for [Y]"). The House may then vote to suspend the member "named" by the Speaker. In case of "grave disorder", the Speaker may immediately adjourn the entire sitting. This power has been invoked on several occasions since it was conferred in 1902.
In addition to maintaining discipline, the Speaker must ensure that debate proceeds smoothly. If the Speaker finds that a member is making irrelevant remarks, is tediously repetitive, or is otherwise attempting to delay proceedings, she or he may order the member to end the speech. Furthermore, before debate begins, the Speaker may invoke the "Short Speech" rule, under which they may set a time limit (at least eight minutes), which will apply to every speech. At the same time, however, the Speaker is charged with protecting the interests of the minority by ensuring sufficient debate before a vote. Thus, the Speaker may disallow a closure, which seeks to end debate and immediately put the question to a vote, if the Speaker finds that the motion constitutes an abuse of the rules or breaches the rights of the minority.
Before the members of the House, excluding the Speaker, vote on any issue, the Speaker "puts the question"; that is, they orally state the motion on which the members are to vote, and the members present say "aye" or "no". If this voice vote indicates a clear majority the result will usually be accepted, but if the acclamation is unclear or any member demands it, a division (a recorded vote) takes place; the Speaker does not vote. The Speaker may overrule a request for a division and maintain the original ruling; this power, however, is used only rarely, usually when members make frivolous requests for divisions in order to delay proceedings.
When the Ayes and Noes are tied, the Speaker must use the casting vote. By convention the casting vote is issued in accordance with the constitutional convention known as Speaker Denison's rule, rather than in line with the Speaker's personal opinion in the matter. The principle is always to vote in favour of further debate, or, where it has been previously decided to have no further debate or in some specific instances, to vote in favour of the status quo. For example, the Speaker would vote against a closure motion, or the final passage of a bill, or an amendment.
Since the House of Commons has over 600 members, tied votes are very uncommon and Speakers are rarely called upon to use the casting vote. Since 1801, there have been only 50 instances of tied divisions. A casting vote by a Speaker was cast on 3 April 2019, the first since 1993, against an amendment to the Business of the House Motion. Speaker Bercow declared that it was not the role of the chair to create a majority that did not otherwise exist for action.
According to parliamentary rules, the Speaker is the highest authority of the House of Commons and has final say over how its business is conducted, as well as other key choices, for example, which tabled amendments are selected for votes.In addition to the role of presiding officer, the Speaker performs several other functions on the behalf of the House of Commons. The Speaker represents the body in relations with the Sovereign, the House of Lords, and non-parliamentary bodies. On important occasions of state (such as Queen Elizabeth II's Golden Jubilee in 2002), the Speaker presents Addresses to the Crown on behalf of the House. The Speaker performs various procedural functions such as recalling the House from recess during a national emergency, or when otherwise requested by the Government. When vacancies arise, the Speaker authorises the issuance of writs of election. Furthermore, the Speaker is responsible for certifying bills that relate solely to national taxation as "money bills" under the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949. The House of Lords has no power to block or substantially delay a money bill; even if the Lords fail to pass the bill, it becomes law within a month of passage by the Commons. The Speaker's decision on the matter is final, and cannot be challenged by the Upper House.
The Speaker is also responsible for overseeing the administration of the House. The Speaker chairs the House of Commons Commission, a body that appoints staff, determines their salaries, and supervises the general administration of those who serve the House. Furthermore, the Speaker controls the parts of the Palace of Westminster used by the House of Commons. Also, the Speaker is the ex officio Chairman of the four boundary commissions (for England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland), which are charged with redrawing the boundaries of parliamentary constituencies to reflect population changes. However, the Speaker normally does not attend meetings of the boundary commissions; instead, the Deputy Chairman of the Commission (usually a judge) normally presides.
Finally, the Speaker continues to represent his or her constituency in Parliament. Like any other Member of Parliament, the Speaker deals with issues raised by constituents and attempts to address their concerns.
The Speaker is assisted by three deputies, all of whom are elected by the House. The most senior deputy is known as the Chairman of Ways and Means; the title derives from the now defunct Ways and Means Committee which formerly considered taxation-related bills. The remaining deputies are known as the First Deputy and Second Deputy Chairmen of Ways and Means. Typically, the Speaker presides for only three hours each day; for the remainder of the time, one of the deputies takes the Chair. During the annual Budget, when the Chancellor of the Exchequer reads out the government's spending proposal, the Chairman of Ways and Means, rather than the Speaker, presides. Moreover, the Speaker never presides over the Committee of the Whole House, which, as its name suggests, consists of all the members, but operates under more flexible rules of debate. (This device was used so that members could debate independently of the Speaker, who they suspected acted as an agent or spy of the monarch. Now, the procedure is used to take advantage of the more flexible rules of debate.)
Deputies have the same powers as the Speaker when presiding. Akin to the Speaker, they do not take part in partisan politics, and remain completely impartial in the House. However, they are entitled to take part in constituency politics, and to make their views known on these matters. In general elections, they stand as party politicians. If a Deputy Speaker is presiding, then she or he holds the casting vote instead of the Speaker.
The Speaker is one of the highest-ranking officials in the United Kingdom. By an Order in Council issued in 1919, the Speaker ranks in the order of precedence above all non-royal individuals except the Prime Minister, the Lord Chancellor, and the Lord President of the Council. In England and Wales, he also ranks below the two archbishops of the Church of England, in Scotland, he also ranks below the Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and in Northern Ireland, he also ranks below the Church of Ireland and Roman Catholic archbishops of Ireland, and the Moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church.
In 2010, the Speaker received a salary of £145,492,equal to that of a Cabinet Minister. Speaker's House, the official residence, is at the northeast corner of the Palace of Westminster and is used for official functions and meetings, with private accommodation in a four-bedroom apartment upstairs. Each day, prior to the sitting of the House of Commons, the Speaker and other officials travel in procession from the apartments to the Chamber. The procession includes the Doorkeeper, the Serjeant-at-Arms, the Speaker, a trainbearer, the Chaplain, and the Speaker's Private Secretary. The Serjeant-at-Arms attends the Speaker on other occasions, and in the House; she or he bears a ceremonial mace that symbolises the royal authority under which the House meets, as well as the authority of the House of Commons itself.
Customarily, Speakers are appointed to the Privy Council upon election. Thus, the present and former Speakers are entitled to the style "The Right Honourable". On retirement, Speakers were traditionally elevated to the House of Lords as viscounts. The last Speaker to receive a viscountcy was George Thomas, who became Viscount Tonypandy on his retirement in 1983. Since that year, it has instead been normal to grant only life baronies to retiring Speakers. As of March 2019 [update] Speakers had been offered a seat in the House of Lords on retirement for 230 years.
The post of chaplain to the Speaker has historically been held by a Canon Residentiary of Westminster Abbey; in recent years, the post was held by the same canon who was also the Rector of St Margaret's, Westminster (Parliament's parish church.) In 2010, Bercow appointed Rose Hudson-Wilkin, Vicar of Dalston and Haggerston as his chaplain; she remains a vicar as well as Speaker's Chaplain. Hudson-Wilkin was the first chaplain appointed not to be a canon of Westminster.
On normal sitting days, the Speaker wears a black silk lay-type gown (similar to a Queen's Counsel's gown) with (or without, in the case of Bercow) a train and a mourning rosette (also known as a 'wig bag') over the flap collar at the back.
On state occasions (such as the Opening of Parliament), the Speaker wears a robe of black satin damask trimmed with gold lace and frogs with full bottomed wig and, in the past, a tricorne hat.
The current Speaker, John Bercow, no longer wears the traditional court dress outfit, which included knee breeches, silk stockings and buckled court shoes under the gown, or the wig. Betty Boothroyd first decided not to wear the wigand Michael Martin chose not to wear knee breeches, silk stockings or the traditional buckled shoes, preferring flannel trousers and Oxford shoes. Bercow chose not to wear court dress altogether in favour of a lounge suit, as he felt "uncomfortable" in court dress (he wore morning dress under the State Robe at State Openings). As seen at the 2015 State Opening of Parliament, Bercow further toned down the state robe by removing the gold frogging on the sleeves and train, so that it now resembles a pro-chancellor's robe at certain universities. However, he returned to wearing the traditional robe in 2016.
|Position||Current Holder||Term Started||Political Party|
|Speaker of the House of Commons||The Rt Hon. John Bercow MP||22 June 2009||None (formerly Conservative)|
|Chairman of Ways and Means||The Rt Hon. Sir Lindsay Hoyle MP||8 June 2010||Labour|
|First Deputy Chairman of Ways and Means||The Rt Hon. Dame Eleanor Laing MP||16 October 2013||Conservative|
|Second Deputy Chairman of Ways and Means||The Rt Hon. Dame Rosie Winterton MP||28 June 2017||Labour|
The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is granted by appointment or else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Officially, the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled.
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The Speaker of the House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the House of Representatives, the lower house of the Parliament of Australia. The presiding officer in the upper house is the President of the Senate. The office of Speaker was created by section 35 of the Constitution of Australia. The authors of the Constitution intended that the House of Representatives should as nearly as possible be modelled on the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.
In New Zealand, the Speaker of the House of Representatives is the individual who chairs the country's elected legislative body, the New Zealand House of Representatives. The individual who holds the position is elected by members of the House from among their number in the first session after each general election. The current Speaker is Trevor Mallard, who was initially elected on 7 November 2017.
Alan Gordon Barraclough Haselhurst, Baron Haselhurst is a British Conservative politician who served as Member of Parliament (MP) for Saffron Walden from 1977 to 2017, having represented Middleton and Prestwich as MP from 1970 to 1974. He was Chairman of Ways and Means from 14 May 1997 to 8 June 2010, and later Chairman of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association between 2011 and 2014. He was the oldest Conservative MP during his last Parliament, and stood down at the 2017 general election. In May 2018, he was appointed as a life peer, and currently sits in the House of Lords as Baron Haselhurst.
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Michael John Martin, Baron Martin of Springburn, was a British Labour politician who was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Glasgow Springburn from 1979 to 2005, and then for Glasgow North East until 2009. He was elected as Speaker of the House of Commons in 2000, remaining in the office for nine years until his involuntary resignation in 2009.
A casting vote is a vote that someone may exercise to resolve a deadlock. A casting vote is typically by the presiding officer of a council, legislative body, committee, etc., and may only be exercised to break a deadlock. Examples of officers who hold casting votes are the Speaker of the British House of Commons and the President of the United States Senate.
The Lord Speaker is the speaker of the House of Lords in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The office is analogous to the Speaker of the House of Commons: the Lord Speaker is elected by the members of the House of Lords and is expected to be politically impartial.
James Philip Duddridge is a British Conservative politician and former banker. He has been the Member of Parliament for Rochford and Southend East since May 2005. He served as a government whip between May 2010 and September 2012 and as the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office between October 2015 and July 2016.
The 2009 election of the Speaker of the House of Commons occurred on 22 June 2009 following the resignation of Michael Martin as Speaker during the parliamentary expenses scandal. Martin was the first Speaker since Sir John Trevor in 1695 to be forced out of office. It was the first Speaker election since 11 May 2005, and the first contested election of a Speaker since 23 October 2000.
The 2000 election of the Speaker of the House of Commons occurred on 23 October 2000 after the retirement of Betty Boothroyd as Speaker. The election resulted in the election of Labour MP Michael Martin, who had served as Deputy Speaker since 1997. It was the first contested election since 27 April 1992.
The representation of Women in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom has been an issue in the politics of the United Kingdom at numerous points in the 20th and 21st centuries. Originally debate centered on whether women should be allowed to vote and stand for election as Members of Parliament. The Parliament Act 1918 gave women over 21 the right to stand for election as a Member of Parliament.
The President of the New South Wales Legislative Council is the presiding officer of the upper house of the Parliament of New South Wales, the Legislative Council. The presiding officer of the lower house is the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly. The role of President has generally been a partisan office, filled by the governing party of the time. As of May 2017 the president is John Ajaka.
The 1992 election of the Speaker of the House of Commons occurred on 27 April 1992, in the first sitting of the House of Commons following the 1992 general election and the retirement of the previous Speaker Bernard Weatherill. The election resulted in the election of Labour MP Betty Boothroyd, one of Weatherill’s deputies, who was the first ever woman to become Speaker. This was at a time when the Conservative Party had a majority in the House of Commons. It was also the first contested election since William Morrison defeated Major James Milner on 31 October 1951, although Geoffrey De Freitas had been nominated against his wishes in the 1971 election.
The next election of the Speaker of the House of Commons is due to take place at the first sitting of parliament after the next UK general election or sooner should the incumbent Speaker of the House of Commons John Bercow leave office before the next election. In October 2018, it was reported that Bercow had informed friends of his intention to step down as Speaker in summer 2019. The last speaker election was held on 13 June 2017 following the 2017 general election, and the last contested election of a Speaker was held on 22 June 2009.
If a Member has disregarded the authority of the Chair, or has persistently and wilfully obstructed the House by abusing its rules, he or she may (after generally being given every opportunity to set matters to rights) be named. That is, the Speaker says "I name Mr William White [or whoever]". Thereupon, usually the Leader of the House, the Government Chief Whip, or the senior minister present, moves "that Mr William White be suspended from the service of the House". If the motion is passed, if necessary after a division, the Member is directed to withdraw, and suspension (for five sitting days for a first offence), follows. A second offence in the same Session will lead to suspension for 20 sitting days, and a third, to suspension for a period the House shall decide. Should a Member refuse to withdraw, and then resist removal by the Serjeant at Arms, suspension for the remainder of the Session ensues. Where the Member has been suspended from the service of the House under Standing Order No. 44, salary is forfeited during the period of suspension.
|House of Commons||House of Lords|
|Speaker||John Bercow||Lord Speaker||The Lord Fowler|
|Leader of the House of Commons||Andrea Leadsom||Leader of the House of Lords||The Baroness Evans of Bowes Park|
|Serjeant at Arms||Kamal El-Hajji||Lady Usher of the Black Rod||Sarah Clarke|
|Clerk of the House||John Benger||Clerk of the Parliaments||Edward Ollard|