|British National (Overseas) passport|
|Issued by||United Kingdom|
|First issued||1 July 1987 (first version)|
1 June 1990 (machine-readable passport)
2005 (first biometric version)
2020 (biometric version with polycarbonate data page)
|Eligibility||British National (Overseas) Citizenship|
|Rights||Status holders can live, study and work in the UK for unlimited period with a valid BN(O) visa.|
|British National (Overseas) passport|
The British National (Overseas) passport, commonly referred to as the BN(O) passport, is a British passport for persons with British National (Overseas) (BN(O)) citizenship. BN(O) citizenship was created in 1987 after the enactment of Hong Kong Act 1985.BN(O) citizens are permanent residents of Hong Kong who were British Dependent Territories citizens until 30 June 1997, and chose to remain British by registering for BN(O) citizenship when Hong Kong was under British administration.
BN(O) citizens do not have the right of abode in the UK. From 31 January 2021, BN(O) citizens can apply for limited leave to remain to work or study in the UK, and become eligible for settled status after 5 years of qualifying residence. BN(O) citizens with settled status can register as British citizens after further 12 months.
The settlement scheme was launched after the imposition of the controversial national security law on Hong Kong by the Chinese Central government. The UK considers the enactment of the National Security Law a clear violation of the one country, two systems principle guaranteed in the Sino-British Joint Declaration, an international binding treaty signed in 1984.
On 29 January 2021, Associated Press reported that the Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Zhao Lijian announced: "China would no longer recognize BN(O) passports starting from 31 January,"in retaliation to the extension of BN(O) civil rights in the UK. On the same day, a similar press release from the Government of Hong Kong, said that starting 31 January 2021, British National (Overseas) passports would no longer be recognised as a proof of identity in Hong Kong and no longer be recognised for immigration clearance by the Immigration Department.
Following media enquiries, several countries announced that they would continue to recognise BN(O) passports, including the USA, Canada, Australia, Germany, France, Spain, Taiwan, Japan, Italy, South Korea, Netherlands, New Zealand, Finland and Norway.
In late March 2021, the Hong Kong government told 14 foreign consulates to stop accepting BN(O) passports for working holiday visa applications, but none of those countries heeded the demand. The British foreign office reminded the Hong Kong government that it had no authority to dictate what passports other countries can recognise, and that BN(O) passports would remain valid British travel documents worldwide.
BN(O) passports are currently issued in their latest biometric versions (as of 2020) and they bear the "electronic travel document symbol" ( ) on the navy blue coloured cover. The text United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is present below the coat of arms of the United Kingdom; the wording British Passport is printed above the coat of arms.
The holder's page is identical to the identification page of British Citizen passports with the nationality being indicated as British National (Overseas). The machine-readable zone starts with P<GBR, indicating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland as the passport's issuing country.The request page, made in the name of the 'Secretary of State' (currently the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs), is also identical to that of a British Citizen passport. The nationality on the machine readable zone, however, is GBN rather than GBR.
Each biometric BN(O) passport contains a contactless chip, which stores digital data and includes the holder's personal data, on the Endorsement page.
Since the start of registration for the British National (Overseas) nationality on 1 July 1987, permanent residents of Hong Kong who were British Dependent Territories Citizens could either remain as BDTCs or register for the new type of nationality. People who chose to remain as BDTCs, however, would only be able to renew their BDTC passports for a restricted validity until 30 June 1997, while those who registered as BN(O)s would receive BN(O) passports valid for a full ten years.
Registration for the BN(O) passports was not regarded as a popular, practical option during the early years (e.g. from 1 July 1987 to 21 December 1989, only 15% of newly issued passports were of the BN(O) type; the majority still held the British Dependent Territories Citizen passports). Permanent residents of Hong Kong had until 30 June 1997 to voluntarily register themselves as a British National (Overseas).
After the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China on 1 July 1997, the British National (Overseas) passport became the most popular travel document among the people of Hong Kong. From April 1997 to the end of 2006, the British government has issued a total of 794,457 BN(O) passports. The peak was reached in 2001, when 170,000 were issued in a single year.
Hong Kong permanent residents who are Chinese nationals can also opt for the Hong Kong SAR passport. By 2015, the less-expensive Hong Kong SAR passport has been granted visa-free access to more than 150 countries and territories. This makes the number of visa-free countries of the BN(O) passport comparatively smaller. As a result, only 30,000 BN(O) passports were issued in 2006 against an expectation of a peak in passport renewals.
As of May 2007, there were 800,000 holders of valid BN(O) passports. Some 2.6 million out of the 3.4 million British Nationals (Overseas) did not renew their passports upon expiry.As of 31 December 2015, there were only about 143,200 holders of BN(O) passports.
As British National (Overseas) cannot be passed through jus sanguinis to children of current BN(O)s, any children born on or after 1 July 1997 to parents with British National (Overseas) status only acquired either Chinese nationality or British Overseas Citizen status on birth (although it is possible for a BOC with no other nationalities to be registered as a British citizen). Any British Dependent Territory Citizens with connections to Hong Kong who had failed to register themselves as British Nationals (Overseas) by the end of 30 June 1997 would also be ineligible to make further claims for BN(O) from 1 July 1997, and those people would either become Chinese nationals or British Overseas Citizens.
During and after the 2014 Hong Kong Protests, many BN(O) holders began to renew their passports with 22,022 renewals in 2014, this was up from 7,654 in 2011.The pace of BN(O) passports issued substantially quickened beginning in 2019, with over 150,000 granted in 2019 and over 215,000 granted in 2020. The pace substantially quickened after the UK government announced planned improvements into immigration and residency rights for BN(O) holders in July 2020, with 59,798 issued in October 2020 alone.
As of 24 February 2020, there were 349,881 holders of BN(O) passports and the UK Home office estimates that there are around 2.9m BN(O)s in Hong Kong.
As of 17 April 2020, the number of valid British National (Overseas) passports in circulation was 357,156.
As of 2 October 2020, the number of valid British National (Overseas) passports in circulation was 469,416.
As of 31 December 2020, the number of valid British National (Overseas) passports in circulation was 622,981.
The cover of British National (Overseas) passport was originally navy blue, as in all other types of British passport. Earlier, residents of Hong Kong were Citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies and their relevant passports bore the texts 'British Passport' at the top and 'Hong Kong' at the bottom of the cover.
When machine-readable passports were introduced on 1 June 1990, the cover colour was changed to burgundy. Between 1990 and March 2020, all BN(O) passports sported a burgundy red cover identical to that of the British Citizen passports, albeit without the words "European Union" text at the top part of the cover. These words were featured in the latter until April 2019, when the words were removed, causing their front covers to become identical in appearance to those of BN(O) passports, British Overseas Citizen, British Protected Person and British Subject passports: the text United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland above the coat of arms of the United Kingdom; the word Passport printed below the coat of arms, and the "electronic travel document symbol" ( ) at the bottom.
The British National (Overseas) status itself does not automatically grant the right of abode anywhere (including the United Kingdom and Hong Kong). Possessing of a Hong Kong identity card is one of the conditions to be issued a BN(O) passport. The following Hong Kong immigation observation is printed in BN(O) passports:
The holder of this passport has Hong Kong permanent identity card number XXXXXXX(X) which states that the holder has the right of abode in Hong Kong.
British Nationals (Overseas) enjoy visa-free access for up to six months as a visitor entering the United Kingdom. The following statement is printed in BN(O) passports:
In accordance with UK immigration rules the holder of this passport does not require an entry certificate or visa to visit the UK.
BN(O) citizens are however eligible to apply for limited leave to remain to live, work or study in the UK, with more favourable immigration conditions than being a visitor.
BN(O) passports issued between 30 March 2019 and 31 December 2020 (the UK's transition period for leaving the EU) contain the following observation:
The Holder is not entitled to benefit from European Union provisions relating to employment or establishment.
After the UK withdrew from the EU on 1 January 2021, this statement became obsolete and is no longer used.
The British National (Overseas) passports have been criticised [ citation needed ] for being too expensive, as compared to the HKSAR Passport, which has so far gained visa-free access from a similar number of countries as has the BN(O). In December 2013, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office of the United Kingdom announced backsourcing of overseas passport processing to their HM Passport Services in Liverpool. As a result, the fee for renewing BN(O) passports was reduced by 35% as of April 2014.
In the early years after the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong in 1997, the issue of counterfeit British National (Overseas) passports aroused international attention and government scrutiny, as such passports were being manufactured and used by illegal immigrants from the mainland of the People's Republic of China, who wished to gain direct access to the United Kingdom by way of Hong Kong.
Upon crossing the Hong Kong-Mainland China border, those illegal immigrants were easily detected by Hong Kong immigration officers, since the Mandarin-speaking immigrants invariably failed to understand or respond to officers communicating in Cantonese, the first language among Hong Kong's native population.
With the introduction of biometric passports, the BN(O) passport has recovered credibility among the international community. Most immigration officers at major British and European ports of entry have been briefed on the six different classes of British nationality, so that they do not confuse a person using his or her BN(O) passport to cross the borders with other types of British nationals.[ citation needed ].
Since July 1997, Hong Kong Immigration Department no longer issues BN(O) passports.
Until 30 January 2021, BN(O) passport holders with the right of abode in Hong Kong could use their BN(O) passports to clear immigration control.
From 31 January 2021, BN(O) passports are no longer recognised as valid documents in Hong Kong for immigration clearance and identification purposes.Nevertheless BN(O) passport holders continue to use other identification documents, such as their Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card or foreign passports for immigration clearance. On March, Mandatory Provident Funds (MPF) Schemes Authority declared "scheme members cannot rely on BN(O) passport or its associated visa as evidence in support of an application for early withdrawal of MPF."
From 31 January 2021, BN(O) passports are no longer recognised as valid documents in Mainland China and Macau.Hong Kong Permanent residents who are PRC citizens must use other travel documents such as Mainland Travel Permit and Hong Kong Identity Card.
British Nationals (Overseas) are British nationals but not British citizens, and they are not considered 'foreign aliens' under UK law. BN(O) citizens do not need to apply for residence permits if they remain in the United Kingdom for up to 6 months. After the passage of Hong Kong national security law, the UK government made it possible for BN(O) citizens to move to the UK permanently.
Before July 2020, BN(O) citizens could visit the UK for up to six months (or three months when arriving from the Republic of Ireland). For longer stays or other purposes of visit, they needed to apply for the appropriate visas at UK diplomatic missions overseas.BN(O) citizens are currently ineligible to request the Registered Traveller service for using automatic e-gates at UK borders.
From 31 January 2021, BN(O) holders will be able to apply for a visa which confers the right to work and study in the UK (known as the BN(O) visa). After continuous residence for five years, BN(O) citizens, like those of other qualifying immigrants in the UK, are eligible to apply for settlement, officially called indefinite leave to remain (ILR). They can subsequently register as a British citizen after they have gained ILR for one year.
BN(O) passport holders who possess right of abode in Hong Kong normally use their permanent identity cards to enter Hong Kong. As of 31 January 2021, BN(O) passports are no longer recognised as a legal travel document to enter or exit Hong Kong.
BN(O) passport holders normally use their Hong Kong identity card to enter Macau, allowing them to visit Macau for up to 1 year. As of 31 January 2021, BN(O) passports are no longer recognised as a legal travel document to enter Macau.
British National (Overseas) status is not recognized by the Government of China, so BN(O) passports are not recognized by Mainland China ports of entry controlled by Ministry of Public Security. In addition, the Government of Hong Kong does not allow BN(O)s to renounce their Chinese citizenship pursuant to the nationality law of the People's Republic of China. Therefore, BN(O)s who wish to visit Mainland China must obtain Mainland Travel Permit for Hong Kong and Macao Residents in advance. Starting from January 29th, 2021, China no longer recognizes BN(O) passports for travel or identification .
The Taiwanese government continues to recognise BN(O) passports as valid travel documents. To enter Taiwan, BN(O)s must obtain an ″Exit & Entry Permit″ which can be obtained either online at no cost or on arrival for a fee.British officials are able to provide consular assistance to BN(O) citizens in Taiwan.
BN(O) passports can be used to apply for working holiday visas in countries where Hong Kong has established a bilateral Working Holiday Scheme. Holders of BN(O) passport are not subject to the annual quota of 1,000 in the UK.In late March 2021, the Hong Kong government told 14 countries to stop accepting a BN(O) passport for an application for a working holiday visa. However, the British foreign office reminded the Hong Kong government that it had no authority to dictate what passports other countries can recognise, and that BN(O) passports would remain valid British travel documents worldwide. None of the 14 countries accepted the Hong Kong government's demand.
A passport is an official governmental document that contains a given person's identity. It helps its holder travel under its protection to and from foreign countries. The document certifies the personal identity and nationality of its holder. Standard passports contain the full name, photograph, place and date of birth, signature, and the expiration date of the passport.
British National (Overseas), abbreviated BN(O), is a class of British nationality associated with the former colony of Hong Kong. The status was acquired through voluntary registration by individuals with a connection to the territory who had been British Dependent Territories citizens (BDTCs) before the handover to China in 1997. Registration for BN(O) status was limited to the 10-year period preceding the transfer as a transitional arrangement for colonial subjects; current residents cannot newly acquire this nationality.
A Mainland Travel Permit for Hong Kong and Macao Residents, also colloquially referred to as a Home Return Permit or Home Visit Permit, is issued to Chinese nationals who are permanent residents of or settled in Hong Kong and Macau as the travel document to Mainland China. The permit is issued by the Exit and Entry Administration of the People's Republic of China through China Travel Service sub-branches in Hong Kong and Macau and allows holders to travel freely to Mainland China.
The Hong Kong Certificate of Identity (CI) was a formal travel document and passport, issued by the Hong Kong Government's Immigration Department until 30 June 1997. It is no longer possible to possess a valid CI as a travel document, as all CIs have expired by 30 June 2007, though most CI holders should be eligible to hold the HKSAR Passport.
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China passport is a passport issued only to permanent residents of Hong Kong who also hold Chinese citizenship. In accordance with the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, since the transfer of sovereignty on 1 July 1997, the passport has been issued by the Immigration Department of the Government of Hong Kong under the authorisation of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China. As the official languages of Hong Kong are Chinese and English, the passport is printed bilingually in both Chinese and English.
The Immigration Department of the Government of Hong Kong is responsible for immigration control of Hong Kong. After the People's Republic of China assumed sovereignty of the territory in July 1997, Hong Kong's immigration system remained largely unchanged from its British predecessor model. Residents from mainland China do not have the right of abode in Hong Kong, nor can they enter the territory freely, both before and after 1997. There are different regulations that apply to residents of Macau, another Special Administrative Region of China. In addition, visa-free entry acceptance regulations into Hong Kong for passport holders of some 170 countries remain unchanged before and after 1997.
British nationality law as it pertains to Hong Kong has been unusual ever since Hong Kong became a British colony in 1842. From its beginning as a sparsely populated trading port to today's cosmopolitan international financial centre and world city of over seven million people, the territory has attracted refugees, immigrants and expatriates alike searching for a new life.
A British passport is a travel document issued by the United Kingdom or other British dependencies and territories to individuals holding any form of British nationality. It grants the bearer international passage in accordance with visa requirements and serves as proof of citizenship. It also facilitates access to consular assistance from British embassies around the world. Passports are issued using royal prerogative, which is exercised by Her Majesty's Government. British citizen passports have been issued in the UK by Her Majesty's Passport Office, a division of the Home Office, since 2006. All passports issued in the UK since 2006 have been biometric.
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Document of Identity for Visa Purposes is a biometric travel document issued by the Hong Kong Immigration Department to residents of Hong Kong who are unable to obtain a national passport. It is usually valid for seven years.
Hong Kong Re-entry Permit are issued to Hong Kong residents by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) for travel to mainland China and Macau Special Administrative Region.
The Republic of China (Taiwan) passport is the passport issued to nationals of the Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as Taiwan. The ROC passport is also generally referred to as a Taiwan passport.
The Exit & Entry Permit for Taiwan, Republic of China is the document for the bearer to enter and/or depart Taiwan. Currently, there are several types of Exit & Entry Permit that reflect the bearer's residency status. The permit is issued by the National Immigration Agency of Taiwan. For different purposes, the permit is also known as
Taiwanese nationality law details the conditions in which a person is a national of the Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as Taiwan. Civil and political rights usually associated with citizenship are tied to an ROC national's domicile, determined by whether they have household registration in Taiwan.
Visitors to the Republic of China (Taiwan) must obtain a visa or authorization in advance, unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries or countries whose nationals are eligible for visa on arrival. All visitors must hold a passport valid for 6 months.
British nationality law dictates the conditions under which a person is recognised as being a national of the United Kingdom. The six different classes of British nationality each have varying degrees of civil and political rights, due to the UK's historical status as a colonial empire. The primary class of British nationality is British citizenship, which is associated with the United Kingdom itself and the Crown dependencies. Foreign nationals may naturalize as British citizens after meeting a minimum residence requirement and acquiring settled status.
The visa policy of Hong Kong deals with the requirements in which a foreign national wishing to enter Hong Kong through one of the 15 immigration control points must meet to obtain an entry permit or Visa, which depending on the traveller's nationality, may be required to travel to, enter, and remain in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Visitors from over 145 countries are permitted without Visa entry for periods ranging from 7 to 180 days, to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region for tourism or certain business-related activities. All visitors must hold a passport valid for more than 1 month.
Visa requirements for Hong Kong citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on holders of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passports.
Visa requirements for British Nationals (Overseas) are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states and territories placed on British National (Overseas) passport holders. Several million people, the vast majority with a Hong Kong connection, hold this passport.
The visa policy of the United Kingdom is the policy by which Her Majesty's Government determines visa requirements for visitors to the United Kingdom, and the Crown dependencies of Guernsey, Jersey, and the Isle of Man and those seeking to work, study or reside there. All intended entrants must obtain a visa unless they are exempt.
The British Overseas Territories (BOTs) maintain their own rules regarding immigration requirements different from the visa policy of the United Kingdom, but remain under its sovereignty. As a general rule, British citizen passport holders do not generally have automatic right of abode in these territories.