|Formation||1 October 1949|
|Legislature||National People's Congress|
|Party||Communist Party of China|
|General Secretary||Xi Jinping|
|Executive|| State Council |
(Li Keqiang Government)
|Paramount leader||Xi Jinping|
|Congress Chairman||Li Zhanshu|
|Conference Chairman||Wang Yang|
|Supervisory Director||Yang Xiaodu|
|Chief Justice||Zhou Qiang|
|Procurator General||Zhang Jun|
|Vice President||Wang Qishan|
|Military|| People's Liberation Army |
People's Armed Police
|Military Chairman||Xi Jinping|
|Government of the People's Republic of China|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The central government of the People's Republic of China (Chinese :中华人民共和国政府; pinyin :Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Zhèngfǔ) is the highest state authority in China under the exclusive political leadership of the Communist Party of China. It consists of legislative, executive and judicial organs.
The primary organs of state power are the National People's Congress (NPC), the President, and the State Council. Members of the State Council include the Premier, a variable number of Vice Premiers, five State Councilors (protocol equal of vice premiers but with narrower portfolios), the Secretary-General, and now 26 ministers and other cabinet-level department heads. The Central Military Commission (CMC) is headed by the Chairman, who is the commander-in-chief of the national armed forces including the People's Liberation Army, the People's Armed Police (PAP), and the Militia.
The National People's Congress is the ultimate power of the state, with control over the constitution and basic laws, as well as over the election and supervision of officials of other government organs. The Congress meets annually for about two weeks in a year to review and approve major new policy directions, laws, the budget, and major personnel changes. The NPC's Standing Committee (NPCSC), on the other hand, is the permanent legislative organ which adopts most national legislation, interprets the constitution and laws, and conducts constitutional review. The President acts as a ceremonial head of state in compliance with decisions made by the NPCSC, but exercises an independent power to nominate the Premier of the State Council, and the Vice-President, who has no power themselves, but assists the President.
The State Council (or the Central People's Government), China's executive organ headed by the Premier, consists of ministries and agencies with specific portfolios. The State Council presents most initiatives to the NPCSC for consideration after previous endorsement by the Communist Party's Politburo Standing Committee. Although the NPC generally approves State Council policy and personnel recommendations, the NPC and its Standing Committee has increasingly asserted its role as the national legislature, having been able to force revisions in some laws. For example, the State Council and the Party have been unable to secure passage of a fuel tax to finance the construction of expressways.
China's judicial organs perform prosecutorial and court functions. China's courts are supervised by the Supreme People's Court (SPC), which is headed by the Chief Justice. The Supreme People's Procuratorate (SPP) is responsible for prosecutions and supervises procuracies at the provincial, prefecture, and county levels. At the same administrative ranking as the SPC and SPP, the National Supervisory Commission (NSC) was established in 2018 to investigate corruption within the Communist Party and state organs.
The legal power of the Communist Party is guaranteed by the PRC Constitution and its position as the supreme political authority in the People's Republic of China is realised through its comprehensive control of the state, military, and media.According to a prominent government spokesman:
We will never simply copy the system of Western countries or introduce a system of multiple parties holding office in rotation; although China’s state organs have different responsibilities, they all adhere to the line, principles and policies of the party.
During the 1980s there was an attempt made to separate party and state functions, with the former deciding general policy and the latter carrying it out. The attempt was abandoned in the 1990s with the result that the political leadership within the state are also the leaders of the party. This dual structure thereby creates a single centralized focus of power. At the same time there has been a move to separate party and state offices at levels other than the central government, as it is not unheard of for a sub-national executive to also be party secretary. This frequently causes conflict between the chief executive and the party secretary, and such is widely seen as intentional to prevent either from becoming too powerful. Some special cases include: the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau, where, according to constitution and respective basic law, most national laws do not apply; and the autonomous regions, where, following Soviet practice, the chief executive is typically a member of the local ethnic group while the party general secretary is non-local and usually Han Chinese.
The Chinese Constitution was first created on September 20, 1954, before which an interim constitution-like document created by the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference was in force. The second promulgation in 1975 shortened the Constitution to just about 30 articles, containing Communist slogans and revolutionary language throughout. The role of courts was slashed, and the Presidency was gone. The 3rd promulgation in 1978 expanded the number of articles, but was still under the influence of the very-recent Cultural Revolution.
The current constitution is the PRC's fourth promulgation, declared on December 4, 1982, and has served as a stable constitution for 30 years. Under the constitution, the roles of the presidency and the courts were normalized, and all citizens were declared equal. Amendments in 1988, 1993, 1999, 2004, and 2018 recognized private property, safeguarded human rights, and further promoted the non-public sector of the economy.
The National People's Congress (NPC) is the national legislature of the People's Republic of China. With 2,924 members in 2017, it is the largest parliamentary body in the world.Under China's current Constitution, the NPC is structured as a unicameral legislature, with the power to legislate, to oversee the operations of the government, and to elect the major officials of state. Its delegates are elected for a five year term through a multi-tiered electoral system. The NPC and the National Committee of the People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), a consultative body whose members represent various social groups, are the main deliberative bodies of China, and are often referred to as the Lianghui ('Two Sessions').
The NPC, elected for a term of five years, holds annual sessions every spring, usually lasting from 10 to 14 days, in the Great Hall of the People on the west side of Tiananmen Square, Beijing. These annual meetings are usually timed to occur with the meetings of the CPPCC, providing an opportunity for the officers of state to review past policies and present future plans to the nation. The fourth session of the 12th NPC was held from March 5 to March 16, 2016.
The Politburo Standing Committee consists of the government's top leadership. Historically it has had five to nine members, and currently has seven members. Its officially mandated purpose is to conduct policy discussions and make decisions on major issues when the Politburo, a larger decision-making body, is not in session. According to the party's Constitution, the General Secretary of the Central Committee must also be a member of the Politburo Standing Committee.
The membership of the PSC is strictly ranked in protocol sequence. Historically, the general secretary (or party chairman) has been ranked first; the rankings of other leaders have varied over time. Since the 1990s, the general secretary, premier, chairman of the National People's Congress, the chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, the secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, the party's top anti-graft body, and the first-ranked secretary of the secretariat have consistently also been members of the Politburo Standing Committee.
Power is concentrated in the paramount leader, currently Xi Jinping, who heads the four most important political and state offices: He is General Secretary of the Communist Party, general secretary of the Central Committee, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, and President of the PRC.Recently, experts have observed growing limitations to the Paramount leader's de facto control over the government.
The President of the People's Republic of China is the head of state. Under the PRC's constitution, the presidency is a largely ceremonial office with limited powers.However, since 1993, as a matter of convention, the presidency has been held simultaneously by the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, the top leader in the one-party system. The office is officially regarded as an institution of the state rather than an administrative post; theoretically, the president serves at the pleasure of the National People's Congress, the legislature, and is not legally vested to take executive action on its own prerogative. The current president is Xi Jinping, who took office in March 2013.
| Mao Zedong |
| Liu Shaoqi |
The office was first established in the Constitution of the People's Republic of China in 1954 and successively held by Mao Zedong and Liu Shaoqi. Liu fell into political disgrace during the Cultural Revolution, after which the office became vacant. The office was abolished under the Constitution of 1975, then reinstated in the Constitution of 1982, but with reduced powers. The official English-language translation of the title was "Chairman"; after 1982, this translation was changed to "President", although the Chinese title remains unchanged.In March 2018, presidential term limits were abolished.
| Zhou Enlai |
| Li Keqiang |
The State Council is the chief authority of the People's Republic of China. It is appointed by the National People's Congress and is chaired by the Premier and includes the heads of each governmental department and agency. There are about 50 members in the council. In the politics of the People's Republic of China, the Central People's Government forms one of three interlocking branches of power, the others being the Communist Party of China and the People's Liberation Army. The State Council directly oversees the various subordinate People's Governments in the provinces, and in practice maintains an interlocking membership with the top levels of the Communist Party of China.
Currently the Premier of the State Council is Li Keqiang and the Vice Premiers are Han Zheng, Sun Chunlan, Hu Chunhua and Liu He. Together with the five State Councilors, they form the inner cabinet that regularly convenes for the State Council Executive Meeting.
The Central Military Commission exercises the command and control of the People's Liberation Army and is supervised by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. The state CMC is nominally considered the supreme military policy-making body and its chairman, elected by the National People's Congress, is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. In reality, command and control of the PLA, however, still resides with the Central Military Commission of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee.
Currently the chairman of the Central Military Commission is Xi Jinping.
The National Supervisory Commission of the People's Republic of China is the highest supervisory (anti-corruption) agency of the People's Republic of China. At the same administrative ranking as the Supreme People's Court and Supreme People's Procuratorate, it supervises all public officials who exercise public power.Its operations are merged with the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection of the Communist Party of China. It replaces the former Ministry of Supervision.
Currently the director of National Supervisory Commission is Yang Xiaodu.
The Supreme People's Court is the judicial organ of the People's Republic of China. Hong Kong and Macau, as special administrative regions, have separate judicial systems based on British common law traditions and Portuguese civil-law traditions respectively, and are out of the jurisdiction of the Supreme People's Court. The judges of the Supreme People's Court are appointed by the National People's Congress.
As of 2018 [update] , the President of SPC and the Procurator-General of SPP are Zhou Qiang and Zhang Jun, respectively.
The governors of China's provinces and autonomous regions and mayors of its centrally controlled municipalities are appointed by the central government in Beijing after receiving the nominal consent of the National People's Congress (NPC). The Hong Kong and Macau special administrative regions (SARS) have some local autonomy since they have separate governments, legal systems, and basic constitutional laws, but they come under Beijing's control in matters of foreign policy and national security, and their chief executives are handpicked by the central government.
Below the provincial level in 2004 there were 50 rural prefectures, 283 prefecture-level cities, 374 county-level cities, 852 county-level districts under the jurisdiction of nearby cities, and 1,636 counties. There also were 662 cities (including those incorporated into the four centrally controlled municipalities), 808 urban districts, and 43,258 township-level regions.
Counties are divided into townships and villages. While most are run by appointed officials, some lower-level jurisdictions have direct popular elections. The organs of self-governing ethnic autonomous areas (regions, prefectures, and counties)—peoples' congresses and peoples' governments—exercise the same powers as their provincial-level counterparts but are guided additionally by the Law on Regional Ethnic Autonomy and require NPC Standing Committee approval for regulations they enact "in the exercise of autonomy" and "in light of the political, economic, and cultural characteristics of the ethnic group or ethnic groups in the areas."[ citation needed ]
While operating under strict control and supervision by the central government, China's local governments manage relatively high share of fiscal revenues and expenditures.
The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), officially the Communist Party of China (CPC), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the second largest political party in the world after India's Bharatiya Janata Party. The CCP is the sole governing party within mainland China, permitting only eight other, subordinated parties to co-exist, those making up the United Front. It was founded in 1921, chiefly by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao. The party grew quickly, and by 1949 it had driven the Kuomintang (KMT)'s Nationalist Government from mainland China to Taiwan after the Chinese Civil War, leading to the establishment of the People's Republic of China on 1 October 1949. It also controls the country's armed forces, the People's Liberation Army (PLA).
The politics of the People's Republic of China takes place in a framework of a socialist republic run by a single party, the Communist Party of China, headed by the General Secretary. State power within the People's Republic of China (PRC) is exercised through the Communist Party, the Central People's Government and their provincial and local representation. The state uses Internal Reference, secret documents produced by Xinhua News Agency, similar to US's President's Daily Brief, though delivered to most of its officials according to the level of secrecy of the information, a major source of information of the society.
The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is nominally the supreme law of the People's Republic of China. It was adopted by the 5th National People's Congress on December 4, 1982, with further revisions about every five years. It is the fourth constitution in the country's history, superseding the 1954 constitution, the 1975 constitution, and the 1978 constitution.
The Central Military Commission (CMC) is the parallel national defense organization of the Communist Party of China and the People's Republic of China: the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China, a Party organ under the CPC Central Committee, and the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China, a central state organ under the National People's Congress, being the military branch of the national government.
The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China is head of the Communist Party of China and the highest-ranking official within the People's Republic of China. The General Secretary is a standing member of the Politburo and head of the Secretariat. The officeholder is usually considered the "paramount leader" of China.
The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, officially the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China is the permanent body of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China. Both the NPC and the NPCSC exercise the legislative power of the state.
The orders of precedence in China is the ranking of political leaders in China for the purposes of event protocol and to arrange the ordering of names in official news bulletins, both written and televised. It is also sometimes used to assess perceived level of political power. Although there is no formally published ranking, there is usually an established convention and protocol, and the relative positions of Chinese political figures can usually be deduced from the order in meetings and especially by the time and order in which figures are covered by the official media.
In modern Chinese politics, the paramount leader of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Government of China is an informal term for the most prominent political leader in the People's Republic of China (PRC). The officeholders are usually General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and Chairman of the Central Military Commission. The paramount leader is not, however, a formal position nor an office unto itself. The term gained prominence during the era of Deng Xiaoping (1978–1989), when he was able to wield political power without necessarily holding any official or formally significant party or government positions at any given time.
Elections in China are based on a hierarchical electoral system, whereby local People's Congresses are directly elected, and all higher levels of People's Congresses up to the National People's Congress (NPC), the national legislature, are indirectly elected by the People's Congress of the level immediately below. The NPC Standing Committee may partially alter laws passed by the NPC when the NPC is not in session, which is significant since the Standing Committee meets more frequently than the NPC.
The Vice President of the People's Republic of China, formerly translated as Vice Chairman of the People's Republic of China from 1954 to 1975, is a senior position in the government of the People's Republic of China.
The 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China was held in Beijing, China, at the Great Hall of the People from 15 to 21 October 2007. Congress marked a significant shift in the political direction of the country as CPC General Secretary Hu Jintao solidified his position of leadership. Hu's signature policy doctrine, the Scientific Development Concept, which aimed to create a "Socialist Harmonious Society" through egalitarian wealth distribution and concern for the country's less well-off, was enshrined into the Party Constitution. It was succeeded by the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China.
The 17th Central Politburo of the Communist Party of China was elected by the 17th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on October 22, 2007. Eventually, four members of this Politburo were expelled from the Communist Party for not adhering to the leading party thought. They were, in order of the time of expulsion, Bo Xilai, Xu Caihou, Zhou Yongkang, and Guo Boxiong. This politburo was preceded by the 16th Politburo of the Communist Party of China and succeeded by the 18th Politburo of the Communist Party of China.
The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China began on November 8, 2012 at the Great Hall of the People. It was preceded by the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. Due to term and age limits restrictions, seven of the nine members of the powerful Politburo Standing Committee (PSC) retired during the Congress, including Hu Jintao, who was replaced by Xi Jinping as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China. The Congress elected the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, and saw the number of Politburo Standing Committee seats reduced from nine to seven. It was succeeded by the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China.
The Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, officially styled the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, is the presiding officer of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, which is considered China's top legislative body. The current Chairman is Li Zhanshu.
The Xi–Li Administration of the People's Republic of China began in 2013, when Xi Jinping and Li Keqiang succeeded Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao following the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party. It is speculated that Xi will solidify the political power of the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, for the absolute command of the Communist ideology over pragmatic approach, and on the economic front there will be no liberalization but socialist entrenchment.
The succession of power in China takes place in the context of a single party system. Despite the guarantee of universal franchise in the constitution, the appointment of the Paramount Leader lies largely in the hands of his predecessor and the powerful factions that control the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. The appointment of the leader occurs after two five year terms in accordance with the Constitution of the People's Republic of China. But this was changed to three of four five year terms during the first plenary session of the 19th national Congress of the Communist Policy of China.
The 18th Central Politburo of the Communist Party of China was elected by the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on 15 November 2012, which was formally elected by the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. It was nominally preceded by the 17th Politburo. It was ultimately succeeded by the 19th Politburo of the Communist Party of China.
The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, normally referred to as the National People's Congress, is the highest organ of state power and the national legislature of the People's Republic of China. With 2,980 members in 2018, it is the largest parliamentary body in the world. The National People's Congress meets in full session for roughly two weeks each year and votes on important pieces of legislation. Members are considered to be part-time legislators and are not paid.
The president of the People's Republic of China is the head of state of the People's Republic of China. Under the country's constitution, the presidency is a largely ceremonial office with limited power. However, since 1993, as a matter of convention, the presidency has been held simultaneously by the general secretary of the Communist Party of China, the top leader in the one party system. The presidency is officially regarded as an institution of the state rather than an administrative post; theoretically, the president serves at the pleasure of the National People's Congress, the legislature, and is not legally vested to take executive action on his own prerogative. The current president is Xi Jinping, who took office in March 2013.
The 2018 National People's Congress, or the First Session of the 13th National People's Congress, was held in March 2018 at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, China. The session opened on 5 March and concluded on 20 March. Major state positions were elected in this session.
Xi Jinping is the most powerful figure in China's political system, and his influence mainly comes from his position as the general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party.
Xi Jinping has introduced major institutional changes to strengthen his control of the PLA in his roles as Party leader and chair of the Central Military Commission (CMC)...
Xi Jinping is the most powerful figure in the Chinese political system. He is the President of China, but his real influence comes from his position as the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party.
If Xi relinquished the presidency in 2023 but remained party chief and chairman of the Central Military commission (CMC), his successor as president would be nothing more than a symbolic figure... “Once the president is neither the party’s general secretary nor the CMC chairman, he or she will be hollowed out, just like a body without a soul.”