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|Politics and government of Macau|
|Other Macau topics|
Politics of Macau is a framework of political system, dominated by the People's Republic of China. It includes the legislature, the judiciary, the government, and a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government, led by the Chief Executive.
In accordance with Article 31 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Macau has Special Administrative Region status, which provides constitutional guarantees for implementing the policy of "one country, two systems" and the constitutional basis for enacting the Basic Law of the Macau Special Administrative Region. Although geographically part of Guangdong Province, the Macau Special Administrative Region is directly under the authority of the central government of the People's Republic of China in Beijing, which controls the foreign affairs and defence of Macau but otherwise grants the region "a high degree of authority." The Basic Law took force upon handover of sovereignty from Portugal on 20 December 1999, and is to remain in effect for fifty years (that is, until 2049).
Macau's seven deputies to the National People's Congress (NPC) are selected by an electoral conference; they attended their first session of the NPC in Beijing in March 2000. Previously, in December 1999, the NPC Standing Committee approved the membership of the NPC Committee for the Basic Law of the Macau Special Administrative Region, chaired by NPC Vice Chairman Qiao Xiaoyang, for a five-year term. Half of the ten members are from Macau, the others from mainland China. Macau also has representation on the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.
|General Secretary of the CPC (paramount leader)||Xi Jinping||Communist Party of China||15 November 2012|
|President of the PRC (head of state)||Xi Jinping||Communist Party of China||14 March 2013|
|Premier of the State Council (head of central government)||Li Keqiang||Communist Party of China||15 March 2013|
|Chief Executive of the Macau SAR (head of region AND head of regional government)||Ho Iat Seng||Non-partisan||20 December 2019|
The Chief Executive of Macau is appointed by the People's Republic of China's central government after selection by an election committee, whose members are nominated by corporate bodies. The chief executive appears before a cabinet, the Executive Council, of between 7 and 11 members. The term of office of the chief executive is 5 years, and no individual may serve for more than two consecutive terms. The governor has strong policymaking and executive powers similar to those of a president. These powers are, however, limited from above by the central government in Beijing, to whom the governor reports directly, and from below (to a more limited extent) by the legislature.
In May 1999, Edmund Ho, a community leader and banker, was the first PRC-appointed chief executive of the Macau SAR, having replaced General de Rocha Viera on 20 December 1999. He was elected by the 200-member Chief Executive Selection Committee. Ho, born in Macau in 1955, was the first Chinese person to govern the region since the 1550s. Prior to 20 December 1999, Ho nominated major officials in the new government and carried out other transfer tasks. Ho was re-elected for a second term in 2004 and was succeeded by Fernando Chui in 2009.
The executive branch of the Macau government has the following cabinet departments, each headed by a secretary: Administration and Justice, Economic and Financial Affairs, Security, Social Affairs and Culture, and Transport and Public Works. There also are two commissions, Against Corruption and Audit, and a chief public prosecutor. Upon Macau's reversion to China, the executive offices were moved from Macau Government House temporarily to the Banco Tai Fung.
The Executive Council decides on matters of policy, the introduction of bills to the Legislative Assembly of Macau and the drafting of subordinate legislation. The Council consists of 11 members including the Chief Executive.
The cabinet consists of 5 secretariats of departments led by a Chief:
The legislative organ of the territory is the Legislative Assembly, a 33-member body comprising fourteen directly elected members, twelve indirectly elected members representing functional constituencies and seven members appointed by the chief executive. The Legislative Assembly is responsible for general lawmaking, including taxation, the passing of the budget and socioeconomic legislation. Terms are for four years, with annual sessions running from 15 October to 16 August. There are several standing committees in the assembly that perform the following functions: examination and issuance of reports and statements on projects and proposals of law, on resolutions and deliberations, and on proposals of alteration presented to the Legislative Assembly; examination of petitions submitted to the Legislative Assembly; voting on issues as approved in general by the Legislative Assembly General Meeting; and answering questions raised by the president or the General Meeting.
The last election was held in 2017 and the current Legislative Assembly is chaired by its president, businessman Ho Iat Seng (賀一誠), who is assisted by the vice president, Chui Sai Cheong (崔世昌), the elder brother of Chief Executive Fernando Chui Sai On.
|№||Political affiliation||Popular votes||% of Votes||Change in|
% of vote
|20||Macau-Guangdong Union (UMG)||17,214||9.97||2|
|16||Union for Development (UPD)||16,696||9.67||2|
|9||Macau United Citizens' Association (ACUM) - List 1||14,879||8.62||1|
|2||Progress Promotion Union (UPP) - List 1||12,340||7.15||1|
|14||New Macau Development Union (NUDM)||10,452||6.05||1|
|8||Macau Citizens’ Development Association (ACDM) - ACUM List 2||10,103||5.85||N/A||1|
|11||Alliance for a Happy Home (ABL) - UPP List 2||9,496||5.50||N/A||1|
|18||Alliance for Change (Mudar)||8,186||4.74||0|
|6||New Hope (NE)||14,386||8.33||1|
|13||New Democratic Macau Association (ANMD)||11,381||6.59||1|
|3||Democratic Prosperous Macau Association (APMD) - ANM List 1||10,080||5.84||1|
|7||New Macau Progressives (ANPM) - ANM List 2||9,213||5.34||N/A||1|
|19||United Citizens for Building Macau Association (ACUCM)||904||0.52||N/A||0|
|23||Association of Macau Activism for Democracy (ID)||279||0.16||0|
|1||New Ideals of Macau (NIM)||199||0.12||N/A||0|
|4||Civic Watch (Cívico)||9,590||5.56||1|
|No legislative representation|
|15||Synergy Power (PS)||7,162||4.15||N/A||0|
|25||Front Line of Casino Workers (LFTC)||3,126||1.81||N/A||0|
|24||Pearl Horizon Buyers’ Rights Defence Union (UPHDD)||2,399||1.39||N/A||0|
|22||Mutual Help Grassroots (Grassroots)||1,350||0.78||N/A||0|
|12||Citizens’ Power (PC)||1,305||0.76||N/A||0|
|21||The Aurora of Grassroots (Aurora)||823||0.48||N/A||0|
|10||Powers of Political Thought (PPP)||672||0.39||N/A||0|
|17||Ou Mun Kong I (OMKI)||393||0.23||N/A||0|
|5||Pink Love Citizens (Rosa)|
|Total and Turnout||174,872||100||14|
|Functional constituencies and appointed members|
|—||Macau Union of Employers Interests (OMKC)||781||4|
|—||Federation of Employees Associations (CCCAE)||1,012||2|
|1||Macau Union of Medical Professional Interests (UIMM)||205||37.55||N/A||1|
|2||Macau Union of Professional Interests (OMCY)||341||62.45||2|
|—||Association for Promotion of Social Services and Education (APSSE)||1,559||1|
|—||Excellent Culture and Sport Union (União Excelente)||1,499||2|
|—||Members appointed by the Chief Executive||7|
The Court of Final Appeal is the court of last resort in the Macau Special Administrative Region.
The legal system is based largely on Portuguese law. The territory has its own independent judicial system, with a high court. Judges are selected by a committee and appointed by the chief executive. Foreign judges may serve on the courts. In July 1999 the chief executive appointed a seven-person committee to select judges for the SAR. Twenty-four judges were recommended by the committee and were then appointed by Mr. Ho. Included are three judges who serve on the Macau SAR's highest court, the Court of Final Appeal (CFA): 39-year-old Sam Hou Fai (who will be chief justice), 32-year-old Chu Kin, and the 46-year-old Viriato Manuel Pinhiero de Lima.
The central government in Beijing controls the foreign affairs of Macau. The Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China in the Macao Special Administrative Region opened its office in Macau on 20 December 1999. A central government agency, the commission interacts with the Macau government in matters of foreign policy. It also processes applications from foreign nations and international organisations wishing to establish consulates or representative offices in Macau. Macau is also authorised to handle some external affairs on its own. These affairs include economic and cultural relations and agreements it concludes with states, regions, and international organisations. In such matters, Macau functions under the name "Macao, China." Macau displays the flag and national emblem of the People's Republic of China but is also authorised to display its own regional flag and emblem. Taiwanese organisations in Macau are allowed to continue operations and are required to abide by the Basic Law.
CCC, ESCAP (associate), International Maritime Organization (associate), Interpol (subbureau), UNESCO (associate), WMO, WToO (associate), WTrO
Under the Basic Law, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is exclusively in charge of its internal affairs and external relations, whilst the Government of the People's Republic of China is responsible for its foreign affairs and defence. As a separate customs territory, Hong Kong maintains and develops relations with foreign states and regions, and plays an active role in such international organisations as World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in its own right under the name of Hong Kong, China. Hong Kong participates in 16 projects of United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.
The People's Liberation Army Macao Garrison is a garrison of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA), responsible for defense duties in the Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR) since the sovereignty of Macau was transferred to China in 1999.
"One country, two systems" is a constitutional principle of the People's Republic of China describing the governance of Hong Kong and Macau since they became Special Administrative Regions (SARs) of China in 1997 and 1999 respectively.
The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China is a national law of China that serves as the de facto constitution of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). Comprising nine chapters, 160 articles and three annexes, the Basic Law was enacted under the Constitution of China to implement the Sino-British Joint Declaration.
The Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administration Region is the unicameral legislature of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.
Edmund Ho Hau Wah, GOIH, GML, GCM is a Macanese politician who served as the first Chief Executive of the Macau Special Administrative Region from 1999 to 2009. He currently serves as a Vice-Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.
The Chief Executive of the Macau Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China is the head of government of Macau, a special administrative region of China. The position replaced the office of Governor of Macau, the former head of Macau as an overseas province of Portugal. Under the Basic Law of Macau, the chief executive's role is to:
...be the head of the Macau Special Administrative Region and shall represent the Region. The Chief Executive of the Macau Special Administrative Region shall be accountable to the Central People's Government and the Macau Special Administrative Region in accordance with the provisions of this Law.
The Municipal Affairs Bureau of Macau is an administrative body without political powers responsible for providing certain civic services for the special administrative region and is the successor to the Civic and Municipal Affairs Bureau which was abolished in 2019. The latter was formed to handle the functions of the former municipalities of Macau and their councils and assemblies that were abolished on 1 January 2002, slightly more than two years after Macau became a special administrative region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China. The body is under the Secretariat for Administration and Justice of the Macau government.
The Legislative Assembly(AL; traditional Chinese: 立法會; simplified Chinese: 立法会; Portuguese: Assembleia Legislativa) is the organ of the legislative branch of Macau. It is a 33-member body comprising 14 directly elected members, 12 indirectly elected members representing functional constituencies and 7 members appointed by the chief executive. It is located at Sé.
Human rights in Macau refers to the basic rights of citizens of Macau, a former Portuguese colony that reverted to Chinese administration in 1999. As a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China (PRC), Macau enjoys a high degree of autonomy, except in defence and foreign affairs, and its citizens have basic freedoms and enjoy legally protected rights. The Macau Basic Law is the SAR's constitution, promulgated by PRC's National People's Congress (NPC) in 1993.
The government of the People's Republic of China is collectively the state authority in China under the exclusive political leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC). It consists of legislative, executive, military, supervisory, judicial and procuratorial branches.
The Government of the Macau Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, are headed by secretariats or commissioners and report directly to the chief executive. The affairs of the government are decided by secretaries, who are appointed by the chief executive and endorsed by the State Council of the Central People's Government in Beijing. As a special administrative region of China, Macau has a high degree of autonomy, in light of the "One Country, Two Systems" policy. The Macau Government, financially independent from the Central People's Government, oversees the affairs of Macau.
The transfer of sovereignty of Macau from Portugal to the People's Republic of China (PRC) occurred on 20 December 1999.
There are 123 diplomatic missions in Hong Kong, of which 62 are consulates-general and 61 are consulates and six officially recognised bodies in Hong Kong. As Hong Kong has the status of a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, some consuls-general in Hong Kong report directly to their respective foreign ministries, rather than to their Embassies in Beijing.
Fernando Chui Sai On is a Macau politician who served as the 2nd Chief Executive of Macau from 2009 to 2019. He served as Secretary for Social and Cultural Affairs from 1999 to 2009.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Macau:
The 2013 Macanese general election took place on 15 September 2013 according to the provisions of the Basic Law of Macau. This election was the first of its kind succeeding the reform of the Legislative Assembly that created four new seats; two new geographical constituency seats and two new functional constituency seats. Out of a total of 33 seats, 14 were elected by universal suffrage under the highest averages method, while 12 were voted on from the Functional constituency, and 7 from nomination by the Chief Executive.
The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, normally referred to as the National People's Congress, is the highest organ of state power and the national legislature of the People's Republic of China. With 2,980 members in 2018, it is the largest parliamentary body in the world. The National People's Congress meets in full session for roughly two weeks each year and votes on important pieces of legislation. Members are considered to be part-time legislators and are not paid.
The Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on Issues Relating to the Selection of the Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region by Universal Suffrage and on the Method for Forming the Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in the Year 2016, commonly known as the 31 August Decision, is a decision made by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC), the national legislative body of the People's Republic of China (PRC) on 31 August 2014 which set limits for the 2017 Chief Executive election and 2016 Legislative Council election in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR).