The politics of the Lao People's Democratic Republic (commonly known as Laos ) takes place in the framework of a one-party socialist republic. The only legal political party is the Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP).The de jure head of state is President Bounnhang Vorachith. The head of government is Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith, who is also the LPRP general secretary, making him the de facto leader of Laos.
Government policies are determined by the party through the all-powerful nine-member Politburo and the 49-member Central Committee. Important government decisions are vetted by the Council of Ministers.
The FY 2000 central government budget plan called for revenue of $180 million and expenditures of $289 million, including capital expenditures of $202 million.
Laos' first, French-written and monarchical constitution was promulgated on May 11, 1947 and declared it to be an independent state within the French Union. The revised constitution of May 11, 1957, omitted reference to the French Union, though close educational, health and technical ties with the former colonial power persisted. The 1957 document was abrogated on December 3, 1975, when a communist state was proclaimed.
A new constitution was adopted in 1991 and enshrined a "leading role" for the LPRP. The following year, elections were held for a new 85-seat National Assembly with members elected by secret ballot to five-year terms. This National Assembly, which essentially acts as a rubber stamp [ citation needed ] for the LPRP, approves all new laws, although the executive branch retains authority to issue binding decrees.
The most recent election took place in March 2016.
In the early 2000s, bomb attacks against the government occurred, coupled with small exchanges of fire, across Laos.A variety of different groups have claimed responsibility including the Committee for Independence and Democracy in Laos and Lao Citizens Movement for Democracy.
|President||Bounnhang Vorachith||Lao People's Revolutionary Party||20 April 2016|
|Prime Minister||Thongloun Sisoulith||Lao People's Revolutionary Party||20 April 2016|
The president is elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term. The prime minister and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the president with the approval of the National Assembly for a five-year term.
There are also four deputy prime ministers. As of a cabinet reshuffle on June 8, 2006, they are Maj. Gen. Douangchay Phichit (also defense minister), Thongloun Sisoulith (also foreign minister), Somsavat Lengsavad and Maj. Gen. Asang Laoly.
The 28-member cabinet also includes Onechanh Thammavong as labour minister, Chaleuan Yapaoher as justice minister, Nam Vignaket as industry and commerce minister, Sitaheng Latsaphone as agriculture minister and Sommad Pholsena as transport minister.
The National Assembly (Sapha Heng Xat) has 164 members (158 are LPRP, 6 independents), elected for a five-year term.
|Lao Front for National Construction||Lao People's Revolutionary Party||100||144||+16|
|General Secretary||Bounnhang Vorachith||Lao People's Revolutionary Party||22 January 2016|
According to Article 91 of the Constitution of the Lao PDR, the People's Court of the Lao People's Democratic Republic "consists of the Supreme People's Court, the local people's court and the military court as defined by law".
The Supreme People's Court of the Lao People's Democratic Republic was established in 1982.As outlined in Article 92, the People's Supreme Court of the Lao People's Democratic Republic is the highest judicial body and "examines the judgments and judgments of the people's courts and military courts". There has been indications that women have served on the provincial courts. For instance, in 2018, it was announced that Napaporn Phong Thai was appointed as the President of Court Zone 2, Xayaburi Province.
Per Article 93, the President, Vice President and the judges are appointed, transferred or removed by the Standing Committee of the National Assembly. Although the Standing Committee has decisive authority, the same article does state that President does have some power regarding the appointment, transferal or removal of the Vice President.
In 1983, Oun Nue Phimmasone became the first President of the People's Supreme Court.Currently, the President is Khamphanh Sithidampha.
The Public Prosecutor's Office was established in 1990.Article 99 of the Constitution of Laos states that the office has the responsibility of "monitor[ing] the observance and implementation of laws throughout the country, protect[ing] the rights of the state and society...[and] the legitimate interests of the people, and prosecut[ing] detainees in accordance with the law". The office is organized in the following three ways:
Supreme People's Prosecutor
The Chief of the Supreme Public Prosecutor directs all the activities of the Public Prosecutor at every level.All activities are reported to the National Assembly.
Local People's Procuratorate
Military Prosecutor's Office
Currently, the Supreme People's Prosecutor is Khamsane Souvong.
As for attorneys in general, according to a 2016 article, there are 188 lawyers in Laos who are members of the Laos Bar Association. However, most of the attorneys have entered the government sector and do not practice law—seldom giving thought to practicing in the private sector. While there is evidence of female lawyers in Laos, there is no indication as to how women have fared in the legal field.Pursuant to the Resolution of the National Assembly No. 024 / NA (On the Adoption of the Law on Lawyers; November 9, 2016), requirements include possessing a baccalaureate degree, being a Laos citizen and passing an examination (separate requirements exist for foreign lawyers). Although the Laos Bar Association issues certificates to graduates of the legal profession, it is the Ministry of Justice of Laos that sets the legal training standards.
Somphao Phaysith, Governor of Lao PDR Central Bank
Inspection Committee of the Party Central Committee
Party Central Committee Advisor: Khamtai Siphandon
Laos is divided into 17 provinces (khoueng, singular and plural), 1 municipality* ( nakhon luang vientiane, singular and plural):
Attapu, Bokeo, Borikhamxay, Champassack, Houaphan, Khammouane, Louang Namtha, Luangphabang, Oudomxay, Phongsaly, Saravane, Savannakhet, Sekong, Vientiane*, Vientiane, Sayaboury, Xaisomboun, and Xieng Khouang.
The Lao People's Armed Forces (LPAF) is the name of the armed forces of the Lao People's Democratic Republic and the institution of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party, who are charged with protecting the country.
The Lao People's Revolutionary Party is the founding and governing political party of the modern-day Laotian state. The party's monopoly on state power is guaranteed by Article 3 of the Laotian constitution, and it maintains a unitary state with centralised control over the economy and military.
Phoumi Vongvichit was a leading figure of the Pathet Lao and an elder statesman of the Lao People's Democratic Republic.
General Khamtai Siphandone is a Laotian politician who was President of Laos from 24 February 1998, until 8 June 2006, when he was replaced by Choummaly Sayasone. He was a member of the Communist Party of Indochina in 1954 and a member of the Central Committee of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party in 1956. He was the leader of the Communist Lao People's Revolutionary Party from 24 November 1992, until 21 March 2006.
Nouhak Phoumsavanh or Phoumsavan was a longtime Pathet Lao revolutionary and communist party official who was the 3rd President of Laos from 1992 to 1998.
Bounnhang Vorachit is a Laotian politician. He was previously General Secretary of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party and President of Laos from 2016 to 2021.
The President of the Lao People's Democratic Republic is the head of state of Laos. The current president is Thongloun Sisoulith, since 22 March 2021. He was previously elected as the General Secretary of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party, Laos' most powerful position in January 2021, ranking him first in the Politburo.
The prime minister of Laos, formerly the chairman of the Council of Government of the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is the head of government of Laos. The highest position in the government, he or she directs the country's executive branch. The prime minister is accountable to the president, the National Assembly and the country's only legal party: the Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP). The current prime minister is Phankham Viphavanh, who was elected in 2021.
The National Assembly is the unicameral parliament of Laos. The National Assembly meets in Vientiane.
Bouasone Bouphavanh is a Laotian politician who was Prime Minister of Laos from 2006 to 2010. He was officially appointed to the office by the National Assembly of Laos on 8 June 2006, during a major government reshuffle. He replaced Bounnhang Vorachith who became vice president. Bouasone had previously served as first deputy prime minister since October 3, 2003. Before that, he was third deputy prime minister and was president of the State Planning Committee. He ranks seventh in the Politburo. He was replaced as Prime Minister on 23 December 2010 by Thongsing Thammavong. Now, Bouasone Bouphavanh currently serves as head of the Lao Party Central Committee's Commission for Economic Development Strategy Research.
Lieutenant General Samane Vignaket was a Vietnamese descent-Laotian national politician, Minister of Education, Head of Party Central Committee Organization Board, Vice Minister of Defense, Director of the General Political Bureau, President of the National Election Committee for the National Assembly Fourth Legislature, and President of the National Assembly of Laos from 1993 to 2006. He was born in Phichit Province, Siam to Vietnamese immigrant family. He was in charge of ideological and cultural works of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP), and he was a member of the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th Politburo, a member of the 3rd Secretariat of the LPRP. He died at 00.24 am on July 22, 2016 at the age of 89.
The 9th Congress of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP) was held in Vientiane from 17–21 March 2011. The congress occurs once every five years. A total of 576 delegates represented the party's 191,700 card-carrying members.
The 10th National Congress of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party was held in Vientiane from 18–22 January 2016. The congress occurs once every five years. A total of 685 delegates represented the party's 252,879 card-carrying members.
Parliamentary elections were held in Laos on 20 March 2016. Voters were presented with a single list from the Lao Front for National Construction, dominated by the Communist Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LRPP). The LPRP won 144 of the 149 seats, with pro-government independents winning the remaining five.
The following lists events that happened during 2016 in Laos.
The 11th Central Committee was elected at the 11th National Congress of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party on 15 January 2021, and is composed of 71 ordinary members and ten substitutes. As an institution, the Central Committee is the party's highest decision-making body between convocations of the National Congress, which convenes every fifth year. Since the LPRP has a monopoly on state power in Laos, the Central Committees formulates policies which the state implements. In between plenary sessions of the 11th Central Committee the 11th Politburo, is the party's highest decision-making body.
Bounthong Chitmany is a Laotian politician and member of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP). He was born in 1951 and is a former Governor of Oudomxay Province. He is currently Chairman of the Inspection Commission of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party. He was elected to the LPRP Central Committee at the 6th National Congress and still retains his seat. At the 10th National Congress he was elected to the LPRP Politburo, and he still retains his seat. He is Vice President of Laos since 22 March 2021.
Events in the year 2021 in Laos.
Khemmani Pholsena is a Lao politician, Minister and Head of the President's Office and a member of the 11th Central Committee of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP).