Hong Kong identity card

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Hong Kong identity card
香港身份證
2018 onward HKID front.png
The front of the fourth-generation Hong Kong permanent identity card
2018 onward HKID back.png
The back of the fourth-generation Hong Kong permanent identity card (with the right of abode in Hong Kong)
Type Identity card
Issued byFlag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong
PurposeIdentification
Valid inFlag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong
Flag of Macau.svg  Macao
Flag of Albania.svg  Albania
Flag of Montserrat.svg  Montserrat (for max. 14 days)
EligibilityResidence in Hong Kong, person over 11 years of age
CostRegistration: free [1]
Renewal: free
Replacement (lost, destroyed, damaged or defaced): HK$370
Replacement (alteration of particulars): HK$460
Hong Kong permanent identity card
Traditional Chinese 香港永久性居民身份證
Cantonese Yale Hēung góng wíhng gáu sing gēui màhn sān fán jing
Hong Kong identity card
Traditional Chinese 香港身份證
Cantonese Yale Hēung góng sān fán jing

The Hong Kong identity card (officially HKIC, [2] [3] commonly HKID) is an official identity document issued by the Immigration Department of Hong Kong. According to the Registration of Persons Ordinance (Cap. 177), all residents of age 11 or above who are living in Hong Kong for longer than 180 days must, within 30 days of either reaching the age of 11 or arriving in Hong Kong, register for an HKID. [4] HKIDs contain amongst others the name of the bearer in English, and if applicable in Chinese. The HKID does not expire for the duration of residency in Hong Kong.

Contents

The Hong Kong permanent identity card is a class of HKID issued to Hong Kong residents who have the right of abode (ROA) in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. [5] There are around 8.8 million Hong Kong identity cards in circulation. [6]

The current HKID, named as the new smart identity card, features multiple security, durability and chip technology enhancements. [7]

History

The use of identity documents has a long history in Hong Kong, starting with manually filled paper documents, to the smart card introduced on 23 June 2003. [4]

Before 1949, people could move freely into and out of Hong Kong (then a British colony), and China (then Republic of China). Hong Kong residents who held Republic of China citizenship were not registered. In 1949, when the Government of the Republic of China retreated to Taiwan and the People's Republic of China was established on the mainland, the Hong Kong Government began to register Hong Kong residents to issue compulsory identity documents. [8] These measures were put into practice to halt the large influx of refugees from Communist China and control the border with mainland China.[ citation needed ] The registration was completed in 1951. Although registration was compulsory for all residents, people were not required to carry their documents with them at all times when out in public.

Beginning on 1 June 1960, the government introduced the second generation of ID cards. [8] These bore the holder's fingerprint and photograph, and an official stamp. The information was typed, and the card was laminated. Males had a blue card and females had a red card. The format of card was replaced in November 1973 with a card without fingerprints. [8] The colour of the stamp identified and differentiated permanent residents (black) from non-permanent ones (green). New immigrants subsequently became known colloquially as "green stampers" (Chinese :綠印客; Cantonese Yale :luhk yan haak).

From 24 October 1980, carrying an identity card in public areas and showing it when requested by a police or immigration officer became compulsory. This law was passed to control large numbers of illegal immigrants arriving in the territory. The government adopted a policy of deporting illegal immigrants within three days if they could not produce a valid ID card.

From March 1983, digitally processed identity cards were introduced to reduce forgery. [8] This also simplified border controls. On 1 June 1987, the Immigration Department produced cards without the coat of arms of British Hong Kong, [8] which would last through the handover on 1 July 1997. Following the handover the cards display a smaller seal of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in the back of the card. In 2003, the government began replacing the cards with smart ID cards in stages.

Hong Kong smart identity cards

On 23 June 2003, the Immigration Department of Hong Kong began issuing a new smart Identity card. [4] The new cards contained an embedded microchip, which stored the bearer's information electronically. Previous HKIDs remained valid until the Executive Council, through the Secretary for Security, declared them invalid. In addition, existing holders of HKIDs were called to have their old-style HKIDs replaced by the new cards. Between August 2003 to 2007, all Hong Kong ID cards were replaced.

The introduction of smart identity cards was motivated partly to speed up processing at Hong Kong's Immigration checkpoints, especially with Shenzhen, China. In the latter checkpoint, an estimated 7,200 Hong Kong residents commuted daily to Shenzhen for work and 2,200 students from Shenzhen commuted to school in Hong Kong in 2002.

Hong Kong New smart identity cards

On 29 November 2017, the design of a new smart ID card was introduced. The card is equipped with built-in radio frequency identification, expanded storage for higher-resolution photo, hologram background, rainbow printing, and micro-printed text. It was designed to prevent counterfeiting. [9]

On 27 December 2018, the Immigration Department started the replacement procedure for all existing smart identity cards under the Territory-wide Identity Card Replacement Exercise. The programme features 24 phases, from 2018 to 2022. [7]

Classes of HKID

There are two classes of Hong Kong identity card:

The card types can be further divided into cards bearing the term "child" (below age 11 and not compulsory. The card can be requested to obtain later a passport with a Hong Kong permanent resident number), "youth" (from age 11 up until 18), and "adult" (issued from age 18 onwards).

Permanent HKID and right of abode

Permanent HKID holders have the Right of Abode (Chinese :居留權; Cantonese Yale :Gēuilàu kyùn) in Hong Kong. Under the Basic Law of Hong Kong, a person who belongs to one of the following categories is a permanent resident of the HKSAR with right of abode privileges:

  1. Chinese citizen born in Hong Kong before or after the establishment of the HKSAR
  2. Chinese citizen who has ordinarily resided in Hong Kong for a continuous period of not less than seven years before or after the establishment of the HKSAR.
  3. Person of Chinese nationality born outside Hong Kong before or after the establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to a parent who, at the time of birth of that person, was a Chinese citizen falling within category (1) or (2).
  4. Person not of Chinese nationality who has entered Hong Kong with a valid travel document, has ordinarily resided in Hong Kong for a continuous period of not less than seven years and has taken Hong Kong as his place of permanent residence before or after the establishment of the HKSAR.
  5. Person under 21 years of age born in Hong Kong to a parent who is a permanent resident of the HKSAR in category (4) before or after the establishment of the HKSAR if at the time of his birth or at any later time before he attains 21 years of age, one of his parents has the ROA in Hong Kong.
  6. Person other than those residents in categories (1) to (5), who, before the establishment of the HKSAR, had the ROA in Hong Kong only.

Paper versions of the Hong Kong Identity card (such as the one on the right) are issued by the Registration of Persons Office for temporary use until a smart card can be manufactured. This process requires two weeks, and the smart card must be collected within six weeks.

Hong Kong identity card

All Hong Kong residents aged 11 or over must register for an identity card.

Eligibility

Residents of Hong Kong are required to obtain an HKID card at the age of 11. Hong Kong residents over age 15 are required to carry legal identification with them at all times (that is, the HKID card). [10] Bearers of a "youth" HKID card must switch to an "adult" HKID within 30 days after their 18th birthday. The "youth" card will be invalid as re-entry travel document 30 days after the 18th birthday.

Photographs are not required on HKIDs for children under the age of 11 and cannot be used as travel documents. A Hong Kong Re-entry Permit is issued in its place. Alternatively, children may use their HKSAR passport or their British National (Overseas) passport as a travel document to enter and exit Hong Kong.

Meaning of symbols on ID card

A Hong Kong ID card bears a number of symbols in Roman letters under the date of birth (for example: ***AZ, AO, CO)

Up until the issue of Smart ID cards, which were issued commencing from 2003, the sex of the holder was also shown in the codes under the date of birth (for example for example ***AFZ, AMO, CFO). It is now shown next to the left of the date of birth, so the codes under the date of birth do not include M or F.

The symbols have the following meaning: [11]

CodeExplanation
Section 1
***The holder is aged 18 or over and is eligible for a Hong Kong Re-entry Permit
*The holder is aged between 11 and 17 and is eligible for a Hong Kong Re-entry Permit
AThe holder has the right of abode in Hong Kong
BThe holder's reported date of birth or place of birth has been changed since first registration.
CThe holder's stay in the HKSAR is limited by the Director of Immigration at the time of registration of the card.
NThe holder's reported name has been changed since first registration. (This can include the addition of a Chinese name.)
OThe holder was born outside, Hong Kong, the Mainland of China or Macau
RThe holder has the right to land in the HKSAR.
UThe holder's stay in the HKSAR is not limited by the Director of Immigration at the time of registration
WThe holder's reported place of birth is Macau
XThe holder's reported place of birth is the Mainland of China
YThe holder's date of birth has been confirmed by the Director of Immigration against his/her birth certificate or passport
ZThe holder's reported place of birth is Hong Kong
Section 2
H1, K2, S1, P1, V1 etc.Codes for the office issuing the card
LThe holder has lost his/her ID card. L1 indicated lost once, L2 indicated lost twice and so on.

HKID number

HKID cards contain the bearer's HKID number, of which the standard format is X123456(A). X represents any one or two letters of the alphabet. The meaning of each initial letter is explained in the table below. The numerals may represent any Arabic number.

A is the check digit which has 11 possible values from 0 to 9 and A. There are 26 million possible card numbers using only the one-letter prefix, and 676 million using a two-letter prefix. The ID numbers of deceased persons are not reused. It is also noted that the check digit in brackets is not part of the identity card number, but appended solely to facilitate computer data processing. [12]

Infants are not issued HKIDs[ citation needed ] but birth certificates have been issued with the holder's ID number since 1980,

Meaning of first letter(s)

LetterExplanation
AOriginal ID cards, issued between 1949 and 1962, most holders were born before 1950
BIssued between 1955 and 1960 in city offices
CIssued between 1960 and 1983 in NT offices, if a child most born between 1946 and 1971, principally HK born
DIssued between 1960 and 1983 at HK Island office, if a child most born between, principally HK born
EIssued between 1955 and 1969 in Kowloon offices, if a child most born between 1946 and 1962, principally HK born
FFirst issue of a card commencing from 24 February 2020 [13]
GIssued between 1967 and 1983 in Kowloon offices, if a child most born between 1956 and 1971
HIssued between 1979 and 1983 in HK Island offices, if a child most born between 1968 and 1971, principally HK born
JConsular officers
KFirst issue of an ID card between 28 March 1983 and 31 July 1990, if a child most born between 1972 and 1979
LIssued between 1983 and 2003, used when computer system malfunctioned, [13] [14] held by very few people
MFirst issue of ID card between 1 August 2011 and 23 February 2020, [13] if a child most born after 2000 outside Hong Kong.
NBirth registered in Hong Kong after 1 June 2019 [13]
PFirst issue of an ID card between 1 August 1990 and 27 December 2000, if a child most born between July and December 1979
RFirst issue of an ID card between 28 December 2000 and 31 July 2011
SBirth registered in Hong Kong between 1 April 2005 and 31 May 2019
TIssued between 1983 and 1997, used when computer system malfunctioned, [13] [14] very few people hold
VChild under 11 issued with a "Document of Identity for Visa Purposes" between 28 March 1983 and 31 August 2003
WFirst issue to a foreign labourer or foreign domestic helper between 10 November 1989 and 1 January 2009
YBirth registered in Hong Kong between 1 January 1989 and 31 March 2005
ZBirth registered in Hong Kong between 1 January 1980 and 31 December 1988
WXFirst issue to a foreign labourer or foreign domestic helper since 2 January 2009
XA /
XB /
XC /
XD /
XE /
XG /
XH
ID card issues to person without a Chinese name before 27 March 1983

Physical appearance

First and second-generation computerised HKID

First generation of the computerised HKID. First Generation Computerised Identity Card.jpg
First generation of the computerised HKID.
Second generation of the computerised HKID. Second Generation Computerised Identity Card.jpg
Second generation of the computerised HKID.
  • Name in Chinese (if any)
  • Name in English
  • Name in Chinese Commercial Code (if any)
  • Sex
  • Date of birth
  • Symbols
  • Holder's digital image
  • Month and year of first registration
  • Date of registration
  • Date of expiry (first-generation computerised Hong Kong ID card only)
  • Identity card number (Note)
Notes and codes on the card
SymbolDescription
***the holder is of the age of 18 or over and is eligible for a Hong Kong (S. A. R.) Re-entry Permit.
*the holder is between the age of 11 and 17 and is eligible for a Hong Kong (S. A. R.) Re-entry Permit.
Athe holder has the right of abode in (the) Hong Kong (S. A. R.).
Bthe holder's place of birth, date of birth or gender has been changed since his/ her first registration.
Cthe holder's stay in (the) Hong Kong (S. A. R.) is limited by the Director of Immigration at the time of his registration of the card.
Fthe holder is a female.
H1code of ID card issuing office
K2code of ID card issuing office
Lthe holder has lost his/ her ID card once or more since his/ her first registration; 'L1' means he/ she has lost his/ her ID card once, 'L2' means twice, and so on..
Mthe holder is a male.
Rthe holder has a right to land in (the) Hong Kong (S. A. R.).
S1code of ID card issuing office
Uthe holder's stay in (the) Hong Kong (S. A. R.) is not limited by the Director of Immigration at the time of his registration of the card.
Ythe Immigration Department has verified the holder's reported date of birth by his/ her birth certificate or passport.
Zthe holder's place of birth reported is Hong Kong.
Xthe holder's place of birth reported is the Mainland (mainland China).
Wthe holder's place of birth reported is the region of Macau.
Othe holder's place of birth reported is in other countries.
Nthe holder's name has been changed since his/ her first registration.

The other difference between the first and second generation cards is the replacement of the Coat of Arms from the back, which was done to remove any colonial features in preparation for the handover in 1997.

HKID pic-adult-front sample.jpg
The front of the third generation smart identity card.
Xiang Gang Zhi Neng Shen Fen Zheng De Bei Mian .jpg
The back of the third generation smart identity card.

Third and Fourth generation smart HKID

  • Name in Chinese (if any) [15]
  • Name in English
  • Name in Chinese Commercial Code (if any)
  • Date of birth
  • Sex
  • Symbols
  • Holder's digital image
  • Month and year of first registration
  • Date of (this) registration
  • Identity card number
Notes and codes on the card
SymbolDescription
***the holder is of the age of 18 or over and is eligible for a Hong Kong (S. A. R.) Re-entry Permit.
*the holder is between the age of 11 and 17 and is eligible for a Hong Kong (S. A. R.) Re-entry Permit.
Athe holder has the right of abode in (the) Hong Kong (S. A. R.).
Cthe holder's stay in (the) Hong Kong (S. A. R.) is limited by the Director of Immigration at the time of his registration of the card.
Rthe holder has a right to land in (the) Hong Kong (S. A. R.).
Uthe holder's stay in (the) Hong Kong (S. A. R.) is not limited by the Director of Immigration at the time of his registration of the card.
Zthe holder's place of birth reported is Hong Kong.
Xthe holder's place of birth reported is the Mainland (mainland China).
Wthe holder's place of birth reported is the region of Macau.
Othe holder's place of birth reported is in other countries.
Bthe holder's place of birth or date of birth has been changed since their first registration.
Nthe holder's name has been changed since their first registration.

Names in Chinese and Roman script

It is common for Chinese Hong Kongers to adopt western-style English names (such as John, Mary, etc.), in addition to their phonetic English names, after being registered on the birth register. Some of them may wish to include their western-style English name as part of their official English name (this is known as 'adding an English name' locally). They can apply to the Immigration Department for including such name as part of their official English name (example: someone named 'Tai Ming CHAN' may have adopted a Western-style English name Peter and wish to have this name shown as 'Peter Tai Ming CHAN' ('Peter' as a first name) or 'Tai Ming Peter CHAN' ('Peter' as a middle name)) on his HKID card and the government's records. This is not considered by the Immigration Department as a name change. The Immigration Department considers that his or her original name (in the format of 'Tai Man CHAN') is an alias, and that the newly lodged name (usually in the format of 'Peter Tai Man CHAN' or 'Tai Man Peter CHAN' or CHAN Tai Man, Peter) is the proper name of the applicant (in the sense that such name is the 'proper name' of the applicant). A legal hangover from the former British administration is that the English transliteration of a persons Chinese name is their official legal name, and not their name in Chinese characters as would be expected.

Normally, when non-ethnic Chinese register for their first HKID card, the space reserved for a Chinese name is automatically left blank by the Immigration Department. It is possible, however, to add a name in Chinese characters at any time through application to the Immigration Department. Where a non-ethnic Chinese person applies to add a name in Chinese characters after first registration, this is considered by the Immigration Department as a name change.

Use as a travel document

The Hong Kong identity card by itself can be used to travel to Macau, as long as the holder has the right of abode or the right to land in Hong Kong, (the holder is able to stay for up to one year in Macau visa-free). [16]

Albania also accepts the Hong Kong permanent identity card by itself for entry, for a stay of up to 90 days within 180 days. [17] [18]

Montserrat also accepts HKID for stay no longer than 14 days. Montserratian authorities allow to enter with any proof of identity (even driving licence) [19]

Some foreign territories require Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport holders to present their HKID as well to benefit from a visa exemption scheme: these places include Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Only HKSAR passport holders who were not born in Hong Kong or Macau are required to possess HKID when entering Taiwan.

HKID holders who possess right of abode or right to land are automatically eligible to use the e-Channel when arriving at or departing from Hong Kong. The e-Channel is not available when using an HKSAR passport and the person must clear immigration at an inspection counter if he or she arrives at or depart from a port of entry without HKID. Non-permanent residents are also eligible if they hold a Hong Kong Document of Identity for Visa Purposes or if they are successfully registered for e-Channel. [20]

Replacement schedule

The replacement schedule: [21]

CycleOverdue PhaseGroups / Year of birthDesignated Period of Replacement
A1The Chief Executive, Members of the Executive Council, Members of the Legislative Council,

Principal Officials, Members of the Immigration Service, Police Officers and Labour Inspectors

27 December 2018 –

30 March 2019

21985 and 198621 January 2019 –

30 March 2019

31968 and 19691 April 2019 –

1 June 2019

B41966 and 19673 June 2019 –

26 July 2019

51964 and 196527 July 2019 –

23 September 2019

61955 and 195624 September 2019 –

15 November 2019

71957 to 195916 November 2019 -

26 September 2020

C81960 to 196118 February 2020 -

26 September 2020

91962 and 196328 July 2020 -

20 February 2021

101970 to 19722 November 2020 -

30 April 2021

111973 to 197622 February 2021 -

9 July 2021

122005 - 2007, 2012 - 20183 May 2021 -

18 September 2021

CycleCurrent PhaseYear of birthDesignated Period of Replacement
C131977 to 197920 September 2021 - 18 November 2021
CycleUpcoming PhaseYear of birthTentative Card Replacement Schedule (for reference only)
D141980 to 198219 November 2021 - 18 January 2022
151983, 1984,

1987, 1988

19 January 2022 - 2 April 2022
TBC1989 to 2000TBC
TBC1954 and beforeTBC

See also

Related Research Articles

Politics of Hong Kong Political system of Hong Kong

The politics of Hong Kong takes place in a framework of a political system dominated by its quasi-constitutional document, the Hong Kong Basic Law, its own legislature, the Chief Executive as the head of government and of the Special Administrative Region and of a politically constrained multi-party presidential system. The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China is led by the Chief Executive, the head of government.

Passport Travel document usually issued by a countrys government

A passport is an official governmental document that contains a given person's identity. It helps its holder travel under its protection to and from foreign countries. The document certifies the personal identity and nationality of its holder. Standard passports contain the full name, photograph, place and date of birth, signature, and the expiration date of the passport.

An identity document is any document that may be used to prove a person's identity. If issued in a small, standard credit card size form, it is usually called an identity card, or passport card. Some countries issue formal identity documents, as national identification cards which may be compulsory or non-compulsory, while others may require identity verification using regional identification or informal documents. When the identity document incorporates a person's photograph, it may be called photo ID.

Right of abode in Hong Kong entitles a person to live and work in the territory without any restrictions or conditions of stay. Someone who has that right is a Hong Kong permanent resident. Foreign nationals may acquire the right of abode after meeting a seven-year residency requirement and are given most rights usually associated with citizenship, including the right to vote in regional elections. However, they are not entitled to hold territorial passports or stand for office in most Legislative Council constituencies, unless they also naturalise as Chinese citizens.

Mainland Travel Permit for Hong Kong and Macao Residents Travel document

A Mainland Travel Permit for Hong Kong and Macao Residents, also colloquially referred to as a Home Return Permit or Home Visit Permit, is issued to Chinese nationals who are permanent residents of or settled in Hong Kong and Macau as the travel document to Mainland China. The permit is issued by the Exit and Entry Administration of the People's Republic of China through China Travel Service sub-branches in Hong Kong and Macau and allows holders to travel freely to Mainland China.

Hong Kong Certificate of Identity

The Hong Kong Certificate of Identity (CI) was a formal travel document and passport, issued by the Hong Kong Government's Immigration Department until 30 June 1997. It is no longer possible to possess a valid CI as a travel document, as all CIs have expired by 30 June 2007, though most CI holders should be eligible to hold the HKSAR Passport.

Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport Passports issued to Chinese citizens of Hong Kong

The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China passport is a passport issued only to permanent residents of Hong Kong who also hold Chinese citizenship. In accordance with the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, since the transfer of sovereignty on 1 July 1997, the passport has been issued by the Immigration Department of the Government of Hong Kong under the authorisation of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China. As the official languages of Hong Kong are Chinese and English, the passport is printed bilingually in both Chinese and English.

Immigration Department (Hong Kong) Hong Kong government department

The Immigration Department of the Government of Hong Kong is responsible for immigration control of Hong Kong. After the People's Republic of China assumed sovereignty of the territory in July 1997, Hong Kong's immigration system remained largely unchanged from its British predecessor model. Residents from mainland China do not have the right of abode in Hong Kong, nor can they enter the territory freely, both before and after 1997. There are different regulations that apply to residents of Macau, another Special Administrative Region of China. In addition, visa-free entry acceptance regulations into Hong Kong for passport holders of some 170 countries remain unchanged before and after 1997.

Hong Kong Document of Identity for Visa Purposes Travel document

The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Document of Identity for Visa Purposes is a biometric travel document issued by the Hong Kong Immigration Department to residents of Hong Kong who are unable to obtain a national passport. It is usually valid for seven years.

Hong Kong Re-entry Permit

Hong Kong Re-entry Permit are issued to Hong Kong residents by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) for travel to mainland China and Macau Special Administrative Region.

National Registration Identity Card Singapore identity document

The National Registration Identity Card (NRIC) is the compulsory identity document issued to citizens and permanent residents of Singapore. People must register for an NRIC within one year of attaining the age of 15, or upon becoming a citizen or permanent resident. Re-registrations are required for persons attaining the ages of 30 and 55, unless the person has been issued with an NRIC within ten years prior to the re-registration ages.

National identification card (Taiwan) ID card for Taiwanese (Republic of China) nationals

The Republic of China national identification card, commonly known as the national identification card of Taiwan, is a compulsory identity document issued to people who hold both nationality and household registration in Taiwan. The National Identification Card served as the evidence for the household registration in Taiwan which grants the holder the right of abode and full civil and political rights in Taiwan. The card is used for virtually all other activities that require identity verification within Taiwan such as opening bank accounts and voting.

Visa policy of Macau Policy on permits required to enter Macau

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Visa policy of Hong Kong Policy on permits required to enter Hong Kong

The visa policy of Hong Kong deals with the requirements in which a foreign national wishing to enter Hong Kong through one of the 15 immigration control points must meet to obtain an entry permit or Visa, which depending on the traveller's nationality, may be required to travel to, enter, and remain in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Visitors from over 145 countries are permitted without Visa entry for periods ranging from 7 to 180 days, to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region for tourism or certain business-related activities. All visitors must hold a passport valid for more than 1 month.

Macau Resident Identity Card

The Macau Resident Identity Card or BIR is an official identity card issued by the Identification Services Bureau of Macau. There are two types of Resident Identity Cards: one for permanent residents and one for non-permanent residents.

Hong Kong residents, also called Residents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, according to the Hong Kong Basic Law, are either permanent residents or non-permanent residents. Hong Kong residents have rights under the Basic Law including freedom of speech, freedom of movement and freedom of religious belief.

British National (Overseas) passport British passport post-1987 for persons with British National (Overseas) citizenship

The British National (Overseas) passport, commonly referred to as the BN(O) passport, is a British passport for persons with British National (Overseas) citizenship. BN(O) citizenship was created in 1987 after the enactment of Hong Kong Act 1985. BN(O) citizens are permanent residents of Hong Kong who were British Dependent Territories citizens until 30 June 1997, and chose to remain British by registering for BN(O) citizenship when Hong Kong was under British administration.

e-Channel

e-Channel, also known as The Automated Passenger Clearance System, is an expedited border control system introduced by the Hong Kong Immigration Department in 2004, designed to speed up border immigration processes for residents of Hong Kong, Macau and frequent visitors to Hong Kong entering and exiting the territory whether it be by land, air or sea via the use of self-service kiosks employed at various border control points.

Mainland Chinese or Mainlanders often refers to Chinese people who live in mainland China, where the term "mainland China" refers to regions directly administered by the People's Republic of China, as opposed to special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, the island of Taiwan and other ethnic Chinese-majority areas of the Chinese diaspora. However, it can also refer to specific groups of people who migrated from mainland China, depending on the context and the specific translation; some of these contexts are listed below.

Automated border control system

Automated border control systems (ABC) or eGates are automated self-service barriers which use data stored in a chip in biometric passports along with a photo or fingerprint taken at the time of entering the eGates to verify the passport holder's identity. Travellers undergo biometric verification using facial or iris recognition, fingerprints, or a combination of modalities. After the identification process is complete and the passport holder's identity is verified, a physical barrier such as a gate or turnstile opens to permit passage. If the passport holder's identification is not verified or if the system malfunctions, then the gate or turnstile does not open and an immigration officer will meet the person. E-gates came about in the mid-2000s as an automated method of reading the then-newly ICAO mandated e-passports.

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  14. 1 2 T字頭 同L字頭香港身份證NO
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