Morning dress

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Emperor Hirohito of Japan, U.S. President Ronald Reagan and his wife Nancy in 1983, both men in morning coats with formal trousers, known as morning dress Reagan hirohito.jpg
Emperor Hirohito of Japan, U.S. President Ronald Reagan and his wife Nancy in 1983, both men in morning coats with formal trousers, known as morning dress

Morning dress, also known as formal day dress, is the formal Western dress code for day attire, [1] consisting chiefly of, for men, a morning coat, waistcoat, and formal trousers, and an appropriate gown for women. Men may also wear a popular variant where all parts (morning coat, waistcoat and trousers) are the same colour and material, often grey and usually called "morning suit" or "morning grey" to distinguish it; [2] considered properly appropriate only to festive functions [3] such as summer weddings and horse races, [4] [5] which consequently makes it slightly less formal. The correct hat would be a formal top hat, or if on less spacious audience settings optionally a collapsible equivalent opera hat.

Debrett's states that morning dress should not be specified as the dress code for events starting after 6 p.m. If a formal event will commence at or after 6 p.m., white tie should be specified instead. [1] [6] The semi-formal daytime counterpart of this code is the black lounge suit. [7] [8]

Morning dress is generally restricted to certain weddings, royal, governmental or municipal audiences, and social season events, e.g., horse races. It may also be seen sometimes worn at church services, as well as fraternal orders, and gentlemen's clubs.

History

Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901) in 1844 Verdi 1844.jpg
Giuseppe Verdi (1813–1901) in 1844
Caricature of Henry Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon in Vanity Fair, 11 September 1869 Henry Herbert, Vanity Fair, 1869-09-11.jpg
Caricature of Henry Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon in Vanity Fair , 11 September 1869
Morning dress fashion (middle), as opposed to frock coats (left and right) (1848) Mens fashion plate 1848.jpg
Morning dress fashion (middle), as opposed to frock coats (left and right) (1848)

The name originated from the practice of gentlemen in the nineteenth century riding a horse in the morning with a cutaway front, single breasted morning coat. [9] The modern twentieth century morning dress was originally a more casual form of half dress, but as the nineteenth century progressed it gradually became acceptable to wear it in more formal situations instead of a frock coat. In the Edwardian era it took over in popularity from the frock coat as the standard daytime form of men's full dress. When it was regarded as a more casual coat, it was common to see it made with step collars (notched lapels in American English), but as it took over from the frock coat in formality it began to be made with the more formal pointed lapels (peaked lapels in American English).

Composition

Winston Churchill in morning dress, lifting his top hat with his walking stick (1943). Mansion House (17676358605).jpg
Winston Churchill in morning dress, lifting his top hat with his walking stick (1943).

Morning dress consists of:

If the trouser cloth matches the coat, the ensemble becomes a morning suit. The waistcoat may also match, or not (an "odd waistcoat"). Morning suits will sometimes be a middle-tone grey. Morning suits, especially the lighter-toned ones, are considered slightly less formal than morning coat ensembles.

The following can optionally be worn or carried with morning dress:

Considered slightly less formal by some, a morning suit can be worn in variant sometimes referred to as "morning grey dress", which has mid-grey matching morning coat, waistcoat, and trousers (all cut the same as above); being more relaxed, this is a traditional option for events in less formal settings such as Royal Ascot, and is now often worn to weddings as well.

Morning coat

The modern morning coat is single-breasted and usually has peaked lapels. [10] It is usually closed with a single button [10] but may have a link-front closure instead. [11] [12] It is traditionally in either black or Oxford grey [13] [14] herringbone wool, [1] which should not be too heavy a weight, [14] with curved front edges sloping back into tails [1] [12] of knee length. [15]

The coat may feature ribbon braiding around the edges of the collar, lapels, and down around the tails; [16] it may also be present on the hook vent, breast pocket, and sleeves. [17] Nicholas Storey advises that braiding should be avoided for very formal morning wear. [18]

Waistcoat

A black morning coat with matching black waistcoat is the most formal option, [19] [20] being worn for Court, [20] funerals, [21] memorial services, [22] civic dress [23] and diplomatic dress (replacing or supplementing Court Dress), with academic dress, or in government use in America.

At social or festive occasions, e.g. horse races and weddings, a contrasting waistcoat is worn. The most traditional colours are dove grey, [24] light grey [1] [25] (including pearl grey [13] [4] ), buff [1] [25] or camel [26] (both yellowish tan colours), duck-egg blue, [1] and occasionally white. [27] [28] There has been a tendency towards 'fancy' waistcoats [1] [25] of multicoloured and embroidered materials such as brocade, [26] especially at weddings, [1] although brightly coloured waistcoats may be considered garish. [29] Other colours sold by traditional English tailors include pastels such as powder blue, pale pink, pale green, and other pastels. [30] Generally, traditional waistcoats are made from linen, silk, [1] [26] or wool. [27]

Waistcoats may be either single-breasted with, or without, lapels or double-breasted with lapels. [1] Single-breasted models with lapels usually feature a step collar and are worn with the bottom button undone, whilst double-breasted models commonly have either a shawl collar or a peak lapel and are worn fully buttoned. [1] In either case, Debrett's advise against wearing backless waistcoats [1] because they do not look as smart as real ones. [26] Sometimes a white slip is worn, which is a strip of fabric buttoned to the inside top of the waistcoat [18] to simulate the effect of a paler under-waistcoat, [31] though the actual wearing of two waistcoats was obsolete even for the late Victorians.

Trousers

Hamide Ayse Sultan (1887-1960) with her husband in morning coat and formal trousers Ayse-sultan-abdulhamid.jpg
Hamide Ayşe Sultan (1887–1960) with her husband in morning coat and formal trousers

The formal ('spongebag') trousers worn with it are either 'cashmere' striped, or black and white checked. [1] Formal trousers should not have turn-ups (cuffs in American English), [32] and have either flat-fronts or one to two forward pleats to each leg. [33] Braces (suspenders in American English) may be worn [33] to prevent the waistband from appearing beneath the waistcoat if required. Belts should not be worn with morning dress. [34] Less common (and less formal) alternatives to striped trousers are houndstooth check, [35] [26] Prince of Wales check, [25] and grey flannel trousers, [17] amongst others.

Shirt

Since the Second World War, in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth Realms, the traditional shirt for morning dress has been a white or light-coloured shirt with double cuffs (fastened with cufflinks) and a plain white stiff turn-down collar (often of the cutaway variety [36] ) worn with a long tie. [1] A detachable collar is no longer considered to be necessary and is very formal by modern standards. [26]

Alternatively, a wing collar may be worn; the combination of long tie and wing collar is very dated, so these are instead paired with an ascot. [12] [37] Unfortunately, this combination has acquired negative connotations because most dress hire companies have used pre-tied or incorrect patterns for many years, which has caused the configuration to be seen as an inferior or hired look. Consequently, Debrett's (and the late Hardy Amies) consider the wing collar and ascot to be inappropriate for weddings or morning dress, [38] reserving wing collars for white tie. [39] [40] [41] [1]

If a wing collar is worn, the collar should be of the starched, detachable, variety and also include starched single cuffs (secured with cufflinks) all in white. This is because, in the past, a starched stiff-fronted shirt was worn with starched cuffs and a starched detachable wing collar, worn with cufflinks and shirt studs; it is essentially the same as a plain-fronted (rather than Marcella) full evening dress shirt. [36] Contemporary shirts often do not have a detachable collar at all which, provided they have the same height and stiffness as the detachable type, are considered to be an acceptable alternative. [26]

The most formal colour for a shirt is white but, if a coloured or striped shirt is worn, it should have a contrasting white collar (and possibly cuffs). Traditional formal shirtings are usually light-coloured [1] and may include cream, blue (such as Wedgwood blue), pink, [26] lavender, peach, salmon, yellow, or pastel green. [42] Morning dress shirts (other than the collar) are usually solid in colour [26] or have thin vertical stripes [37] but may have a slightly bolder pattern such as a houndstooth or glencheck. [43]

Neck wear

Previously, a grey or (if at a funeral) a black necktie was obligatory. Now all colours are worn; in many clubs and societies the club tie is acceptable to distinguish members from guests at formal lunches and breakfasts. The original silver Macclesfield design (a small check) is still used particularly with cravats, and is often called a wedding tie. Wearing a silver-grey silk tie is the usual practice at royal [5] and other formal events. [27] [25] Although there is no longer a strict rule governing the colour and pattern of ties that are worn to weddings these days, garish options are inadvisable. [26] The English etiquette authority, Debrett's, dictate that smart woven silk ties are preferred to cravats [1] although stocks and cravats may be worn as an alternative. [26] The American etiquette authority, The Emily Post Institute, states that either a tie or a dress ascot may be worn with a morning coat. [13]

If worn, cravats may be tied in either a formal dress knot (Ascot knot) which is secured with a cravat pin [12] or a slightly less formal ruched knot which resembles a four-in-hand tie. A wing collar and cravat may be worn with a black coat but not with a grey one. [11] Cravats have been proscribed in the Royal Enclosure at the Royal Ascot since 2012 [44] and should therefore be treated with caution in any context in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms.

Bow ties may be worn as an alternative to the necktie. Although there are photographs of the Duke of Windsor and Sir Winston Churchill wearing bow ties with morning dress, and Debrett's does not proscribe the wearing of one, it is not expressly provided as an option by Debrett's [1] [26] and should therefore be treated with caution in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms. Some style authorities, including Bernhard Roetzel and Nicholas Antongiavanni, advise against the wearing of bow ties with morning dress. [25] [11] Others, such as Nicholas Storey, provide that bow ties may be worn so long as they are obviously not an evening bow tie. [16]

Footwear

Shoes should be of the traditional, highly polished black plain cap-toe Oxford type [1] [10] without brogueing [45] but may include a single line of tooling across the toe cap. [46] [47] The shoes should not be patent leather, [1] which is now reserved for evening formal wear. [40] [41] Although it may be acceptable to wear 'smart-slip on shoes' [1] and monkstraps, [25] it is not ideal to wear either loafers [10] or open-laced shoes, such as derby shoes (or bluchers in American English). [45] In the Victorian and Edwardian era button boots [48] and Oxford boots [46] [49] were worn and these can be correctly worn with morning dress today. When worn at equestrian events, boots of equestrian origin such as jodhpur boots, George boots and Chelsea boots are also acceptable. Socks should be black or grey. [26] Spats were once frequently seen with morning dress, [5] but are now rarely worn and, by 1939, the practise of wearing them was considered to be almost extinct. [50]

Accessories

Headgear

A. Carnegie and Lord Weardale. While the top hat would be considered the standard, alternatives occur; here a bowler hat. Lord (John) Boyd Orr of Brechin (3121126254).jpg
A. Carnegie and Lord Weardale. While the top hat would be considered the standard, alternatives occur; here a bowler hat.

In the Commonwealth of Nations, traditional black, or grey (less formal, but becoming more widely accepted), top hats are considered an optional accessory for weddings. [1] [51] However, hats remain compulsory in the Royal Enclosure at Royal Ascot. [52] [44]

Pocket square

A pocket square should always be worn with morning dress. They may be made from linen, cotton, or silk. Whilst a simple white linen square with rolled edges is classic, they may instead be a solid colour or patterned and should always complement the neckwear.

In respect of ties and pocket squares, it is considered particularly elegant to pair one of those accessories, which is made from silk, with the other, made from a non-lustrous material such as linen or cotton. This helps to counterbalance the potential for affectations.

Although it is very common practice in wedding parties, many style authorities do not recommend matching a pocket square to a tie as it tends to look contrived, draw attention away from the wearer's face, and display sartorial uncertainty. Pocket squares with a solid colour should generally be paired with a patterned tie (and vice versa) and should not share the same base colour. If the pocket square is patterned, it should likewise not match the tie but instead complement it.

It may be puffed or folded into a square, single-point, or multi-pointed style folds. Puffed pocket squares work well with softer materials such as silk; other folds tend to hold their shape better when more structured materials such as linen are used.

Decorations

The wearing of decorations, orders, and medals is uncommon with morning dress. An invitation will generally indicate whether or not they should be worn and, in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth realms, are more common for religious services or public functions of official significance. Up to four stars, one neck badge, and full-size medals should be worn with morning dress; when a neck badge and star are worn together, they must be of different orders. [53]

Etiquette: "morning dress"

Men in morning dress for a wedding (1929) 1929wedding.jpg
Men in morning dress for a wedding (1929)

Men wear morning dress when members of a wedding party. In common with court dress, mess dress, and white tie, morning dress is for prestigious and important social occasions. Despite its name, morning dress may be worn to afternoon social events before five o'clock, but not to events beginning after six o'clock in the evening; the term "morning" is best understood as "daylight".

In Europe, the groom sets the sartorial tone: the guests may wear morning dress if he does.

Equivalents for men

Following the etiquette of formal wear, morning dress being its civilian day wear, there are several equivalents.

White tie is the correct, equivalent formal dress for evening social events. The cutaway front of the morning tail coat differs from the evening tail coat (dress coat) in that the waist of the former is cut obliquely while the waist of the latter is cut horizontally, and the tail is cut differently from the swallow tailcoat used for evening dress. The skirt waist construction of the coats is equestrian in origin, to ease the wearer's riding his horse.

Equivalents for women

Women should wear 'smart daywear', such as a smart day dress or a skirt worn with a jacket. [1] The straps of tops and dresses should be at least one inch wide even if worn with a jacket or other covering. [54] Strapless, off-the-shoulder, one shoulder, halter neck, sheer, bardot, and spaghetti straps are not permitted in the Royal Enclosure at the Royal Ascot [54] and may be inadvisable at other occasions that require morning dress. Dresses and skirts should be neither too short nor too revealing. [1] At their shortest, they should fall just above the knee. [54]

Trouser suits and smart jumpsuits are permissible at the Royal Ascot but must be ankle length. With trouser suits, the coat and trousers should match in both material and colour. Jumpsuits must also comply with the regulations that apply to skirts and dresses. [54]

At the most formal of occasions and the races, dresses and skirts should be worn with a tailored jacket. [1] A bolero, shrug, or pashmina may otherwise be worn. [1] Daytime shoes, such as wedges, should be worn rather than very high heels or evening-style shoes [1] and ought to be comfortable enough to wear for several hours. [55] Tights should always be worn. [1]

Hats should be worn in the Royal Enclosure at the Royal Ascot [54] but are optional at weddings. [1] They should be a style that is securely fitted and may be worn throughout the day. [1] Hats should neither be so large or cumbersome that they hamper kissing [55] nor too small. The Royal Ascot does not permit fascinators within the Royal Enclosure. [54] Headpieces may be worn instead of a hat but must have a solid base of at least 10 cm. [54]

Daytime jewellery, such as pearls, add an extra flourish of style. [1]

A shoulder bag is often preferable to a clutch purse, especially for mothers at weddings. [55]

Contemporary use

Morning dress worn at a Catholic Procession of the Holy Blood in Bruges, Belgium (2009) Procession SANGUIS Brugensis Moenaert 2009.jpg
Morning dress worn at a Catholic Procession of the Holy Blood in Bruges, Belgium (2009)

Commonwealth of Nations

Other than certain weddings, and royal, governmental or municipal audiences, morning dress may be seen at some social season events, e.g. horse races such as the Royal Enclosure of Royal Ascot, the Queen's Stand of Epsom Derby, or the Victoria Derby in Australia. It may also be seen sometimes worn at church services in St Paul's Cathedral, London, and St Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh. Other occasions include certain City of London institutions including fraternal orders, gentlemen's clubs, livery companies and guilds. It also exists as school uniforms at some of United Kingdom's most traditional schools, such as Harrow (on Sundays) [56] and Eton. [57]

Morning dress may be worn by male members of a wedding party around Commonwealth of Nations countries, including Australia, and New Zealand. Men at upper and upper-middle class weddings usually wear their own morning coats and their own ties. On these occasions they may wear their old public (U.S.: private) school ties. It is occasionally worn by the British working class (constituting the majority of the population) for only the wedding party to wear morning 'suits'. These tend to be hired and far more co-ordinated than those worn by their upper-middle and upper-class counterparts. The men usually dress in identical, hired, outfits along with identical ties, handkerchiefs and waistcoats. [58]

United States

Joseph Douglass in morning dress with grandfather Frederick Douglass in frock coat (circa 1890s) Frederick Douglass & grandson Joseph, c1890s.jpg
Joseph Douglass in morning dress with grandfather Frederick Douglass in frock coat (circa 1890s)

In the U.S., the morning coat is sometimes referred to as a cutaway coat. [28]

In the U.S., morning dress is rare; it usually is worn in traditional weddings and political formal events, although the Kennedy inauguration of 1961 was the last use for that ceremony. In Virginia, morning dress is worn by a governor-elect when sworn to office. [59] The United States Solicitor General and deputies wear morning coats during oral argument before the United States Supreme Court, [60] as do the Marshal and Clerk of the court during all sessions of the court, unless they are female. [61]

Morning dress has recurred in the traditional Easter parade associated with Fifth Avenue in New York City.

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Wyse, Elizabeth (2015). Debrett's Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. p. 190. ISBN   978-0-9929348-1-1.
  2. "Morning Suits - Cad & the Dandy". Archived from the original on 2012-10-19.
  3. Donald, Elsie, ed. (1981). Debrett's Etiquette and Modern Manners. London: Debrett's Peerage Limited. pp. 385–386. ISBN   0-905649-43-5.
  4. 1 2 Antongiavanni, Nicholas (2006). The Suit. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 169. ISBN   978-0-06-089186-2.
  5. 1 2 3 Keers, Paul (1987). A Gentleman's Wardrobe: Classic Clothes and the Modern Man. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 105. ISBN   0-297-79191-5.
  6. Wyse, Elizabeth (2015). Debrett's Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. pp. 185–187. ISBN   978-0-9929348-1-1.
  7. Tuckerman, Nancy; Dunnan, Nancy (1995). The Amy Vanderbilt Complete Book of Etiquette: 50th Anniversary Edition (1 ed.). New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group Inc. p.  284. ISBN   978-0-385413428.
  8. Post, Anna; Post, Lizzie (2014). Emily Post's Wedding Etiquette (6 ed.). New York: The Emily Post Institute, Inc. p. 260. ISBN   978-0-06-232610-2.
  9. "Wedding Suits - A Suit That Fits".
  10. 1 2 3 4 Hume, Lucy (2017). Debrett's Wedding Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. p. 116. ISBN   978-0-9929348-4-2.
  11. 1 2 3 Antongiavanni, Nicholas (2006). The Suit. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 177. ISBN   978-0-06-089186-2.
  12. 1 2 3 4 Keers, Paul (1987). A Gentleman's Wardrobe: Classic Clothes and the Modern Man. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 104. ISBN   0-297-79191-5.
  13. 1 2 3 Post, Peggy; Post, Anna; Post, Lizzie; Post Senning, Daniel (2011). Emily Post's Etiquette (18 ed.). New York: The Emily Post Institute, Inc. p.  619. ISBN   978-0-06-174023-7.
  14. 1 2 Amies, Hardy (2013). The Englishman's Suit. London: Quartet Books Ltd. p. 82. ISBN   978-0-7043-7169-9.
  15. Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. pp. 73–74. ISBN   978-1-84468-037-5.
  16. 1 2 Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. p. 74. ISBN   978-1-84468-037-5.
  17. 1 2 Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. p. 94.
  18. 1 2 Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. pp. 74 & 79. ISBN   978-1-84468-037-5.
  19. Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. p. 79. ISBN   978-1-84468-037-5.
  20. 1 2 Keers, Paul (1987). A Gentleman's Wardrobe: Classic Clothes and the Modern Man. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 104–105. ISBN   0-297-79191-5.
  21. Wyse, Elizabeth (2015). Debrett's Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. p. 297. ISBN   978-0-9929348-1-1.
  22. Wyse, Elizabeth (2015). Debrett's Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. p. 302. ISBN   978-0-9929348-1-1.
  23. Pullman, Nigel. "Dress codes" (PDF). Livery Companies of the City of London. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  24. Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. p. 128.
  25. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Roetzel, Bernhard (2009). Gentleman: A Timeless Guide to Fashion. Cambridge: Tandem Verlag GmbH. p. 331. ISBN   978-3-8331-5270-2.
  26. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Hume, Lucy (2017). Debrett's Wedding Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. p. 117. ISBN   978-0-9929348-4-2.
  27. 1 2 3 Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. p. 77. ISBN   978-1-84468-037-5.
  28. 1 2 Flusser, Alan (2002). Dressing The Man: Mastering the Art of Permanent Fashion. New York: HarperCollins Publishers Inc. p. 284. ISBN   978-0-06-019144-3.
  29. Bryant, Jo; Wyse, Liz, eds. (2012). Debrett's Men's Style. Richmond, Surrey: Debrett's Limited. p. 22. ISBN   978-1-870520-00-3.
  30. Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. p. 129.
  31. Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. pp. 136–138.
  32. Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. pp. 77–78. ISBN   978-1-84468-037-5.
  33. 1 2 Hume, Lucy (2017). Debrett's Wedding Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. pp. 116–117. ISBN   978-0-9929348-4-2.
  34. Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. p. 233.
  35. Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. p. 78. ISBN   978-1-84468-037-5.
  36. 1 2 Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. pp. 75–76. ISBN   978-1-84468-037-5.
  37. 1 2 Antongiavanni, Nicholas (2006). The Suit. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. pp. 169–170. ISBN   978-0-06-089186-2.
  38. Amies, Hardy (2013). The Englishman's Suit. London: Quartet Books Ltd. pp. 82–83. ISBN   978-0-7043-7169-9.
  39. Amies, Hardy (2013). The Englishman's Suit. London: Quartet Books Ltd. pp. 77–78. ISBN   978-0-7043-7169-9.
  40. 1 2 Wyse, Elizabeth (2015). Debrett's Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. p. 185. ISBN   978-0-9929348-1-1.
  41. 1 2 Wyse, Elizabeth (2015). Debrett's Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. p. 188. ISBN   978-0-9929348-1-1.
  42. Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. pp. 147–150.
  43. Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. p. 151.
  44. 1 2 "Royal Ascot Style Guide | Ascot". www.ascot.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-10-17.
  45. 1 2 Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. p. 195.
  46. 1 2 Storey, Nicholas (2008). History of Men's Fashion: What the Well-Dressed Man is Wearing. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd. p. 78. ISBN   978-1-84468-037-5.
  47. Antongiavanni, Nicholas (2006). The Suit. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 171. ISBN   978-0-06-089186-2.
  48. Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. pp. 196–200.
  49. Schneider, Sven (2017). Morning Dress Guide (1 ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: Gentleman's Gazette LLC. p. 201.
  50. Mansfield, Alan; Cunnington, Phillis (1973). Handbook of English Costume in the 20th Century 1900-1950. London: Faber and Faber Limited. p. 338. ISBN   0-571-09507-0.
  51. Antongiavanni, Nicholas (2006). The Suit. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 170. ISBN   978-0-06-089186-2.
  52. Hanson, William (2014). The Bluffer's guide to etiquette (First ed.). p. 72. ISBN   978-1-909937-00-0.
  53. Wyse, Elizabeth (2015). Debrett's Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. pp. 436–437. ISBN   978-0-9929348-1-1.
  54. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Ladies - What to Wear: Royal Enclosure". Royal Ascot. Ascot Racecourse. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  55. 1 2 3 Hume, Lucy (2017). Debrett's Wedding Handbook. Mayfair, London: Debrett's Limited. p. 124. ISBN   978-0-9929348-4-2.
  56. "Existing Customs 2016" (PDF). Harrow School. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  57. "Some Notes on Dress at Eton College". Keikari. Keikari. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  58. Elsie Burch Donald (1981). Debrett's Etiquette and Modern Manners. p. 56In. ISBN   0-7472-0657-0.
  59. Oliver, Ned. "Trumpets, morning coats and ham: What to expect at Ralph Northam's inauguration Saturday". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved 2019-01-09.
  60. "The Court and Its Traditions". Supreme Court of the United States. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  61. "William Suter, Clerk of the U.S. Supreme Court, interview, C-SPAN U.S. Supreme Court Week". Supremecourt.c-span.org. Retrieved 2012-06-18.

Bibliography

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Black tie is a semi-formal Western dress code for evening events, originating in British and American conventions for attire in the 19th century. In British English, the dress code is often referred to synecdochically by its principal element for men, the dinner suit or dinner jacket. In American English the equivalent term tuxedo is common. The dinner suit is a black, midnight blue or white two- or three-piece suit, distinguished by satin or grosgrain jacket lapels and similar stripes along the outseam of the trousers. It is worn with a white dress shirt with standing or turndown collar and link cuffs, a black bow tie, typically an evening waistcoat or a cummerbund, and black patent leather dress shoes or court pumps. Accessories may include a semi-formal homburg, bowler, or boater hat. For women, an evening gown or other fashionable evening attire may be worn.

Waistcoat Garment for the upper body, usually sleeveless, extending to near the waist

A waistcoat in BrE, or vest in AmE, is a sleeveless upper-body garment. It is usually worn over a dress shirt and necktie and below a coat as a part of most men's formal wear. It is also sported as the third piece in the traditional three-piece male suit. Any given vest can be simple or ornate, or for leisure or luxury. Historically, the vest can be worn either in the place of or underneath a larger coat dependent upon the weather, wearer, and setting.

White tie Style of formal dressing

White tie, also called full evening dress or a dress suit, is the most formal in traditional evening western dress codes. For men, it consists of a black tail coat worn over a white shirt, white piqué waistcoat and the eponymous white bow tie worn around a standing wing collar. Mid or high-waisted black trousers with galon, a trim one with two silk stripes that conceal the outer seams of the trousers, along with black highly polished or patent leather oxford or optionally court shoes, complete the outfit. Orders, decorations and medals may be worn. Acceptable accessories include a black top hat, white gloves, a white scarf, a pocket watch, a white pocket square, and a boutonnière. Women wear full-length ball or evening gowns with evening gloves and, optionally, tiaras, jewellery, and a small handbag. Some white-tie functions also request that the women wear long gloves past the elbow.

Court dress Style of clothes prescribed for courts of law

Court dress comprises the style of clothes and other attire prescribed for members of courts of law. Depending on the country and jurisdiction's traditions, members of the court may wear formal robes, gowns, collars, or wigs. Even within a certain country and court setting, there may be times when the full formal dress is not used, such as in trials involving children.

Suit Western business attire of matching jacket and trousers

A suit is a set of men's or women's clothes comprising a suit jacket, or coat, and trousers. When of identical textile, and worn with a collared dress shirt, necktie, and dress shoes, it was traditionally considered informal wear in Western dress codes. The lounge suit originated in 19th-century Britain as more casual wear alternative for sportswear and British country clothing. After replacing the black frock coat in the early 20th century as regular daywear, a sober one-coloured suit became known as a lounge suit. A darker, understated lounge suit for professional occasions became known as a business suit.

A tailcoat is a knee-length coat characterised by a rear section of the skirt, known as the tails, with the front of the skirt cut away.

Formal wear, formal attire or full dress is the traditional Western dress code category applicable for the most formal occasions, such as weddings, christenings, confirmations, funerals, Easter and Christmas traditions, in addition to certain state dinners, audiences, balls, and horse racing events. Formal wear is traditionally divided into formal day and evening wear; implying morning dress before 6 p.m., and white tie after 6 p.m. Generally permitted other alternatives, though, are the most formal versions of ceremonial dresses, full dress uniforms, religious clothing, national costumes, and most rarely frock coats. In addition, formal wear is often instructed to be worn with official full size orders and medals.

Mess dress uniform Formal evening dress worn by military officers in the mess or at other formal occasions

Mess dress uniform is the most-formal or semi-formal type of uniforms used by military personnel, police personnel, firefighters and other public uniformed services members for certain ceremonies, receptions, and celebrations, in messes or on private occasions. It frequently consists of a mess jacket, trousers, white dress shirt, often with standing collar and bow tie, along with orders and medals insignia. Design may depend on regiment or service branch, e.g. army, navy, air force, marines, etc. In Western dress codes, mess dress uniform is a permitted supplementary alternative equivalent to the civilian black tie for evening wear or black lounge suit for day wear - sometimes collectively called half dress - although military uniforms are the same for day and evening wear. As such, mess dress uniform is considered less formal than full dress uniform, but more formal than service dress uniform.

1860s in Western fashion Costume and fashion of the 1860s

1860s fashion in European and European-influenced clothing is characterized by extremely full-skirted women's fashions relying on crinolines and hoops and the emergence of "alternative fashions" under the influence of the Artistic Dress movement.

1870s in Western fashion Costume and fashion of the 1870s

1870s fashion in European and European-influenced clothing is characterized by a gradual return to a narrow silhouette after the full-skirted fashions of the 1850s and 1860s.

Frock coat Mens formal knee-length coat

A frock coat is a formal man's coat characterised by a knee-length skirt cut all around the base just above the knee, popular during the Victorian and Edwardian periods (1820s–1920s). It is a fitted, long-sleeved coat with a centre vent at the back and some features unusual in post-Victorian dress. These include the reverse collar and lapels, where the outer edge of the lapel is often cut from a separate piece of cloth from the main body and also a high degree of waist suppression around the waistcoat, where the coat's diameter round the waist is less than round the chest. This is achieved by a high horizontal waist seam with side bodies, which are extra panels of fabric above the waist used to pull in the naturally cylindrical drape. As was usual with all coats in the 19th century, shoulder padding was rare or minimal.

Clerical clothing is non-liturgical clothing worn exclusively by clergy. It is distinct from vestments in that it is not reserved specifically for services. Practices vary: is sometimes worn under vestments, and sometimes as the everyday clothing or street wear of a priest, minister, or other clergy member. In some cases, it can be similar or identical to the habit of a monk or nun.

In Western clothing, semi-formal is a grouping of dress codes indicating the sort of clothes worn to events with a level of protocol between informal and formal. In the modern era, the typical interpretation for men is black tie for evening wear and black lounge suit for day wear, corresponded by evening dress or cocktail dress for women.

1850s in Western fashion Costume and fashion of the 1850s

1850s fashion in Western and Western-influenced clothing is characterized by an increase in the width of women's skirts supported by crinolines or hoops, the mass production of sewing machines, and the beginnings of dress reform. Masculine styles began to originate more in London, while female fashions originated almost exclusively in Paris.

1880s in Western fashion Costume and fashion of the 1880s

1880s fashion in the in Western and Western-influenced countries is characterized by the return of the bustle. The long, lean line of the late 1870s was replaced by a full, curvy silhouette with gradually widening shoulders. Fashionable waists were low and tiny below a full, low bust supported by a corset. The Rational Dress Society was founded in 1881 in reaction to the extremes of fashionable corsetry.

Boutonnière Small floral arrangement worn on the lapel

A boutonnière is a floral decoration, typically a single flower or bud, worn on the lapel of a tuxedo or suit jacket.

Western dress codes are dress codes in Western culture about what clothes are worn for what occasion. Classifications are traditionally divided into formal wear, semi-formal wear, and informal wear (undress). The first two are sometimes in turn divided into day and evening wear. In western countries, a "formal" or white tie dress code typically means tailcoats for men and full-length evening dresses with opera-length gloves for women. A most formal dress for women are full-length ball or evening gowns with evening gloves. Anything below this level is referred to as casual wear, although sometimes in combinations such as "smart casual" or "business casual" in order to indicate higher expectation than none at all.

Black lounge suit Mens semi-formal daytime attire

The black lounge suit (UK), stroller (U.S.), or Stresemann, is a men's day attire semi-formal intermediate of a formal morning dress and an informal lounge suit; comprising grey striped or checked formal trousers, but distinguished by a conventional-length lounge jacket, single- or double-breasted in black, midnight blue or grey. This makes it largely identical to the formal morning dress from which it is derived, only having exchanged the morning coat with a suit jacket, yet with equivalent options otherwise, such as necktie or bowtie for neckwear, a waistcoat, French cuffs dress shirt of optional collar type, and black dress shoes or dress boots. The correct hat would be a semi-formal homburg, bowler, or boater hat. Just as morning dress is considered the formal daytime equivalent of formal evening attire dress coat i e. white tie, so the stroller is considered the semi-formal daytime equivalent of the semi-formal evening attire dinner jacket i.e. black tie. Unlike other dress codes, there is no clear equivalent for women, though typical morning dress and cocktail dress have both been identified as alternatives.

1900s in Western fashion Costume and fashion in the decade 1900-1910

Fashion in the period 1900–1909 in the Western world continued the severe, long and elegant lines of the late 1890s. Tall, stiff collars characterize the period, as do women's broad hats and full "Gibson Girl" hairstyles. A new, columnar silhouette introduced by the couturiers of Paris late in the decade signaled the approaching abandonment of the corset as an indispensable garment.

The man's suit of clothes, in the sense of a lounge or business or office suit, is a set of garments which are crafted from the same cloth. This article discusses the history of the lounge suit, often called a business suit when made in dark colors and of conservative cut.