Glove

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Assorted gloves (a museum collection) Centre de Documentacio Museu Textil de Terrassa- Reserves- Teixits- Guants002.JPG
Assorted gloves (a museum collection)

A glove is a garment covering the hand. Gloves usually have separate sheaths or openings for each finger and the thumb.

Contents

If there is an opening but no (or a short) covering sheath for each finger they are called fingerless gloves. Fingerless gloves having one small opening rather than individual openings for each finger are sometimes called gauntlets, though gauntlets are not necessarily fingerless.

Gloves which cover the entire hand or fist but do not have separate finger openings or sheaths are called mittens. Mittens are warmer than other styles of gloves made of the same material because fingers maintain their warmth better when they are in contact with each other; reduced surface area reduces heat loss.

A hybrid of glove and mitten contains open-ended sheaths for the four fingers (as in a fingerless glove, but not the thumb) and an additional compartment encapsulating the four fingers. This compartment can be lifted off the fingers and folded back to allow the individual fingers ease of movement and access while the hand remains covered. The usual design is for the mitten cavity to be stitched onto the back of the fingerless glove only, allowing it to be flipped over (normally held back by Velcro or a button) to transform the garment from a mitten to a glove. These hybrids are called convertible mittens or glittens, a combination of "glove" and "mittens".

Gloves protect and comfort hands against cold or heat, damage by friction, abrasion or chemicals, and disease; or in turn to provide a guard for what a bare hand should not touch. Latex, nitrile rubber or vinyl disposable gloves are often worn by health care professionals as hygiene and contamination protection measures. Police officers often wear them to work in crime scenes to prevent destroying evidence in the scene. Many criminals wear gloves to avoid leaving fingerprints, which makes the crime investigation more difficult. However, the gloves themselves can leave prints that are just as unique as human fingerprints. After collecting glove prints, law enforcement can then match them to gloves that they have collected as evidence. [1] In many jurisdictions the act of wearing gloves itself while committing a crime can be prosecuted as an inchoate offense. [2]

Fingerless gloves are useful where dexterity is required that gloves would restrict. Cigarette smokers and church organists sometimes use fingerless gloves. Some gloves include a gauntlet that extends partway up the arm. Cycling gloves for road racing or touring are usually fingerless. Guitar players may also use fingerless gloves in circumstances where it is too cold to play with an uncovered hand.

Gloves are made of materials including cloth, knitted or felted wool, leather, rubber, latex, neoprene, silk, and metal (as in mail). Gloves of kevlar protect the wearer from cuts. Gloves and gauntlets are integral components of pressure suits and spacesuits such as the Apollo/Skylab A7L which went to the Moon. Spacesuit gloves combine toughness and environmental protection with a degree of sensitivity and flexibility.

History

Minoan youths boxing, Knossos fresco. One of the earliest documented uses of gloves. Young boxers fresco, Akrotiri, Greece.jpg
Minoan youths boxing, Knossos fresco. One of the earliest documented uses of gloves.

Gloves appear to be of great antiquity. According to some translations of Homer's The Odyssey, Laërtes is described as wearing gloves while walking in his garden so as to avoid the brambles. [3] (Other translations, however, insist that Laertes pulled his long sleeves over his hands.) Herodotus, in The History of Herodotus (440 BC), tells how Leotychides was incriminated by a glove (gauntlet) full of silver that he received as a bribe. [4] There are occasional references to the use of gloves among the Romans as well. Pliny the Younger (c. 100), his uncle's shorthand writer wore gloves in winter so as not to impede the elder Pliny's work. [5]

A gauntlet, which could be a glove made of leather or some kind of metal armour, was a strategic part of a soldier's defense throughout the Middle Ages, but the advent of firearms made hand-to-hand combat rare. As a result, the need for gauntlets disappeared.

During the 13th century, gloves began to be worn by ladies as a fashion ornament. [3] They were made of linen and silk, and sometimes reached to the elbow. [3] Such worldly accoutrements were not for holy women, according to the early 13th century Ancrene Wisse , written for their guidance. [6] Sumptuary laws were promulgated to restrain this vanity: against samite gloves in Bologna, 1294, against perfumed gloves in Rome, 1560. [7]

A Paris corporation or guild of glovers (gantiers) existed from the thirteenth century. They made them in skin or in fur. [8]

By 1440, in England glovers had become members of the Dubbers or Bookbinders Guild until they formed their own guild during the reign of Elizabeth I. The Glovers' Company was incorporated in 1613. [9]

It was not until the 16th century that gloves reached their greatest elaboration; however, when Queen Elizabeth I set the fashion for wearing them richly embroidered and jewelled, [3] and for putting them on and taking them off during audiences, to draw attention to her beautiful hands. [10] The 1592 "Ditchley" portrait of her features her holding leather gloves in her left hand. In Paris, the gantiers became gantiers parfumeurs, for the scented oils, musk, ambergris and civet, that perfumed leather gloves, but their trade, which was an introduction at the court of Catherine de Medici, [11] was not specifically recognised until 1656, in a royal brevet. Makers of knitted gloves, which did not retain perfume and had less social cachet, were organised in a separate guild, of bonnetiers [12] who might knit silk as well as wool. Such workers were already organised in the fourteenth century. Knitted gloves were a refined handiwork that required five years of apprenticeship; defective work was subject to confiscation and burning. [13] In the 17th century, gloves made of soft chicken skin became fashionable. The craze for gloves called "limericks" took hold. This particular fad was the product of a manufacturer in Limerick, Ireland, who fashioned the gloves from the skin of unborn calves. [14]

Embroidered and jeweled gloves formed part of the insignia of emperors and kings. Thus Matthew of Paris, in recording the burial of Henry II of England in 1189, mentions that he was buried in his coronation robes with a golden crown on his head and gloves on his hands. [3] Gloves were found on the hands of King John when his tomb was opened in 1797 and on those of King Edward I when his tomb was opened in 1774. [3]

Pontifical gloves are liturgical ornaments used primarily by the pope, the cardinals, and bishops. [3] They may be worn only at the celebration of mass. [3] The liturgical use of gloves has not been traced beyond the beginning of the 10th century, and their introduction may have been due to a simple desire to keep the hands clean for the holy mysteries, but others suggest that they were adopted as part of the increasing pomp with which the Carolingian bishops were surrounding themselves. [3] From the Frankish kingdom the custom spread to Rome, where liturgical gloves are first heard of in the earlier half of the 11th century. [3]

Portrait of Mme. Paulin wearing gloves, Pierre-Auguste Renoir Pierre Auguste Renoir - Portrait of Mme. Paulin - Google Art Project.jpg
Portrait of Mme. Paulin wearing gloves, Pierre-Auguste Renoir
A glove commemorating the visit of General Lafayette to the United States in 1824. Gloves MET 21.510 CP4.jpg
A glove commemorating the visit of General Lafayette to the United States in 1824.

When short sleeves came into fashion in the 1700s, women began to wear long gloves, reaching halfway up the forearm. By the 1870s, buttoned kid, silk, or velvet gloves were worn with evening or dinner dress, and long suede gloves were worn during the day and when having tea. [16]

Mainly during the 19th century, the generic or trade name "Berlin gloves" was used for washable, thin white cotton gloves often worn by servants, such as butlers or waiters, and the less well-off in civilian life. The term was also used for white cotton gloves worn with the dress uniform by the American military in the First World War. [17]

In 1905, The Law Times made one of the first references to the use of gloves by criminals to hide fingerprints, stating: For the future... when the burglar goes a-burgling, a pair of gloves will form a necessary part of his outfit. [18]

Early Formula One race cars used steering wheels taken directly from road cars. They were normally made from wood, necessitating the use of driving gloves. [19]

Disposable latex gloves were developed by the Australian company Ansell.

Tommie Smith and John Carlos held up their leather glove-clad fists at the awards ceremony of the 1968 Summer Olympics. Their actions were intended to symbolize Black Power. They were banned from the Olympics for life as a result of the incident. Yet another of the more infamous episodes involving a leather glove came during the 1995 O.J. Simpson murder case in which Simpson demonstrated that the glove purportedly used in the alleged murder was too small to fit his hand. [20]

Types of glove

Commercial and industrial

A disposable nitrile rubber glove Disposable nitrile glove.jpg
A disposable nitrile rubber glove

Sport and recreational

Dry scuba gloves Trockenhandschuh.jpg
Dry scuba gloves
Racing drivers gloves Puma Furio Gloves - Punggung Tangan.JPG
Racing drivers gloves
Three finger army shooting gloves. Three finger gloves 1995.jpg
Three finger army shooting gloves.
Touchscreen gloves, fingertip type Isotoner touch gloves BB E86 jeh.jpg
Touchscreen gloves, fingertip type

Fashion

Western lady's gloves for formal and semi-formal wear come in three lengths: wrist ("matinee"), elbow, and opera or full-length (over the elbow, reaching to the biceps). Satin and stretch satin are popular and mass-produced. Some women wear gloves as part of "dressy" outfits, such as for church and weddings. Long white gloves are common accessories for teenage girls attending formal events such as prom, quinceañera, cotillion, or formal ceremonies at church, such as confirmation.

In Japan, white gloves are worn frequently. Work-oriented white gloves are worn for activities such as gardening and cleanup; "dress" white gloves are worn by professionals who want a clean public appearance, such as taxi drivers, police, politicians and elevator operators. [24] However white gloves are not recommended for touching old books and similar antiquities. [25] [26]

Fingerless gloves

Leather fingerless gloves Leather fingerless gloves.JPG
Leather fingerless gloves

Fingerless gloves or "glovelettes" are garments worn on the hands which resemble regular gloves in most ways, except that the finger columns are half-length and opened, allowing the top-half of the wearer's fingers to be shown.

Fingerless gloves are often padded in the palm area, to provide protection to the hand, and the exposed fingers do not interfere with sensation or gripping. In contrast to traditional full gloves, often worn for warmth, fingerless gloves will often have a ventilated back to allow the hands to cool; this is commonly seen in weightlifting gloves.

Fingerless gloves are worn by bicyclists and motorcyclists to better grip the handlebars, as well as by skateboarders and rollerbladers, to protect the palms of the hands and add grip in the event of a fall. Some anglers, particularly fly fishermen, favour fingerless gloves to allow manipulation of line and tackle in cooler conditions. Fingerless gloves are common among marching band members, particularly those who play the clarinet or open-hole flute, due to the difficulty of covering small holes whilst wearing gloves. The lack of fabric on the fingertips allows for better use of touchscreens, as on smartphones and tablet computers. Professional MMA fighters are required to wear fingerless gloves in fights.

Leather gloves

Motorcyle riding gloves, gray deerskin, some points reinforced MotoEqipments HelmetBootsJacketAndGloves.jpg
Motorcyle riding gloves, gray deerskin, some points reinforced
Lined black leather gloves with red leather fourchettes Gloves2.jpg
Lined black leather gloves with red leather fourchettes

A leather glove is a fitted covering for the hand with a separate sheath for each finger and the thumb. This covering is composed of the tanned hide of an animal (with the hair removed), though in recent years it is more common for the leather to be synthetic.

Common uses

Leather gloves have been worn by people for thousands of years. The unique properties of leather allow for both a comfortable fit and useful grip for the wearer. The grain present on the leather and the pores present in the leather gives the gloves the unique ability to assist the wearer as they grip an object. As soft as a leather glove may be, its pores and grain provide a level of friction when "gripped" against an item or surface.

A common use for leather gloves is sporting events. In baseball, a baseball glove is an oversized leather glove with a web used for fielding the ball. Leather gloves are also used in handball, cycling, and American football.

Early Formula One racing drivers used steering wheels taken directly from road cars. They were normally made from wood, necessitating the use of driving gloves. [19]

Leather gloves provide protection from occupational hazards. For example, beekeepers use leather gloves to avoid being stung by bees. Construction workers might use leather gloves for added grip and for protecting their hands. Welders use gloves too for protection against electrical shocks, extreme heat, ultraviolet and infrared.

Criminals have been known to wear leather gloves during the commission of crimes. Gloves are worn by criminals because the tactile properties of the leather allow for good grip and dexterity. These properties are the result of a grain present on the surface of the leather. The grain makes the surface of the leather unique to each glove. Investigators are able to dust for the glove prints left behind from the leather the same way in which they dust for fingerprints. [27] [28]

Leather dress gloves

Main types of gloving leather

Leather is a natural product with special characteristics that make it comfortable to wear, and give it great strength and flexibility. Because it is a natural product, with its own unique variations, every piece has its own individual characteristics. As they are worn and used, leather gloves (especially if they fit snugly) will conform to the wearer's hand. As this occurs the leather of the glove will become more malleable, and thus softer and more supple. This process is known as 'breaking-in' the glove. Overtime wear spots may appear on certain parts of the palm and fingertips, due to the constant use of those areas of the glove. Creases and wrinkles will appear on the palm side of the leather glove and will generally correspond to the locations of the hinge joints of the wearer's hands, including the interphalangeal articulations of hand, metacarpophalangeal joints, intercarpal articulations, and wrists.

Because the leather is natural as well as delicate, the wearer must take precaution as to not damage them. The constant handling of damp or wet surfaces will discolor lighter-colored gloves and stiffen the leather of any glove. The wearer will often unknowingly damage or stain their gloves while doing such tasks as twisting a wet door knob or wiping a running nose with a gloved hand. [29]

Leather dress gloves that are worn very tight and possess very short, elasticized wrists, are most often referred to as cop gloves or law enforcement gloves because of their prevalence as issued duty gloves for many law enforcement agencies. It is common attire in leather subculture and BDSM communities.

  • Lambskin is widely used for fashion gloves and it is casual and country gloves. It is the most used material for gloves made in Europe in the known as French style.[ citation needed ]
  • Cowhide is often used for lower-priced gloves. This leather is generally considered too thick and bulky for the majority of glove styles, particularly finer dress gloves. It is, however, used for some casual styles of glove.
  • Deerskin has the benefit of great strength and elasticity, but has a more rugged appearance, with more grain on the surface, than "hairsheep". It is very hard-wearing and heavier in weight.
  • Goatskin is occasionally used for gloves. It is hard-wearing but coarser than other leathers and is normally used for cheaper gloves.
  • Hairsheep originates from sheep that grow hair, not wool. Hairsheep leather is finer and less bulky than other leathers. Its major benefits are softness of touch, suppleness, strength, and lasting comfort. It is very durable and is particularly suited for the manufacture of dress gloves.
  • Peccary is the world’s rarest and most luxurious gloving leather. Peccary leather is very soft, difficult to sew, and hard-wearing. [30]
  • Sheepskin, also called shearling, is widely used for casual and country gloves. It is very warm in cold weather, and as a leather reversed, it has still attached wool on the inside.
  • Slink lamb is used only in the most expensive lambskin gloves. Some of the finest lambskin comes from New Zealand.[ citation needed ]

Leather glove linings

Component parts

The component parts that may be found in a leather dress glove are one pair of tranks, one pair of thumbs, four whole fourchettes, four half fourchettes, two gussets, and six quirks. Depending on the style of the glove there may also be roller pieces, straps, rollers, eyelets, studs, sockets and domes. Finally, linings will themselves consist of tranks, thumbs and fourchettes.

Stitching

The most popular types of leather glove sewing stitches used today are:

  • Hand stitched, which is most popular in men's gloves and some women's styles. Hand stitching is a very time-consuming and skilled process.
  • Inseam, which is mainly used on women's gloves, but occasionally on men's dress gloves.[ clarification needed ]

Some glove terms

  • Button length is the measurement in inches that is used to determine the length/measurement from the base of the glove thumb to the cuff of the glove.
  • Fourchettes are the inside panels on the fingers of some glove styles.
  • Perforations are small holes that are punched in the leather. They are often added for better ventilation, grip, or aesthetics and can be as fine as a pin hole.
  • Points are the three, or sometimes single, line of decorative stitching on the back of the glove.
  • Quirks are found on only the most expensive hand sewn gloves. They are small diamond shaped pieces of leather sewn at the base of the fingers, where they are attached to the hand of the glove to improve the fit.
  • A strap and roller is used to adjust the closeness of the fit around the wrist.
  • A Vent is the 'V' shaped cut out of the glove, sometimes at the back, but more often on the palm, to give the glove an easier fit around the wrist.

Driving gloves

Rick Mastracchio's damaged glove during STS-118 STS-118 glove damage.jpg
Rick Mastracchio's damaged glove during STS-118

Driving gloves are designed for holding a steering wheel and transmitting the feeling of the road to the driver. They provide a good feel and protect the hands. They are designed to be worn tight and to not interfere with hand movements. The increased grip allows for more control and increased safety at speed. [31]

True driver’s gloves offer tactile advantages to drivers frequently handling a car near the limits of adhesion. Made of soft leather, drivers gloves are unlined with external seams.

Mittens

Saami mittens Southern Sami Mittens Norway.JPG
Saami mittens

Gloves which cover the entire hand but do not have separate finger openings or sheaths are called mittens. Generally, mittens still separate the thumb from the other four fingers. They have different colours and designs. Mittens have a higher thermal efficiency than gloves as they have a smaller surface area exposed to the cold. [32]

The earliest mittens known to archeologists date to around 1000 A.D. [33] in Latvia. Mittens continue to be part of Latvian national costume today. [34] Wool biodegrades quickly, so it is likely that earlier mittens, possibly in other countries, may have existed but were not preserved. An exception is the specimen found during the excavations of the Early Medieval trading town of Dorestad in the Netherlands. In the harbour area a mitten of wool was discovered dating from the 8th or early 9th century. [35]

Many people around the Arctic Circle have used mittens, including other Baltic peoples, Native Americans [36] and Vikings. [37] Mittens are a common sight on ski slopes, as they not only provide extra warmth but extra protection from injury. [38]

Ergonomic design

Safety standards

Several European standards relate to gloves. These include:

Antivibration protective gloves. Antivibration gloves.jpg
Antivibration protective gloves.

These exist to fulfill Personal protective equipment (PPE) requirements.

PPE places gloves into three categories:

Noted gloves

Michael Jackson's glove Michael Jackson glove (8229092427).jpg
Michael Jackson's glove

Michael Jackson often wore a single jeweled glove on his right hand, which helped develop his signature look. It has been the object of several auctions. [39]

A dark leather glove became an important piece of evidence in the O. J. Simpson murder case. Simpson's defense counsel famously quipped "if it doesn't fit, you must acquit". The glove presented as evidence shrank from having been soaked in blood, according to some analysis. [20]

See also

Related Research Articles

Dry suit Watertight clothing that seals the wearer from cold and hazardous liquids

A dry suit or drysuit provides the wearer with environmental protection by way of thermal insulation and exclusion of water, and is worn by divers, boaters, water sports enthusiasts, and others who work or play in or near cold or contaminated water. A dry suit normally protects the whole body except the head, hands, and possibly the feet. In hazmat configurations, however, all of these are covered as well.

<i>Bōgu</i> Training armor worn in kendo

Bōgu, properly called kendōgu, is training armour used primarily in the Japanese martial art of kendo, with variants used for jūkendō, tankendo, and naginata.

Baseball glove Large leather glove worn by baseball players

A baseball glove or mitt is a large leather glove worn by baseball players of the defending team, which assists players in catching and fielding balls hit by a batter or thrown by a teammate.

Mitten a type of handwear

A mitten is a type of handwear that covers the entire hand but does not have separate finger openings or sheaths. Generally, mittens still separate the thumb from the other four fingers. They have different colours and designs. Mittens provide greater thermal insulation than gloves as they have a smaller surface area exposed to the cold, but have a trade-off in dexterity.

Glove (ice hockey) Any of various sorts of gloves worn by ice hockey players

There are three styles of gloves worn by ice hockey players. Skaters wear similar gloves on each hand, while goaltenders wear gloves of different types on each hand.

Gauntlet (glove) hand and wrist armour

A gauntlet is a variety of glove, particularly one having been constructed of hardened leather or metal plates which protected the hand and wrist of a combatant in Europe between the early fourteenth century and the Early Modern period. Today it can also refer to an extended cuff covering the forearm as part of a woman's garment.

Rubber glove

A rubber glove is a glove made out of natural rubber or Synthetic rubber. Rubber gloves can be unsupported or supported. Its primary purpose is protection of the hands while performing tasks involving chemicals. Rubber gloves can be worn during dishwashing to protect the hands from detergent and allow the use of hotter water. Sometimes caregivers will use rubber gloves during the diaper changing process to prevent contact with the child's fecal material/urine. Health professionals use medical gloves rather than rubber gloves when performing surgical operations.

Cycling glove

Cycling gloves are gloves designed for cycling. They may provide warmth, comfort and protection.

Hand wrap

A hand wrap or a wrist wrap or Kumpur is a strip of cloth used by boxers to protect the hand and wrist against injuries induced by punching. It is wrapped securely around the wrist, the palm, and the base of the thumb, where it serves to both maintain the alignment of the joints, and to compress and lend strength to the soft tissues of the hand during the impact of a punch.

Grip (gymnastics)

Grips are devices that are worn on the hands of artistic gymnasts when performing on various apparatus. They are worn by female gymnasts on the uneven bars, and by male gymnasts on the high bar and still rings; it is rare to wear them on the parallel bars. Grips are used to enhance the gymnast's grip on the apparatus and to reduce friction, which can cause painful blisters and rips, in which outer layers of skin separate and tear away from the hand.

Bunker gear

Bunker gear is the personal protective equipment (PPE) used by firefighters. The term can refer, depending on the context, to just the trousers, boots and jacket, or to the entire combination of protective clothing. The terms are derived from the fact that the trousers and boots are traditionally kept by the firefighter's bunk at the fire station to be readily available for use.

Lacrosse glove

Lacrosse gloves are heavily padded, protective gloves worn by men's lacrosse players. The gloves are designed to protect players' hands, wrists, and forearms from checks, or legal defensive hitting common in the sport. Gloves consist of thick padding on the back of the hand and forearm covered in leather or canvas material, and a palm area made of synthetic and mesh material. A goaltender's gloves may have extra padding for the thumb to protect against injury from shots. While NCAA collegiate rules require that men's gloves have palms covered, other leagues, including post-collegiate club lacrosse, the National Lacrosse League, Major League Lacrosse, and international play, permit players to cut out the palm area for greater grip and control of the lacrosse stick.

A bow draw is the method used to draw a bow. Currently, the most common method in modern target archery is the Mediterranean draw, long the usual method in European archery. Other methods include the pinch draw and the Mongolian or "thumb" draw. In traditional archery practice outside of Western Europe the variations of the thumb draw are by far the most dominant draw types with the Mediterranean draw restricted to Olympic style of target shooting.

Armbinder

An armbinder is a type of restraint devices primarily used in bondage play, designed to bind the arms and/or hands to each other or to the body, usually behind the back, and employing a range of bondage equipment including cuffs, rods, straps, and gloves.

Trapper (ice hockey)

A trapper, also referred to as catch glove or simply glove, is a piece of equipment that an ice hockey goaltender wears on the non-dominant hand to assist in catching and stopping the puck.

Usage of personal protective equipment

The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is inherent in the theory of universal precaution, which requires specialized clothing or equipment for the protection of individuals from hazard. The term is defined by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which is responsible for PPE regulation, as the "equipment that protects employees from serious injury or illness resulting from contact with chemical, radiological, physical, electrical, mechanical, or other hazards." While there are common forms of PPEs such as gloves, eye shields, and respirators, the standard set in the OSHA definition indicates a wide coverage. This means that PPE involves a sizable range of equipment. There are several ways to classify them such as how gears could be physiological or environmental. The following list, however, sorts personal protective equipment according to function and body area.

Driving glove

A driving glove is a hand covering, typically constructed of very thin, soft leather, used to give a driver increased control of the vehicle through enhanced grip of the steering wheel and gear stick. The grain present on the leather and the pores present in the leather give the gloves the unique ability to assist the wearer as they grip the steering wheel and gear stick. As soft as a leather glove may be, its pores and grain provide a level of friction when "gripped" against an item or surface.

Glove prints

Glove prints, also sometimes described as gloveprints or glove marks, are latent, fingerprint-like impressions that are transferred to a surface or object by an individual who is wearing gloves.

Wicket-keepers gloves Large leather gloves worn by cricket players

A wicket-keeper's gloves or mitt are large leather gloves worn by cricket players of the defending team which assist players in catching and fielding balls hit by a batsman or thrown by a teammate.

References

  1. Sawer, Patrick (Dec 13, 2008). "Police use glove prints to catch criminals" . Retrieved Jul 18, 2019 via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  2. James W.H. McCord and Sandra L. McCord, Criminal Law and Procedure for the paralegal: a systems approach, supra, p. 127.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "Gloves." Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
  4. "The History of Herodotus by Herodotus, Volume VI, at". Classics.mit.edu. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
  5. "Pliny the Younger: Selected Letters". Fordham.edu. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
  6. J. R. R. Tolkien, ed. Ancrene Wisse, 8. The English Text of the Ancrene Riwle: Ancrene Wisse (Early English Text Society, CCXLIX) London 1962, noted by Diane Bornstein, The Lady in the Tower (Hamden, Connecticut) 1983:25 note 4.
  7. Marjorie O'Rourke Boyle, "Coquette at the Cross? Magdalen in the Master of the Bartholomew Altar's Deposition at the Louvre" Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte, 59.4 (1996:573–577) assembles numerous historical references to gloves, with bibliography.
  8. Étienne-Martin Saint-Léon, Histoire des corporation de métiers depuis leurs origines jusqu'à leur suppression en 1791 (Paris) 1922, noted by Boyle 1996:174:10.
  9. "Other [Wiltshire] industries". British History Online. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
  10. Roy C. Strong, Portraits of Queen Elizabeth I (Oxford) 1963:18f.
  11. Charles VIII of France received some gloves that were scented with powder of violet, but they were not of French making (Boyle 1996:174).
  12. In the earliest usage, bonnet was the woolen thread worked by hand with the needle or a spindle (Boyle 1996:174).
  13. Boyle 1996:174
  14. Jenkins, Jessica Kerwin, The Encyclopedia of the Exquisite, Nan A. Talese/Doubleday, p. 85
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  17. "A.E.F. Gloves, Gauntlets & Mittens 1917 to 1919". usmilitariaforum.com. 2016-09-06. Retrieved 2019-07-13.
  18. Horace Cox, ed. (1905). The Law Times: The Journal and Record: The Law and The Lawyers. vol. CXIX. London: The Law Times. p. 563.|volume= has extra text (help)
  19. 1 2 Formula One retrieved on 02/01/2011
  20. 1 2 "List of the evidence in the O.J. Simpson double-murder trial". USA Today . October 18, 1996. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
  21. http://www.moderngentlemanmagazine.com/driving-gloves-the-coolest-accessory-review-of-sauso-peccary-driving-gloves/ Driving Gloves – The Coolest Accessory & Review of Sauso Driving Gloves
  22. FIA Standard 8856-200 Protective clothing for automobile drivers Archived 2011-07-10 at the Wayback Machine pg 2
  23. "Best Shooting Gloves". TheGunZone. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  24. Gordenker, Alice (Mar 19, 2013). "White gloves" . Retrieved Jul 18, 2019 via Japan Times Online.
  25. http://www.bl.uk/aboutus/stratpolprog/collectioncare/publications/videos/whitegloves.pdf
  26. http://content.lib.utah.edu/utils/getfile/collection/uspace/id/5214/filename/3997.pdf
  27. "Crime Labs". Archived from the original on July 13, 2012. Retrieved Jul 18, 2019.
  28. "Personal Identification: Fingerprints". Archived from the original on May 22, 2009. Retrieved Jul 18, 2019.
  29. "Held Phantom Glove: Initial Impressions". BlakeBlog. Retrieved Jul 18, 2019.
  30. Chambers, Helen G., and Verna Moulton. Clothing Selection: Fashions, Figures, Fabrics. Page 349. Literary Licensing, Whitefish, United States. 1961. ISBN   1258228173, 9781258228170.
  31. Knowledge Center "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-24. Retrieved 2012-05-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Retrieved on 02/01/2011
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  33. "NATO Summit 2006". Rigasummit.lv. 2006-12-15. Archived from the original on 2009-12-21. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
  34. "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia: National Costume". Am.gov.lv. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
  35. Brandenburgh, Chr., 'Textile production and trade in Dorestad', Willemsen, A. & Kik, H. (reds.), Dorestad in an international framework. New research on centres of trade and coinage in Carolingian times (Turnhout 2010), 83–88.
  36. "Native American Mittens & Gloves". NativeTech. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
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Wikisource-logo.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Glove". Encyclopædia Britannica . 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 135–137.