Timeline of clothing and textiles technology

Last updated

This timeline of clothing and textiles technology covers events relating to fiber and flexible woven material worn on the body. This includes the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, and manufacturing systems (technology).


Fibers and fabrics

Flax flowers A Common Flax or Linseed (Linum usitatissimum) flower. Chapeltoun North Ayrshire.jpg
Flax flowers

Tools and machines

Ancient and prehistoric

Mittens done in "nalebinding" Handschuhe Nadelbindung.JPG
Mittens done in "nålebinding"

Medieval period

Early modern period

Eli Whitney's original cotton gin patent, dated March 14, 1794 Patent for Cotton Gin (1794) - hi res.jpg
Eli Whitney's original cotton gin patent, dated March 14, 1794

Late modern period

A copy of Barthelemy Thimonnier's sewing machine from about 1830 A copy Thimonnier's Machine.jpg
A copy of Barthélemy Thimonnier's sewing machine from about 1830


Treatments, dyes, and finishes

See also


  1. Roberts, Siobhan (9 April 2020). "Early String Ties Us to Neanderthals - A 50,000-year-old fragment of cord hints at the cognitive abilities of our ancient hominid cousins". The New York Times . Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  2. Hardy, B.L.; et al. (9 April 2020). "Direct evidence of Neanderthal fibre technology and its cognitive and behavioral implications". Scientific Reports . 10 (4889): 4889. Bibcode:2020NatSR..10.4889H. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-61839-w . PMC   7145842 . PMID   32273518.
  3. 1 2 Lambert, Joseph B. (2008-08-06). Traces of the Past: Unraveling the Secrets of Archaeology Through Chemistry. Basic Books. ISBN   978-0786725731.
  4. 1 2 3 Jenkins 2003, pp. 39–47.
  5. Roche, Julian (1994). The International Cotton Trade. Cambridge, England: Woodhead Publishing Ltd. p. 5.
  6. Jenkins 2003, pp. 30–39.
  7. Bernstein, Richard (13 January 1999). "BOOKS OF THE TIMES; Silent Giants as Guides on an Ancient Thoroughfare". The New York Times . Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  8. 1 2 Shelagh Vauinker in Anne Farrer (ed), "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", 1990, British Museum publications, ISBN   0-7141-1447-2
  9. Pedersen & Nosch 2009, p. ix.
  10. Reigate, Emily (1986). An Illustrated Guide to Lace (1988 ed.). WoodBridge, Suffolk: Antique Collectors Club. p. 11. ISBN   1851490035.
  11. Le Robert: Dictionnaire historique de la langue française (in French). Vol. 1. Dictionnaires Le Robert. 2000. p. 352. ISBN   2-85036-532-7.
  12. MacLochlainn, Jason (2011). The Victorian Tailor: An Introduction to Period Tailoring. St. Martin's Griffin. p. 49. ISBN   9780312642334.
  13. Barber 1991.
  14. 1 2 Theaker 2006.
  15. Bender 1990.
  16. Bennett & Bird 1960.
  17. D.L.Carroll Dating the Foot-powered loom: the Coptic evidence American Journal of Archaeology 1985 vol. 89; 168-73
  18. Lakwete, Angela (2003). Inventing the Cotton Gin: Machine and Myth in Antebellum America. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 1–6. ISBN   9780801873942.
  19. Smith, C. Wayne; Cothren, J. Tom (1999). Cotton: Origin, History, Technology, and Production. Vol. 4. John Wiley & Sons. pp. viii. ISBN   978-0471180456. The first improvement in spinning technology was the spinning wheel, which was invented in India between 500 and 1000 A.D.
  20. Pacey, Arnold (1991) [1990]. Technology in World Civilization: A Thousand-Year History (First MIT Press paperback ed.). Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.
  21. Baber, Zaheer (1996). The Science of Empire: Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 57. ISBN   0-7914-2919-9.
  22. Habib 2011, p. 53.
  23. Habib 2011, pp. 53–54.
  24. Maity, S.; Singha, K.; Singha, M (2012). "Recent Developments in Rapier Weaving Machines in Textiles". American Journal of Systems Science . 1 (1): 7–16. Retrieved 5 February 2024.
  25. "HOME". BISFA - The International Bureau Of Standardization Of Man-Made Fibres. Retrieved 2023-01-31.
  26. "Wool Products Labeling Act". 12 August 2013.
  27. US 38302041A,Hanes Spencer Booe,published 1942-02-24
  28. Matsuo, 2008.
  29. Basu, A. (1999). "Progress In Air-Jet Spinning". Textile Progress. 29 (3): 1–38. doi:10.1080/00405169908688877.
  30. Jerde, 1992
  31. US 3483073A,published 1965-07-24
  32. DE 1810719A1,published 1968-11-19
  33. Matsuo, 2008
  34. Jerde, 1992.
  35. "About us | Bonas". Vandewiele (which owns Bonas.com).
  36. US 4872258A,Philip A Ragard,published 1988-09-22
  37. Color Trade Journal and Textile Chemist: Devoted to the Interests of the Manufacturers and Users of American Dyestuffs and Processors of Textile Fibers and Fabrics. Volume=11-12
  38. Ventola C. L. (2015). "The Antibiotic Resistance Crisis, Part 1: Causes and Threats". Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 40 (4): 277–283. PMC   4378521 . PMID   25859123.
  39. US 3079746A,Jr Frederick C Field,published 1961-10-23
  40. US 3540924,Dow chemical Co,published 1967-12-15
  41. Wartell, MA; Kleinman, MT & Huey, BM (1999). Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces: Force Protection and Decontamination. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US).

Related Research Articles

Crochet is a process of creating textiles by using a crochet hook to interlock loops of yarn, thread, or strands of other materials. The name is derived from the French term croc, meaning 'hook'. Hooks can be made from a variety of materials, such as metal, wood, bamboo, bone or plastic. The key difference between crochet and knitting, beyond the implements used for their production, is that each stitch in crochet is completed before the next one is begun, while knitting keeps many stitches open at a time. Some variant forms of crochet, such as Tunisian crochet and broomstick lace, do keep multiple crochet stitches open at a time.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Knitting</span> Method of forming fabric

Knitting is a method for production of textile fabrics by interlacing yarn loops with loops of the same or other yarns. It is used to create many types of garments. Knitting may be done by hand or by machine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cotton</span> Plant fiber from the genus Gossypium

Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose, and can contain minor percentages of waxes, fats, pectins, and water. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will increase the dispersal of the seeds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Textile</span> Various fiber-based materials

Textile is an umbrella term that includes various fiber-based materials, including fibers, yarns, filaments, threads, different fabric types, etc. At first, the word "textiles" only referred to woven fabrics. However, weaving is not the only manufacturing method, and many other methods were later developed to form textile structures based on their intended use. Knitting and non-woven are other popular types of fabric manufacturing. In the contemporary world, textiles satisfy the material needs for versatile applications, from simple daily clothing to bulletproof jackets, spacesuits, and doctor's gowns.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yarn</span> Long continuous length of interlocked fibres

Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, used in sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, ropemaking, and the production of textiles. Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by hand or machine. Modern manufactured sewing threads may be finished with wax or other lubricants to withstand the stresses involved in sewing. Embroidery threads are yarns specifically designed for needlework. Yarn can be made of a number of natural or synthetic materials, and comes in a variety of colors and thicknesses. Although yarn may be dyed different colours, most yarns are solid coloured with a uniform hue.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Textile arts</span> Form of arts and crafts using fibers

Textile arts are arts and crafts that use plant, animal, or synthetic fibers to construct practical or decorative objects.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Darning</span> Sewing technique for repairing holes or worn areas in fabric or knitting using needle and thread

Darning is a sewing technique for repairing holes or worn areas in fabric or knitting using needle and thread alone. It is often done by hand, but using a sewing machine is also possible. Hand darning employs the darning stitch, a simple running stitch in which the thread is "woven" in rows along the grain of the fabric, with the stitcher reversing direction at the end of each row, and then filling in the framework thus created, as if weaving. Darning is a traditional method for repairing fabric damage or holes that do not run along a seam, and where patching is impractical or would create discomfort for the wearer, such as on the heel of a sock.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Textile industry</span> Industry related to design, production and distribution of textiles.

The textile industry is primarily concerned with the design, production and distribution of textiles: yarn, cloth and clothing. The raw material may be natural, or synthetic using products of the chemical industry.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Textile manufacturing</span> The industry which produces textiles

Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is largely based on the conversion of fibre into yarn, then yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into cloth which is then converted into useful goods such as clothing, household items, upholstery and various industrial products.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Stocking frame</span> Mechanical knitting machine

A stocking frame was a mechanical knitting machine used in the textiles industry. It was invented by William Lee of Calverton near Nottingham in 1589. Its use, known traditionally as framework knitting, was the first major stage in the mechanisation of the textile industry, and played an important part in the early history of the Industrial Revolution. It was adapted to knit cotton and to do ribbing, and by 1800 had been adapted as a lace making machine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Warp knitting</span> Manufacturing process

Warp knitting is defined as a loop-forming process in which the yarn is fed into the knitting zone, parallel to the fabric selvage. It forms vertical loops in one course and then moves diagonally to knit the next course. Thus the yarns zigzag from side to side along the length of the fabric. Each stitch in a course is made by many different yarns. Each stitch in one wale is made by several different yarns.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Selvage</span> Narrow edge of a woven fabric parallel to its length

A selvage or selvedge is a "self-finished" edge of a piece of fabric which keeps it from unraveling and fraying. The term "self-finished" means that the edge does not require additional finishing work, such as hem or bias tape, to prevent fraying.

The manufacture of textiles is one of the oldest of human technologies. To make textiles, the first requirement is a source of fiber from which a yarn can be made, primarily by spinning. The yarn is processed by knitting or weaving, which turns yarn into cloth. The machine used for weaving is the loom. For decoration, the process of colouring yarn or the finished material is dyeing. For more information of the various steps, see textile manufacturing.

The study of the history of clothing and textiles traces the development, use, and availability of clothing and textiles over human history. Clothing and textiles reflect the materials and technologies available in different civilizations at different times. The variety and distribution of clothing and textiles within a society reveal social customs and culture.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Finishing (textiles)</span> Manufacturing process

In textile manufacturing, finishing refers to the processes that convert the woven or knitted cloth into a usable material and more specifically to any process performed after dyeing the yarn or fabric to improve the look, performance, or "hand" (feel) of the finish textile or clothing. The precise meaning depends on context.

Textile manufacturing is one of the oldest human activities. The oldest known textiles date back to about 5000 B.C. In order to make textiles, the first requirement is a source of fibre from which a yarn can be made, primarily by spinning. The yarn is processed by knitting or weaving to create cloth. The machine used for weaving is the loom. Cloth is finished by what are described as wet process to become fabric. The fabric may be dyed, printed or decorated by embroidering with coloured yarns.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bolt (cloth)</span> Roll of fabric

A bolt is a piece of cloth woven on a loom or created by a knitting machine, as it is processed, stored and/or marketed. Consequently, its dimensions are highly variable – flexible and dependent upon the manufacturing, machinery, quantity, size, thickness and quality of the product. It is a unit used in manufacturing, transport and inventory. It is also used as a descriptor for wallpaper, which uses different fabrication machinery. Being encompassing, it is by its nature a generic and ambiguous term of convenience and context, used to describe fabric and wallpaper.

Sewing is the craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with needle and thread. Sewing is one of the oldest of the textile arts, arising in the Paleolithic Era. Although usually associated with clothing and household linens, sewing is used in a variety of crafts and industries, including shoemaking, upholstery, sailmaking, bookbinding and the manufacturing of some kinds of sporting goods. Sewing is the fundamental process underlying a variety of textile arts and crafts, including embroidery, tapestry, quilting, appliqué and patchwork.

Textile Engineering College, Chittagong is a college in Bangladesh, offering bachelor's degree in textile engineering. It is situated by the side of old Dhaka Trunk road which passes through Zorargonj, Mirsharai, Chittagong. It is one of the seven constituent textile engineering colleges of Bangladesh University of Textiles, which are collectively funded by the Department of Textiles.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Greige goods</span> Woven or knitted fabrics which are not yet dyed or finished.

Greige goods are loom state woven fabrics, or unprocessed knitted fabrics. Greige goods undergo many subsequent processes, for instance, dyeing, printing, bleaching, and finishing, prior to further converting to finished goods such as clothing, or other textile products. "Grey fabrics" is another term to refer to unfinished woven or knitted fabrics.


Further reading