Thong

Last updated

Women at a swimsuit competition wearing thongs. Group of young women in thong bikinis.jpg
Women at a swimsuit competition wearing thongs.

The thong is a garment generally used as either underwear or as a swimsuit in some countries. It may also be worn for traditional ceremonies or competitions.

Contents

Viewed from the front, the thong typically resembles a bikini bottom, but at the back the material is reduced to a minimum. Thongs are almost always designed to cover the genitals, anus and perineum and leave part or most of the buttocks uncovered. The back of the garment typically consists of a thin waistband and a thin strip of material, designed to be worn between the buttocks, that connects the middle of the waistband with the bottom front of the garment. [1] It is also used as a descriptive term in other types of garment, such as a bodysuit, bodystocking, leotard or one-piece swimsuit in the context "thong backed".

One type of thong is the G-string, the back of which consists only of a (typically elasticized) string. [2] The two terms G-string and thong are often used interchangeably; however, they can refer to distinct pieces of clothing. Thongs come in a variety of styles depending on the thickness, material or type of the rear portion of fabric and are available for both men and women throughout most of the world.

A tanga is a pair of briefs consisting of small panels connected by strings at the sides. There are tanga briefs both for men and for women. The style and the word come from Brazil.

Nomenclature

The origin of the word thong in the English language is from Old English þwong, a flexible leather cord. [3]

A man wearing a thong Man with string tanga - Kopie.jpg
A man wearing a thong

Many languages borrow the English word string to refer to this type of underwear, usually without the G. Another common name is tanga (or sometimes string tanga), especially in the German Tanga. A frequent metaphor, especially in Brazil, is dental floss; in Brazil a thong is called fio dental (Portuguese for dental floss); in English, the term "Butt floss" is sometimes used. In Lithuanian it is "siaurikės" ("narrows"), in Italian "perizoma" or "tanga", in Turkish "ipli külot" ("stringed underpants"), and in Bulgarian as "prashka" (прашка), which means a slingshot. In Israel the thong, mostly the G-string, is called Khutini (חוטיני), from the word Khut, which means String. Similarly, in Iran, it is called "Shortbandi" (شورت بندی) in which "short" (from English: Shorts) means "briefs" and "bandi" means "with a string". A Puerto Rican Spanish slang term, used by Reggaeton artists, is gistro. Australians often colloquially refer to the G-string as a g-banger or simply banger.

Some names for the thong make reference to the bareness of the buttocks, such as the Spanish word colaless. (The word's origin is probably connected to the English term "topless" but in reference to cola, a colloquial word meaning "butt" in South American Spanish.) In some other languages the "T"-like shape of the back is emphasised. In Chinese, the thong is commonly called dingziku (丁字褲/丁字裤) which literally means 丁 character pants (or roughly, T-letter pants). In Korean, it is called 티팬티 (T panty). The term "T-back" is sometimes used in English, as in the novel T-Backs, T-Shirts, COAT, and Suit by E. L. Konigsburg.

Thong vs. G-string

According to the Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion, "The G-string, or thong, [is] a panty front with a half- to one-inch strip of fabric at the back that sits between the buttocks", [4] and Knickers: a Brief History says: "Minor tweaks to the cut earned these skimpy panties different titles—from the thong, which has a one-inch strip of fabric down the back, to a G-string, which, as the name equivalent of Spanish suggests (hilo dental), is more like a string of fabric akin between the teeth." [5] Striptease: the Untold History of the Girlie Show says: "The thong [is] an undergarment derived from the stripper's G-string", [6] and according to Americanisms: the Illustrated Book of Words Made in the USA a G-string is "a thong panty consisting of a small triangular piece of fabric supported by two elastic straps. Attributed to strippers circa 1936". [7] The Heinemann English Dictionary defines "thong" as "a pair of underpants or swimming costume in a very skimpy style like a G-string". [8]

History

The thong, like its probable predecessor the loincloth, is believed to be one of the earliest forms of human clothing and is also thought to have been worn mostly or exclusively by men. It is thought the thong was probably originally developed to protect, support, or hide the male genitals. The loincloth is probably the earliest form of clothing used by mankind, having originated in the warmer climates of sub-Saharan Africa where clothing was first worn nearly 75,000 years ago. Many tribal peoples, such as some of the Khoisan people of southern Africa, wore thongs for many centuries. Much like the Japanese fundoshi, these early garments were made with the male genitalia in mind.

According to some fashion historians, the first public appearance of the thong in the United States was at the 1939 New York World's Fair. This resulted from Fiorello LaGuardia, the Mayor of New York City, ordering the city's nude dancers to cover themselves. [9] Jacques Heim's and Louis Réard's original bikini from 1946 (that introduced the term bikini) had a culotte with a thong back. Fashion designer Rudi Gernreich, who in the mid-1960s created the first topless swimsuit, which he called the monokini, is credited with introducing the modern thong in 1974 [10] [11] [12] [13] when he designed a thong bikini in response to a ban on nude sunbathing by the Los Angeles City Council.

Attitudes toward the wearing of g-strings vary geographically and across societies, as is usual with highly revealing clothing. Prior to its entrance into mainstream fashion, g-strings were primarily worn by exotic dancers. In the modern Western world, g-strings are more commonly marketed towards females but are worn by both sexes. During the 1980s, thongs were worn on stage by pop stars such as Cher and Madonna. [14] By the late-1980s, the style (for females) had made its way into most of the Western world; thong underwear became more popular through the 1990s due to TV shows such as: Baywatch , where numerous females were recorded wearing thong swimsuits.

In the 1990s, the thong began to gain wider acceptance and popularity in the United States as underwear (and, to a lesser extent, as swimwear), especially with women, but also men. In the US and Europe, the wearing of thongs by men was once mainly limited to the dance belt, the posing pouch for bodybuilders and the realm of male strippers. Men's thongs are now more widely available and commonly worn as day-to-day underwear or swimwear, with major retailers such as Kmart [15] and popular fashion brands such as Calvin Klein selling men's thongs. [16] Thongs are not marketed as strongly to men as they are to women; however, in Europe, thongs have been commonplace for many more years both as underwear and swimwear.

In the 2000s, some people wore thongs with low-cut hipsters and deliberately exposed them over the top of their trousers, producing an effect popularly known as a whale tail. This led to many thong designs intended to be worn in this manner, which were adorned with jewels and motifs on the back. In the early-2000s, thongs made up 31% of the women's underwear market. [14] However, in the late-2000s, the exposure of a thong above one's trousers became less popular and the trend turned to the wearing of lower-riding thongs that hardly show above trousers, except when bending or twisting.

Market research in 2011 placed the number of French women who wear thongs as their preferred underwear style at 25%, down by 5% from 2008. [17] [18] By 2016, sales of thongs in the UK were on the decline with Marks & Spencer, a major UK lingerie retailer, reporting that they made up fewer than 10% of knickers sold. [14] Many reasons exist as to why people may choose to wear thong underwear or swimwear, such as prevention of visible panty lines, [19] prevention of underwear "riding up" so one need not pull at one's underwear in public, comfort, fashion consciousness including the feeling of being more adult, [14] and minimization of tan lines. [20]

Design and variety

BacksSides
StrapTie-sideStrapless
Low
coverage
Underwear - V back, strap sides.png
V-string, T-front
Underwear - string back, tie sides.png
T-back
Maebari
Medium
coverage
Underwear - triangle back, strap sides.png
G-string
CStringIllustration.svg
C-string
High
coverage
Cheeky

Types of thongs include the traditional thong, the G-string, and the C-string. There are a number of intermediate kinds of thongs between full rear coverage and a string rear. As designs become more risqué there are also types intended to expose genitals as much as they conceal them. Other styles include the Cheeky, V-string, T-front and T-back. The naming of the intermediate styles of thong is debatable, different vendors use the words somewhat interchangeably. Thongs are available in a wide variety of materials, including silk, latex, cotton, microfiber, satin, nylon, lycra/spandex, and lace. There are also novelty designs for both sexes, featuring shapes to conform to the genitals or provide humorous visual effects.

The most significant difference between thongs designed for men and women is the shape of the front part of the garment. Often, but not always, thongs for men will feature a vertical seam to create shape and space for the male genitalia, and the pouch may be made of stretchy material (usually cotton-Lycra or microfiber) for an ergonomic fit. The equivalent section in women's thongs is normally flat and seamless. However, the fabric is usually thicker in the area where it covers the vulva (by incorporating a cotton gusset).

G-string

G-string (back) photomodel Jassi.jpg
Back-view
G-string (front) photomodel Jassi 1.jpg
Front-view

The V or G-string style consists of an elastic string (also a narrow piece of cloth, leather, or plastic) that connects the front/pouch and the waistband at back, worn as swimwear or underwear mostly by women, but also by men. Since the mid-1920s, strippers and exotic dancers in the West have been referring to the style of thongs they wore for their performances as G-strings.

Etymology

The origin of the term G-string is obscure. It may simply stand for 'Gusset' as the G-String is in effect just a gusset on a string. Since the 19th century, the term geestring referred to the string which held the loincloth of American Indians [21] and later referred to the narrow loincloth itself. William Safire in his Ode on a G-String quoted the usage of the word G-string for loincloth by Harper's Magazine 15 years after Beadle's and suggested that the magazine confused the word with the musical term G string (i.e., the string for the G note). Safire also mentions the opinion of linguist Robert Hendrickson that "G" (or "gee") stands for groin, which was a taboo word at the time. [22]

History

The g-string first appeared in costumes worn by showgirls in Earl Carroll's productions during the Jazz Age. Linguist Robert Hendrickson believes that the g stands for groin. [23] The Oxford English Dictionary reports that the G-string was originally a narrow strip of fabric worn by Indian women. During the Depression, a "G-string" was known as "the gadget". [23] During the 1930s, the "Chicago G-string" gained prominence when worn by performers like Margie Hart. The Chicago area was the home of some of the largest manufacturers of G-strings and it also became the center of the burlesque shows in the United States. [23]

Men's G-string

A g-string style consists of an elastic string (also a narrow piece of cloth, leather, or plastic) that connects the front/pouch and the waistband at back. A g-string's purpose may be worn in preference to briefs for avoiding a visible panty line, or to enhance sex-appeal. In the Tarzan novels of Edgar Rice Burroughs, Tarzan is described as wearing a G-string made of doe or leopard skin [24]

Other variants of women's thongs

VariantImageDescription
C-string
noborder C-string pink.jpg
noborder
As narrow as a G-string, but without the supporting "string" around the wearer's hips/panty line, leaving just a sideways C shaped piece between the legs. This is held in place firmly by a flexible internal frame. Since there is no material around the waist, the C-string completely eliminates the panty lines which thongs and other underwear create. C-strings are also designed for use as beachwear, which reduces the tan lines that would have been left by the side straps of even a G or V-String. [25]
Cheeky Delicious bikini-girl silvia (cropped).jpg A more conservative style called a cheeky covers a little more area, but exposes the bottom part of the buttocks. Some cheekies are used as undergarments while others function as bikini bottoms.
T-front T-front string underwear.jpg A type of G-string in which the string reaches also the front part. It provides no coverage while still maintaining the basic hygienic underwear functions. Usually it is built by strings only, sometimes with more fabric or lace around the waist. Certain designs cover the string with pearls for decoration and stimulation reasons. [26]
T-back Women on beach3670 cropped.jpg
V-string V-string.JPEG A type of G-string, introduced by Victoria's Secret, [27] in which the string is connected to the waistband by a triangle that is just above the buttocks. The string connects with the waistband directly to form a "V" shape at back.
Maebari Strapless Japanese loincloth garments in the form of an adhesive strip covering the genitalia. Maebari are attached like pasties and because they do not have a clamping frame extension past the perineum (unlike the c-string design) anus area is usually left exposed. Although conventional use for maebari in Japan is as underwear, in foreign swimwear designs named strapless bikini [28] or no string bikini [29] by various manufacturers, maebari-style bottoms are used with matching pasties (tops). As of 2014, designer Jenny Buettner and her brand Shibue Couture introduced an extension design of maebari (thus covering the anus) to the Western consumers under the moniker No-Line Strapless Panty. [30] [31] Positive reception by Kate Upton and Rosie Huntington-Whiteley has been reported. [31]

Men's thongs

VariantImageDescription
Kaupinam
noborder India wrestling akhara training.jpg
noborder
A traditional thong worn in India, [32] [33] by some men as a loincloth or underclothing. It is made up of rectangular strip of cotton cloth which is used to cover the genitals with the help of the strings connected to the four ends of the cloth for binding it around the waist of the wearer. It is used by wrestlers in the game of Kushti or traditional Indian wrestling in the Akhara (wrestling ring) and also during practice sessions and training.
Fundoshi Japanese traditional swimwear FUNDOSHI red rokushaku back photomodel fthong 1.jpg A traditional Japanese undergarment for adult males, made from a length of cotton. Before World War II, the fundoshi was the main form of underwear for Japanese adult males. However, it fell out of use quickly after the war with the introduction of new underwear to the Japanese market, such as briefs and trunks. Nowadays, the fundoshi is mainly used not as underwear but as festival ( matsuri ) clothing at Hadaka Matsuri or, sometimes, as swimwear. There are many other varieties of fundoshi as the variations on the principle of a loincloth are almost infinite. For example, the mokko-fundoshi (literally "earth-basket loincloth" because it looks like the traditional baskets used in construction) is made like the etchyuu-fundoshi but without a front apron; the cloth is secured to the belt to make a bikini effect. The kuro-neko fundoshi (literally "black cat fundoshi") is like the mokko-fundoshi except that the portion that passes from front to back is tailored to create a thong effect.
Jockstrap Jockstrap-20070208.jpg An undergarment designed for supporting the male genitalia during sports or other vigorous physical activity. It was created by Chicago sporting goods company Sharp & Smith in 1874. [34] Technically it is not a thong, as there is no narrow strap that passes up between the buttocks. A jockstrap consists of a waistband (usually elastic) with a support pouch for the genitalia and two elastic straps affixed to the base of the pouch and to the left and right sides of the waistband at the hip. [35] The pouch, in some varieties, may be fitted with a pocket to hold an impact resistant cup to protect the testicles and/or the penis from injury. Also known as a jock, jock strap, strap, supporter, or athletic supporter.
Dance belt Dance belt.JPG A type of thong designed to be used in the same manner as an athletic supporter, but for male dancers (especially in ballet). [36] Its purpose is to protect and support the dancer during dance activities without being seen through outer garments, such as tights, leotards, gym leggings or shorts. Thongs tend to offer better support for the male anatomy than do other underwear styles (as well as eliminating contact between the genitals and inner thighs) and is one of the reasons why men and boys may choose to wear them. [37]

Controversy

As thongs pass between the buttocks and, in women, may be in close contact with the anus and labia, concerns have been raised that they may become damp and act as a conduit for germ transfer, increasing the probability that the wearer may develop urinary tract infections, such as cystitis. [38] [39] [40] However, research suggests that wearing thong underwear does not have a statistically significant effect on the occurrence of bacterial vaginosis [41] or yeast infection. [42]

In 2002, a female high school vice principal in San Diego, California, physically checked up to 100 female students' underwear as they entered the school for a dance, with or without student permission, causing an uproar among students and some parents and eliciting an investigation by the school into the vice principal's conduct. In her defense, the vice principal said the checks were for student safety and not specifically because of the wearing of thongs. [43] [44] [45] [46] [47]

Of particular controversy is the retail by several outlets, including Abercrombie & Fitch, Argos and Etam, of thongs for children as young as seven, due to their previous association with nude or erotic dancers. This controversy spawned a great deal of attention for Abercrombie, including a chain letter that received wide circulation. [48] Media attention was drawn to the phenomenon when a British primary head teacher voiced concerns that pupils as young as ten were wearing thong underwear to school. [49]

Thong swimsuits are banned or strongly discouraged in some places, including most Muslim countries such as Iran. [50] [51] Areas in the United States include such locations as Myrtle Beach, South Carolina [52] and Kure Beach, North Carolina. [53]

See also

Related Research Articles

Bikini Two-piece womens swimwear

A bikini is typically a women's two-piece swimsuit featuring two triangles of fabric on top that cover the woman's breasts, similar to a bra, and two triangles of fabric on the bottom: the front covering the pelvis but exposing the navel, and the back covering the buttocks. The size of the top and bottom can vary, from bikinis that offer full coverage of the breasts, pelvis, and buttocks, to more revealing designs with a thong or G-string bottom that covers only the mons pubis, but exposes the buttocks, and a top that covers little more than the areolae.

Lingerie

Lingerie is a category of primarily women's clothing including undergarments, sleepwear, and lightweight robes. The specific choice of the word is often motivated by an intention to imply that the garments are alluring, fashionable or both. In a 2015 US survey 75% of women and 26% of men reported having worn sexy lingerie in their lifetime.

Leotard One-piece garment that covers the torso

A leotard is a unisex skin-tight one-piece garment that covers the body from the crotch to the shoulder. The garment was first made famous by the French acrobatic performer Jules Léotard (1838–1870). There are sleeveless, short-sleeved and long-sleeved leotards. A variation is the unitard, which also covers the legs.

Loincloth

A loincloth is a one-piece garment, sometimes kept in place by a belt. It covers the genitals and, at least partially, the buttocks.

Swimsuit Clothing worn for swimming

A swimsuit is an item of clothing designed to be worn by people engaging in a water-based activity or water sports, such as swimming, diving and surfing, or sun-orientated activities, such as sun bathing. Different types may be worn by men, women, and children. A swimsuit can be described by various names, some of which are used only in particular locations, including swimwear, bathing suit, swimming costume, bathing costume, swimming suit, swimmers, swimming togs, bathers, cossie, or swimming trunks for men, besides others.

Panties

Panties are a form of underwear primarily worn by women. Panties can be form-fitting or loose. Typical components include an elastic waistband, a crotch panel to cover the genitalia, and a pair of leg openings that, like the waistband, are often made of elastic. Various materials are used, but are usually chosen to be breathable.

G-string

A G-string is a type of thong, a narrow piece of fabric, leather, or satin that covers or holds the genitals, passes between the buttocks, and is attached to a waistband around the hips. A G-string can be worn both by men and by women. It may also be worn in swimwear, where it may serve as a bikini bottom, but may be worn alone as a monokini or topless swimsuit. G-strings may also be worn by exotic or go-go dancers. As underwear, a G-string may be worn in preference to panties to avoid creation of a visible panty line, or to briefs in order to enhance sex-appeal.

<i>Fundoshi</i>

Fundoshi is the traditional Japanese undergarment for adult males, made from a length of cotton. Before World War II, the fundoshi was the main form of underwear for Japanese adult males. However it fell out of use quickly after the war with the introduction of new underwear to the Japanese market, such as briefs and boxer briefs.

Boardshorts

Boardshorts are a type of swimwear and casual wear in the form of relatively long loose-fitting shorts that are designed to be quick-drying and are generally made from strong and smooth polyester or nylon material. Originally known as surf trunks, later as Jams, and occasionally in British English as swim shorts, boardshorts are a style of men's and, more recently, women's summerwear.

A teddy, also called a camiknicker, is a garment which covers the torso and crotch in the one garment. It is a similar style of garment to a one-piece swimsuit or bodysuit, but is typically looser and more sheer. The garment is put on by stepping into the leg holes and pulling the garment up to cover the torso. It may cover the whole of the torso or partially and may also cover the arms. They may open at the crotch for use with a commode, without the need to remove all clothing. As an undergarment, it combines the functions of a camisole and panties, and may be preferred to avoid a visible panty line. It is also found as lingerie.

Briefs

Briefs are a type of short, snug underwear and swimwear, as opposed to styles where material extends down the thighs.

French knickers are a type of women's underwear or lingerie. The term is predominantly used in the United Kingdom (UK) and Australia to describe a style of underpant that is similar in look to a pair of shorts. French knickers are worn from the hip, concealing some of the upper thigh and all of the buttocks. The garment features an "open leg" style that allows for a more comfortable fit and the straight-cut leg cuffs can be designed with or without trimming. The fabric is often bias cut.

Undergarment

Undergarments or underwear are items of clothing worn beneath outer clothes, usually in direct contact with the skin, although they may comprise more than a single layer. They serve to keep outer garments from being soiled or damaged by bodily excretions, to lessen the friction of outerwear against the skin, to shape the body, and to provide concealment or support for parts of it. In cold weather, long underwear is sometimes worn to provide additional warmth. Special types of undergarments have religious significance. Some items of clothing are designed as undergarments, while others, such as T-shirts and certain types of shorts, are appropriate both as undergarments and as outer clothing. If made of suitable material or textile, some undergarments can serve as nightwear or swimsuits, and some are intended for sexual attraction or visual appeal.

Bikini variants

The bikini has spawned many stylistic variations. A regular bikini is a two-piece swimsuit that together covers a female's crotch, buttocks, and breasts. Some bikini designs cover larger portions of the wearer's body while other designs provide minimal coverage. Topless variants are still sometimes considered bikinis, although they are technically not a two-piece swimsuit.

History of the bikini Aspect of history

Evidence of bikini-style women's clothing has been found as early as 5600 BC, and the history of the bikini can be traced back to that era. Illustrations of women wearing bikini-like garments during competitive athletic events in the Roman era have been found in several locations, the most famous of which is at Villa Romana del Casale.

Kaupinam

Kaupinam, kaupina or langot is an undergarment worn by Indian men as a loincloth or underclothing, usually by pehalwan exercising or sparring in dangal at traditional wrestling akharas. It is made up of a rectangular strip of cotton cloth used to cover the genitals with the help of the strings connected to the four ends of the cloth for binding it around the waist of the wearer. It is used by wrestlers in the game of Kushti or traditional Indian wrestling in the akhada and during practice sessions and training.

Underwear fetishism Sexual fetishism relating to undergarments

Underwear fetishism is a sexual fetishism relating to undergarments, and refers to preoccupation with the sexual excitement of certain types of underwear, including panties, stockings, pantyhose, bras, or other items. Some people can experience sexual excitement from wearing, while others get their excitement when observing, handling, or smelling the underwear worn by another, or watching somebody putting underwear on or taking it off.

Sling swimsuit

The sling swimsuit is a one-piece swimsuit which is supported by fabric at the neck. In practice, sling swimsuits provide as little or even less, coverage as a bikini. Monokini types also exist. The sling swimsuit is also known by a variety of names including "suspender bikini", "sling bikini", "slingkini", "suspender thong", "slingshot swimsuit" or just "slingshot". It is so named because of its resemblance to the Y-shape frame of a slingshot. It is sometimes listed as a bikini variant. When designed for or worn by a man, it is often called a "mankini".

History of swimwear traces the changes in the styles of men's and women's swimwear over time and between cultures, and touches on the social, religious and legal attitudes to swimming and swimwear.

The T-front is a garment generally worn as either underwear or as a swimsuit where the string reaches also the front part. It provides no coverage while still maintaining the basic hygienic underwear functions. T-fronts leave part or most of the genitals uncovered. The back forms usually a thong which typically consists of a thin waistband and a thin strip of material, designed to be worn between the buttocks, that connects the middle of the waistband with the front string of the garment. It is also used as a descriptive term in other types of garment, such as a bodysuit or leotard in the context "T-front thong".

References

  1. "Thong". Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 3 April 2008.
  2. Hydinger, Liss "Listen up, guys, here's a lingerie lingo lesson", Daily News of Los Angeles, 6 February 1992
  3. "Merriam-Webster online dictionary". M-w.com. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  4. Steele, Valerie (2005) Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons ISBN   0-684-31396-0; p. 121
  5. Tomczak, Sarah & Pask, Rachel (2004) Knickers: a Brief History. London: Allen & Unwin ISBN   1-74114-480-9
  6. Steir, Rachel (2004). Striptease: The Untold History of the Girlie Show. Oxford University Press. p. 417. ISBN   9780195127508.
  7. Luke, Gary & Quin, Susan R. (2003) Americanisms: the Illustrated Book of Words Made in the USA. Sasquatch Books ISBN   1-57061-385-0
  8. Heinemann Staff, Manser, Martin & Feinstein, Jessica (2001) Heinemann English Dictionary. London: Heinemann ISBN   0-435-10424-1; p. 1072
  9. Apsan, Rebecca (2012). Lessons in Lingerie: Finding Your Perfect Shade of Seduction. Workman Publishing. p. 87. ISBN   9780761175018.
  10. Moore, Booth (28 September 2001). "Fashion designer Rudi Gernreich defied haute-couture rules with socially aware clothes that said ..." latimes.
  11. Rothman, Lily (2 April 2012). "Rudi Gernreich – All-TIME Top 100 Icons in Fashion, Style and Design – TIME". TIME.com.
  12. "Reviving Rudi". The Advocate. Here. 25 September 2001.
  13. Beyerle, Tulga; Hirschberger, Karin (2006). A Century of Austrian Design: 1900-2005. Walter de Gruyter. p. 54. ISBN   9783034608893.
  14. 1 2 3 4 Claire Cohen (18 September 2017). "Good riddance to the thong! After decades of discomfort, women have finally cracked". The Telegraph. United Kingdom.
  15. "Joe Boxer Men's Thong Underwear - 4 Pack". Kmart.com.
  16. "Calvin Klein Micro Stretch 3-Pack Thong". Calvin Klein.
  17. "Male and female views on underwear". Womenology. aufeminin. 16 February 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  18. "L'avenir du string compromis face aux shorties et aux tangas". Terrafemina (in French). 15 January 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  19. Wallis, Claudia (6 October 2003). "The Thing About Thongs: Why the bottom line has become a battleground for parents of tweens". Time. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  20. Brooke Bobb (28 July 2017). "Would You Dare to Wear a Thong Bikini to the Beach?". Vogue. ...it is the perfect suit to avoid unnecessary tan lines.
  21. Beadler, John Hanson (1877) "Western Wilds, and the Men who Redeem Them: an authentic narrative" p. 249, digitized text at Google Books
  22. "On Language; Ode on a G-String", by William Safire, The New York Times , 4 August 1991
  23. 1 2 3 Rachel Shteir (1 November 2004). Striptease: The Untold History of the Girlie Show . Oxford University Press. p.  202. ISBN   978-0-19-512750-8 . Retrieved 10 March 2013.
  24. Ullery, David A., 1964- (2001). The Tarzan novels of Edgar Rice Burroughs : an illustrated reader's guide (1st ed.). Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN   978-0-7864-5095-4. OCLC   606500686.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  25. Cletus P. Stillwater, Jr. (9 May 2013). "The C-String Replaces the Thong Bikini as the Summer's Hottest Beachwear (Gallery + Video)". TMR Zoo.
  26. Cynthia Ejike. "Pearls Gone Wild: Can You Rock The Single Strand Pearl Thong?". Complete Fashion. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  27. Why the bikini became a fashion classic, BBC
  28. Pastease website - Strapless Bikini
  29. The Bikini website - No String Bikini gallery
  30. Shibue Story
  31. 1 2 Should you Shibue? Forget the C-String, it's time to get your knickers in a twist
  32. Mary Ellen Snodgrass, World of Clothing and Fashion, page 84, Routledge, 2015, ISBN   9781317451679
  33. Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi, Krishnavatara (Volume 6), page 25, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1971
  34. Kimmel, Michael; Milrod, Christine; Kennedy, Amanda (2014). Cultural Encyclopedia of the Penis. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 97. ISBN   9780759123144.
  35. "What's the difference between a jockstrap, thong and g-string?". VOCLA Style. 7 October 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  36. "Complete guide to dance belt". Dancebelt.info. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  37. "Studio Area Dress Codes". Beta.byui.edu. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  38. "Thongs – Do they cause UTIs or yeast infections?". Go Ask Alice!. columbia.edu. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  39. Karen J. Bannan (22 October 2003). "Your Intimate Gyno Questions Answered". Redbook.
  40. "Do Thongs Really Cause Yeast Infections? - Health & Fitness – The Hilltop – The Student Voice of Howard University". Thehilltoponline.com. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  41. Brotman RM, Ghanem KG, Klebanoff MA, Taha TE, Scharfstein DO, Zenilman JM (2008). "The effect of vaginal douching cessation on bacterial vaginosis: a pilot study". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 198 (6): 628.e1–7. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2007.11.043. PMC   2494605 . PMID   18295180.
  42. "Risk factors for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis" (PDF).[ dead link ]
  43. Eleanor Yang (5 June 2002). "2 on RB High staff faulted for checks of undergarments". SignOnSanDiego.com. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  44. Eleanor Yang (16 June 2002). "Demotion possible for assistant principal". SignOnSanDiego.com. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  45. "Assistant principal demoted after underwear check". USA Today. 18 June 2002. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  46. "CBS News". CBS News. 11 February 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  47. "Channel 10 news". 10news.com. 17 June 2002. Archived from the original on 20 November 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  48. "Break the Chain website". Breakthechain.org. 6 June 2002. Archived from the original on 8 December 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  49. "Pupils warned not to wear thongs". BBC News. 28 May 2003. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  50. Los Angeles Times (9 May 2006). "Iran Considering Law Against Western Attire". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 10 January 2009.
  51. Los Angeles Times (25 April 2007). "'Uncovered' women target of crackdown". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 10 January 2009.
  52. "About Our Beaches". Horry County Government. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  53. "North Carolina beach town bans thongs". CNN. 28 April 2010.