Scarf

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Man wearing a football-style warm woollen scarf and jacket Sigi Schmid Crew.jpg
Man wearing a football-style warm woollen scarf and jacket
Model wearing a modern colorful fashion scarf Woman wearing Colorful Fashion Scarf 2014.jpg
Model wearing a modern colorful fashion scarf

A scarf, plural scarves, is a piece of fabric worn around the neck or head for warmth, sun protection, cleanliness, fashion, or religious reasons or used to show the support for a sports club or team. They can be made in a variety of different materials such as wool, linen, silk or cotton. It is a common type of neckwear.

Contents

History

Scarves have been worn since ancient times. [1] The Statue of Ashurnasirpal II from the 9th century BC features the emperor wearing a shawl. In Ancient Rome, the garment was used to keep clean rather than warm. It was called a focale or sudarium (sudarium from the Latin for "sweat cloth"), and was used to wipe the sweat from the neck and face in hot weather. They were originally worn by men around their neck or tied to their belt.

Historians believe that during the reign of the Chinese Emperor Cheng, scarves made of cloth were used to identify officers or the rank of Chinese warriors.[ citation needed ]

In later times, scarves were also worn by soldiers of all ranks in Croatia around the 17th century. The only difference in the soldiers' scarves that designated a difference in rank was that the officers had silk scarves whilst the other ranks were issued with cotton scarves. Some of the Croatian soldiers served as mercenaries with the French forces. The men's scarves were sometimes referred to as "cravats" (from the French cravate, meaning "Croat"), and were the precursor of the necktie.[ citation needed ]

The scarf became a real fashion accessory by the early 19th century for both men and women. By the middle of the 20th century, scarves became one of the most essential[ citation needed ] and versatile clothing accessories for both men and women.

Uses and types

In cold climates, a thick knitted scarf, often made of wool, is tied around the neck to keep warm. This is usually accompanied by a heavy jacket or coat. Also, the scarf could be used to wrap around the face and ears for additional cover from the cold.

In drier, dustier warm climates, or in environments where there are many airborne contaminants, a thin headscarf, kerchief, or bandanna is often worn over the eyes and nose and mouth to keep the hair clean. Over time, this custom has evolved into a fashionable item in many cultures, particularly among women. The cravat, an ancestor of the necktie and bow tie, evolved from scarves of this sort in Croatia [ citation needed ]. [2]

In India, woollen scarfs with Bandhani work use tie and dye technique used commonly in Bhuj and Mandvi of the Kutch District of Gujarat State.

Scarves that are used to cover the lower part of face are sometimes called a cowl. Scarves can be colloquially called a neck-wrap.[ citation needed ]

Scarfs can be tied in many ways including the pussy-cat bow, the square knot, the cowboy bib, the ascot knot, the loop, the necktie, and the gypsy kerchief. [3] Scarfs can also be tied in various ways on the head.

In religious or cultural use

Several Christian denominations include a scarf known as a Stole as part of their liturgical vestments.

In uniforms

Silk scarves were used by pilots of early aircraft in order to keep oily smoke from the exhaust out of their mouths while flying. These were worn by pilots of closed cockpit aircraft to prevent neck chafing, especially by fighter pilots, who were constantly turning their heads from side to side watching for enemy aircraft. Today, military flight crews wear scarves imprinted with unit insignia and emblems not for functional reasons but instead for esprit-de-corps and heritage.

Students in the United Kingdom traditionally wear academic scarves with distinctive combinations of striped colours identifying their individual university or college.

Members of the Scouting movement wear a scarf-like item called a neckerchief as part of their uniform, which is sometimes referred to as a scarf. In some Socialist countries Young pioneers wore a neckerchief called a red scarf.

In sport

Portuguese football scarves held in a coordinated 'Scarf Wall' display, Euro 2004. Portugiesische Fans bei der Euro 2004.jpg
Portuguese football scarves held in a coordinated 'Scarf Wall' display, Euro 2004.
Grave of Liam Whelan, Glasnevin Cemetery, decorated with a Manchester United scarf. Football scarves often form part of memorials. Liam Whelan tombstone.jpg
Grave of Liam Whelan, Glasnevin Cemetery, decorated with a Manchester United scarf. Football scarves often form part of memorials.

Since at least the early 1900s, when the phenomenon began in Britain, coloured scarves have been traditional supporter wear for fans of association football teams across the world, even those in warmer climates. These scarves come in a wide variety of sizes and are made in a club's particular colours and may contain the club crest, pictures of renowned players, and various slogans relating to the history of the club and its rivalry with others. At some clubs supporters will sometimes perform a 'scarf wall' in which all supporters in a section of the stadium will stretch out their scarves above their heads with both hands, creating an impressive 'wall' of colour.

This is usually accompanied by the singing of a club anthem such as "You'll Never Walk Alone" at Liverpool F.C. [4] or "Grazie Roma" at A.S. Roma. This was initially solely a British phenomenon, but has since spread to the rest of Europe, North and South America. Some clubs supporters will perform a scarf 'twirl' or 'twirly' in which a group of supporters hold the scarves above their heads with one hand, and twirl the scarf, creating a 'blizzard' of colour. This is usually accompanied by a club anthem such as "Hey Jude" at Heart of Midlothian F.C.

Scarf wearing is also a noted feature of support for Australian rules football clubs in the Australian Football League. The scarves are in the form of alternating bars of colour, usually with the team name or mascot written on each second bar.

Manufacturing of scarves

The craft of knitting garments such as scarves is an important trade in some countries. Hand-knitted scarves are still common as gifts as well.

Printed scarves are additionally offered internationally through high fashion design houses. Among the latter are Burberry, Missoni, Alexander McQueen, Cole Haan, Chanel, Etro, Lanvin, Hermès, Nicole Miller, Ferragamo, Emilio Pucci, Dior, Fendi, Louis Vuitton and Prada.

There are three basic scarf shapes: square, triangular and rectangular. [3]

The main manufacturer of fashion scarves used today is China; India, Hong Kong and Indonesia close behind. The most common materials used to make fashion scarves are silk, fleece, cotton, Rayon, Viscose, modal and pashmina or other cashmere wool. This scarf standard size are size 50*180 cm, 70*180 cm, 100*180 cm Square -100*100 cm 90*90 cm this are comanly used in all over the world

See also

Related Research Articles

Kerchief Cloth tied around the head or neck; bandana

A kerchief, also known as a bandana or bandanna, is a triangular or square piece of cloth tied around the head, face or neck for protective or decorative purposes. The popularity of head kerchiefs may vary by culture or religion, and may vary among Orthodox Jewish and Orthodox Christian, Catholic, Amish, and Muslim people.

Neckerchief

A neckerchief, sometimes called a necker, kerchief or scarf, is a type of neckwear associated with those working or living outdoors, including farm labourers, cowboys and sailors. It is most commonly still seen today in the Scouts, Girl Guides and other similar youth movements. A neckerchief consists of a triangular piece of cloth or a rectangular piece folded into a triangle. The long edge is rolled towards the point, leaving a portion unrolled. The neckerchief is then fastened around the neck with the ends either tied or clasped with a slide or woggle.

Necktie Clothing item traditionally worn by men with a dress shirt

A necktie, or simply a tie, is a piece of cloth worn for decorative purposes around the neck, resting under the shirt collar and knotted at the throat, and often draped down the chest.

Bow tie Variety of necktie

The bow tie is a type of necktie. A modern bow tie is tied using a common shoelace knot, which is also called the bow knot for that reason. It consists of a ribbon of fabric tied around the collar of a shirt in a symmetrical manner, so that the two opposite ends form loops.

Cravat (early)

The cravat is a neckband, the forerunner of the modern tailored necktie and bow tie, originating from a style worn by members of the 17th century military unit known as the Croats. The modern British "cravat" is called an ascot in American English.

Stole (vestment) Long narrow cloth band worn around the neck and falling from the shoulders as part of ecclesiastical dress

The stole is a liturgical vestment of various Christian denominations. It consists of a band of colored cloth, formerly usually of silk, about seven and a half to nine feet long and three to four inches wide, whose ends may be straight or may broaden out. The center of the stole is worn around the back of the neck and the two ends hang down parallel to each other in front, either attached to each other or hanging loose. The stole is almost always decorated in some way, usually with a cross or some other significant religious design. It is often decorated with contrasting galloons and fringe is usually applied to the ends of the stole following Numbers 15:38–39. A piece of white linen or lace may be stitched onto the back of the collar as a sweat guard, which can be replaced more cheaply than the stole itself.

Headscarf

A headscarf is a scarf covering most or all of the top of a person's, usually women's, hair and head, leaving the face uncovered. A headscarf is formed of a triangular cloth or a square cloth folded into a triangle, with which the head is covered.

Woggle

A woggle is a device to fasten the neckerchief, or scarf, worn as part of the Scout or Girl Guides uniform, originated by a Scout in the 1920s.

1840s in Western fashion Costume and fashion of the 1840s

1840s fashion in European and European-influenced clothing is characterized by a narrow, natural shoulder line following the exaggerated puffed sleeves of the later 1820s and 1830s. The narrower shoulder was accompanied by a lower waistline for both men and women.

1850s in Western fashion Costume and fashion of the 1850s

1850s fashion in Western and Western-influenced clothing is characterized by an increase in the width of women's skirts supported by crinolines or hoops, the mass production of sewing machines, and the beginnings of dress reform. Masculine styles began to originate more in London, while female fashions originated almost exclusively in Paris.

1820s in Western fashion Costume and fashion of the 1820s

During the 1820s in European and European-influenced countries, fashionable women's clothing styles transitioned away from the classically influenced "Empire"/"Regency" styles of c. 1795–1820 and re-adopted elements that had been characteristic of most of the 18th century, such as full skirts and clearly visible corseting of the natural waist.

Bands (neckwear)

Bands are a form of formal neckwear, worn by some clergy and lawyers, and with some forms of academic dress. They take the form of two oblong pieces of cloth, usually though not invariably white, which are tied to the neck. When worn by clergy, they typically are attached to a clerical collar. The word bands is usually plural because they require two similar parts and did not come as one piece of cloth. Those worn by clergy are often called preaching bands or Geneva bands; those worn by lawyers are called barrister's bands or, more usually in Ireland and Canada, tabs. Preaching bands symbolize the two tablets of the Ten Commandments given by God to Moses.

Orenburg shawl

The Orenburg shawl is a Russian knitted lace textile using goat down and stands as one of the classic symbols of Russian handicraft, along with Tula samovars, the Matrioshka doll, Khokhloma painting, Gzhel ceramics, the Palekh miniature, Vologda lace, Dymkovo toys, Rostov finift (enamel), and Ural malachite.

Fichu Large, often sheer, square scarf or kerchief, folded diagonally into a triangle, worn by women tied, pinned or tucked into the bodice

A fichu is a large, square kerchief worn by women to fill in the low neckline of a bodice.

Neckwear refers to various styles of clothing worn around the (human) neck. They are worn for fashion, combat, or protection against the influences of weather. Common neckwear today includes bow ties, neckties (cravat), scarves, feather boas and shawls. Historically, ruffs and bands were worn.

Croatian national costume

Croatian national costume, also called as Croatian traditional clothing or Croatian dress, refers to the traditional clothing worn by Croats living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, with smaller communities in Hungary, Austria, Montenegro, and Romania. Since today Croats wear Western-style clothing on a daily basis, the national costumes are most often worn with connection to special events and celebrations, mostly at ethnic festivals, religious holidays, weddings, and by dancing groups who dance the traditional Croatian kolo, or circle dance.

1775–1795 in Western fashion Western fashion throughout the late 1700s

Fashion in the twenty years between 1775–1795 in Western culture became simpler and less elaborate. These changes were a result of emerging modern ideals of selfhood, the declining fashionability of highly elaborate Rococo styles, and the widespread embrace of the rationalistic or "classical" ideals of Enlightenment philosophes.

Kelaghayi Silk headscarf tradition of Azerbaijan and intangible cultural heritage

Kelaghayi, also known as "chargat", is a traditional Azerbaijani women's headgear. It is a square-shaped silk head scarf with special prints on it. In November 2014 at the 9th session of UNESCO's traditional art and symbolism of Kelaghayi, its production and the wearing were included in the list of intangible cultural heritage UNESCO.

Sudra (headdress) Ancient Jewish headdress

Sudra is a piece of cloth usually worn as a scarf or headdress as part of ancient Jewish tradition. Over time it held many different functions and today is sometimes understood to be of great cultural or religious significance to Jews. It is mentioned in various ancient and medieval Aramaic and Greek texts written in or about the Near East among them the Gospel of Luke from around 80–110 CE, the Peshitta from the 1st-2nd century, the Targum Neofiti from around the 1st-4th century, the Babylonian Talmud which was completed around 500 CE – this text makes numerous mentions of the sudra and is an important source for its role in Jewish life at the time – and the Targum Pseudo-Jonathan dated between the 4th century and the 14th century.

Keffiyeh Mans square headcloth

The keffiyeh or kufiya also known in Arabic as a ghutrah (غُترَة), shemagh, ḥaṭṭah (حَطَّة), and in Persian as a chafiyeh (چفیه), is a traditional Middle Eastern headdress, or what is sometimes called a habit.

References

  1. Mackrell, Alice (1986). Shawls, stoles, and scarves. London: Batsford. ISBN   0713448768.
  2. "Necktie." World of Invention, Gale, 2006. Biography In Context, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/CV1647500543/BIC?u=lom_waynesu&sid=BIC&xid=a9ae2de6. Accessed 1 Feb. 2019.
  3. 1 2 Perry, Patricia, (1971). "Everything About Sewing Ponchos Capes Scarves & Stoles", New York: Butterick Fashion Marketing Company. 70-169062
  4. "'You'll Never Walk Alone': The Power of a Song". FIFA. 21 December 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2018.