School colors are the colors chosen by a school to represent it on uniforms and other items of identification. Most schools have two colors, which are usually chosen to avoid conflicts with other schoolswith which the school competes in sports and other activities. The colors are often worn to build morale among the teachers and pupils, and as an expression of school spirit.
School colors are often found in pairs and rarely more than trios, though some professional teams use up to four colors in a set. The choice of colors usually follows the rule of tincture from heraldry, but exceptions to this rule are known.[ citation needed ]
Common primary colors include orange , purple , blue , red , and green. These colors are either paired with a color representing a metal (often black, brown, gray (or silver), white, or gold), or occasionally each other, such as "orange/blue", "red/green", or "blue/yellow". Pairing two metals, such as "black/white", "silver/gold", and especially "black/gold", is also a common practice. Finally, some American schools, in a display of patriotism, adopt the national colors of "red, white, or blue."
In an effort to further establish identity and promote a standard, many institutions often decree the use of specific shades of colors. Maroon, generally regarded as a darker shade of red, is a common primary color. Various shades of blue, from powder to Prussian, are also in use; a few schools have adopted two different shades of blue for their colors, with the darker shade serving as the primary. The shade of gold can vary greatly even within an institution, from a vivid yellow to a more convincing gold.[ citation needed ]
Black, white and gray are often used as neutral colors for sets that do not otherwise adopt them. This practice is especially notable in basketball (where home uniforms are often white) and professional baseball (where team colors are often used as trim for white or gray uniforms).[ citation needed ]
Most competitive teams keep two sets of uniforms, with one emphasizing the primary color and the other emphasizing the secondary color. In some sports, such as American football, the primary color is emphasized on home uniforms, while uniforms for other sports, notably basketball, use the secondary or a neutral color at home. This is done to avoid confusing the two schools' colors.
In addition, various groups that generate support for athletic teams, including cheerleaders and marching bands, wear uniforms with the colors of their school. At many private schools, or more traditional state schools, "school colors" are awards presented for achievement in a subject or a sport.[ citation needed ]
School colors have many non-athletic purposes as well. Members of a university's community will often display them as a sign of support or spirit for their particular institution. Likewise, during college or university ceremonies, those schools which award an academic hood to their students will generally abide by the American Council on Education guidelines and use the school colors on the inside and the disciplinary colors on the outside velvet trim (regardless of the ceremony, recipients of a degree have the right to wear the hood thereafter). Some doctoral robes will also be in the colors of the university which granted the degree.
British and Irish universities traditionally have an academic scarf in the university's colors, usually long, woollen and patterned only with lengthwise stripes of varying widths. At collegiate universities such as Oxford, Cambridge, Durham and Lancaster, each college has its own colors and scarf. Other non-collegiate universities such as Glasgow and Newcastle have scarf colors for each faculty.
Brown is a composite color. In the CMYK color model used in printing or painting, brown is made by combining red, black, and yellow, or red, yellow, and blue. In the RGB color model used to project colors onto television screens and computer monitors, brown is made by combining red and green, in specific proportions. In painting, brown is generally made by adding black to orange.
Gold, also called golden, is a color.
In the visual arts, color theory is a body of practical guidance to color mixing and the visual effects of a specific color combination. There are also definitions of colors based on the color wheel: primary color, secondary color, and tertiary color. Although color theory principles first appeared in the writings of Leone Battista Alberti and the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci, a tradition of "colory theory" began in the 18th century, initially within a partisan controversy over Isaac Newton's theory of color and the nature of primary colors. From there it developed as an independent artistic tradition with only superficial reference to colorimetry and vision science.
The colors of postage stamps are at once obvious, and among the most difficult areas of philately. Different denominations of stamps have been printed in different colors since the very beginning; as with their successors, postal clerks could distinguish the Penny Black and Two pence blue more quickly by color than by reading the value, and the practice generally continues today. In practice, the actual color of a stamp may vary, and while collectors will pay high prices for rare shades, it may not be easy to tell those apart from variations caused by age, light, chemicals, and other factors. Stamp colors are routinely described by color name rather with any sort of a numerical system like CMYK; several color guides showing a selection of colors have been produced, but are not especially popular with collectors.
Bay is a hair coat color of horses, characterized by a brown body color with a black mane, tail, ear edges, and lower legs. Bay is one of the most common coat colors in many horse breeds.
Maroon is a dark reddish purple or dark brownish red color that takes its name from the French word marron, or chestnut.
In many languages, the colors described in English as "blue" and "green" are colexified, i.e. expressed using a single cover term. To describe this English lexical gap, linguists use the portmanteau word grue, from green and blue, which the philosopher Nelson Goodman coined—with a different meaning—in his 1955 Fact, Fiction, and Forecast to illustrate his "new riddle of induction".
In color theory, a color scheme is the choice of colors used in design for a range of media. For example, the "Achromatic" use of a white background with black text is an example of a basic and commonly default color scheme in web design.
Chestnut is a hair coat color of horses consisting of a reddish-to-brown coat with a mane and tail the same or lighter in color than the coat. Chestnut is characterized by the absolute absence of true black hairs. It is one of the most common horse coat colors, seen in almost every breed of horse.
Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings. A specialized vocabulary has evolved to describe them.
In optics, orange has a wavelength between approximately 585 and 620 nm and a hue of 30° in HSV color space. In the RGB color space it is a secondary color numerically halfway between gamma-compressed red and yellow, as can be seen in the RGB color wheel. The complementary color of orange is azure. Orange pigments are largely in the ochre or cadmium families, and absorb mostly blue light.
In color theory, a tint is a mixture of a color with white, which reduces darkness, while a shade is a mixture with black, which increases darkness. Both processes affect the resulting color mixture's relative lightness. A tone is produced either by mixing a color with grey, or by both tinting and shading. Mixing a color with any neutral color reduces the chroma, or colorfulness, while the hue remains unchanged.
Varieties of the color green may differ in hue, chroma or lightness, or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are also called tints and shades, a tint being a green or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below.
Varieties of the color red may differ in hue, chroma or lightness, or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are also called tints and shades, a tint being a red or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below.
The uniforms of the United States Army distinguish soldiers from other service members. U.S. Army uniform designs have historically been influenced by British and French military traditions, as well as contemporary U.S. civilian fashion trends. The two primary uniforms of the modern U.S. Army are the Army Combat Uniform, used in operational environments, and the Army Service Uniform, worn during formal and ceremonial occasions.
Varieties of the color blue may differ in hue, chroma, or lightness, or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are also called tints and shades, a tint being a blue or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below.
Variations of gray or grey include achromatic grayscale shades, which lie exactly between white and black, and nearby colors with low colorfulness. A selection of a number of these various colors is shown below.
Brown is a composite color which can be produced by combining red, yellow, and black pigments, or by a combination of orange and black—as can be seen in the color box at right. The color brown shown at right has a hue code of 30, signifying that is a shade of orange. In the RGB color model used to create all the colors on computer and television screens, brown is made by combining red and green light at different intensities. Brown color names are often not very precise, and some shades, such as beige, can refer to a wide variety of colors, including shades of yellow or red. Browns are usually described as light or dark, reddish, yellowish, or gray-brown. There are no standardized names for shades of brown; the same shade may have different names on different color lists, and sometimes the one name can refer to several very different colors. The X11 color list of web colors lists seventeen different shades of brown, but the complete list of browns is much longer.
This article provides introductory information about the RGB, HSV, and HSL color models from a computer graphics perspective. An introduction to colors is also provided to support the main discussion.