Religious habit

Last updated
St. Anthony the Great, wearing the habit of a Coptic monk. StAnthony.jpg
St. Anthony the Great, wearing the habit of a Coptic monk.

A religious habit is a distinctive set of religious clothing worn by members of a religious order. Traditionally some plain garb recognizable as a religious habit has also been worn by those leading the religious eremitic and anchoritic life, although in their case without conformity to a particular uniform style.

Uniformity and distinctiveness by order often evolved and changed over time. Interpretation of terms for clothes in religious rules could change over centuries. Furthermore, every time new communities gained importance in a cultural area the need for visual separation increased for new as well as old communities. Thus, modern habits are rooted in historic forms, but do not necessarily resemble them in cut, colour, material, detail or use.

In Christian monastic orders of the Catholic, Lutheran and Anglican Churches, the habit often consists of a tunic covered by a scapular and cowl, with a hood for monks or friars and a veil for nuns; in apostolic orders it may be a distinctive form of cassock for men, or a distinctive habit and veil for women. Catholic Canon Law requires only that the garb of their members be in some way identifiable so that the person may serve as a witness of the Evangelical counsels.

In many orders, the conclusion of postulancy and the beginning of the novitiate is marked by a ceremony, in which the new novice is accepted as a novice and then clothed in the community's habit by the superior. In some cases the novice's habit will be somewhat different from the customary habit: for instance, in certain orders of women that use the veil, it is common for novices to wear a white veil while professed members wear black, or if the order generally wears white, the novice wears a grey veil. Among some Franciscan communities of men, novices wear a sort of overshirt over their tunic; Carthusian novices wear a black cloak over their white habit.

Buddhism

Monks from Central Asia and China wearing traditional kasaya; Bezeklik, Eastern Tarim Basin, China, 9th-10th century Central Asian Buddhist Monks.jpeg
Monks from Central Asia and China wearing traditional kāṣāya; Bezeklik, Eastern Tarim Basin, China, 9th–10th century

Kāṣāya (Sanskrit : काषाय, romanized: kāṣāya; Pali: kasāva; Chinese : 袈裟; pinyin : jiāshā; Cantonese Jyutping : gaa1saa1; Japanese : 袈裟 kesa; Korean : 袈裟 가사 gasa; Vietnamese : cà-sa), "chougu" (Tibetan) are the robes of Buddhist monks and nuns, named after a brown or saffron dye. In Sanskrit and Pali, these robes are also given the more general term cīvara, which references the robes without regard to color.

Origin and construction

An early representation of the Buddha wearing kasaya robes, in the Hellenistic style Gandhara Buddha (tnm).jpeg
An early representation of the Buddha wearing kāṣāya robes, in the Hellenistic style

Buddhist kāṣāya are said to have originated in India as set of robes for the devotees of Gautama Buddha. A notable variant has a pattern reminiscent of an Asian rice field. Original kāṣāya were constructed of discarded fabric. These were stitched together to form three rectangular pieces of cloth, which were then fitted over the body in a specific manner. The three main pieces of cloth are the antarvāsa, the uttarāsaṅga, and the saṃghāti. [1] Together they form the "triple robe", or tricīvara. The tricīvara is described more fully in the Theravāda Vinaya (Vin 1:94 289).

Uttarāsaṅga

A robe covering the upper body. It is worn over the undergarment, or antarvāsa. In representations of the Buddha, the uttarāsaṅga rarely appears as the uppermost garment, since it is often covered by the outer robe, or saṃghāti.

Saṃghāti

The saṃghāti is an outer robe used for various occasions. It comes over the upper robe (uttarāsaṅga), and the undergarment (antarvāsa). In representations of the Buddha, the saṃghāti is usually the most visible garment, with the undergarment or uttarāsaṅga protruding at the bottom. It is quite similar in shape to the Greek himation, and its shape and folds have been treated in Greek style in the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhāra.

Additions

Other items that may have been worn with the triple robe were:

  • a waist cloth, the kushalaka
  • a buckled belt, the samakaksika
Indian depiction of the Buddha wearing red robes; Sanskrit manuscript, Nalanda, Bihar, India, Pala period Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita Victory Over Mara.jpeg
Indian depiction of the Buddha wearing red robes; Sanskrit manuscript, Nālandā, Bihar, India, Pāla period

Kāṣāya in Indian Buddhism

In India, variations of the kāṣāya robe distinguished different types of monastics. These represented the different schools that they belonged to, and their robes ranged widely from red and ochre, to blue and black. [2]

Between 148 and 170 CE, the Parthian monk An Shigao came to China and translated a work which describes the color of monastic robes utilized in five major Indian Buddhist sects, called Dà Bǐqiū Sānqiān Wēiyí (Ch. 大比丘三千威儀). [3] Another text translated at a later date, the Śariputraparipṛcchā, contains a very similar passage corroborating this information, but the colors for the Sarvāstivāda and Dharmaguptaka sects are reversed. [4] [5]

NikāyaDà Bǐqiū Sānqiān WēiyíŚariputraparipṛcchā
Sarvāstivāda Deep RedBlack
Dharmaguptaka BlackDeep Red
Mahāsāṃghika YellowYellow
Mahīśāsaka BlueBlue
Kaśyapīya MagnoliaMagnolia

In traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, which follow the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya, red robes are regarded as characteristic of the Mūlasarvāstivādins. [6]

According to Dudjom Rinpoche from the tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, the robes of fully ordained Mahāsāṃghika monastics were to be sewn out of more than seven sections, but no more than twenty-three sections. [7] The symbols sewn on the robes were the endless knot (Skt. śrīvatsa) and the conch shell (Skt. śaṅkha), two of the Eight Auspicious Signs in Buddhism. [7]

Jiāshā in Chinese Buddhism

In Chinese Buddhism, the kāṣāya is called gāsā (Ch. 袈裟). During the early period of Chinese Buddhism, the most common color was red. Later, the color of the robes came to serve as a way to distinguish monastics, just as they did in India. However, the colors of a Chinese Buddhist monastic's robes often corresponded to their geographical region rather than to any specific schools. [2] By the maturation of Chinese Buddhism, only the Dharmaguptaka ordination lineage was still in use, and therefore the color of robes served no useful purpose as a designation for sects, the way that it had in India.

Kesa in Japanese Buddhism

Japanese Buddhist priest's mantle (kesa
), 1775-1825, LACMA textile collections JapaneseKesaofMabury.jpg
Japanese Buddhist priest's mantle (kesa), 1775–1825, LACMA textile collections

In Japanese Buddhism, the kāṣāya is known as the kesa (袈裟). In Japan, during the Edo and Meiji periods, kesa were sometimes pieced together from the theatrical kimono used in Noh theatre.

Christianity

Religious clothing includes habits Religious habits (Nouveaau Larousse,c. 1900) DSCN2871.jpg
Religious clothing includes habits

Catholicism

Pope John Paul II in his post-apostolic Exhortation Vita consecrata (1996) says concerning the religious habit of consecrated persons:

§25 [...] The Church must always seek to make her presence visible in everyday life, especially in contemporary culture, which is often very secularized and yet sensitive to the language of signs. In this regard the Church has a right to expect a significant contribution from consecrated persons, called as they are in every situation to bear clear witness that they belong to Christ.

Since the habit is a sign of consecration, poverty and membership in a particular Religious family, I join the Fathers of the Synod in strongly recommending to men and women religious that they wear their proper habit, suitably adapted to the conditions of time and place.

Where valid reasons of their apostolate call for it, Religious, in conformity with the norms of their Institute, may also dress in a simple and modest manner, with an appropriate symbol, in such a way that their consecration is recognizable.

Institutes which from their origin or by provision of their Constitutions do not have a specific habit should ensure that the dress of their members corresponds in dignity and simplicity to the nature of their vocation.

Nuns

A nun of the Poor Clares of Perpetual Adoration in her cloister Klaryska.JPG
A nun of the Poor Clares of Perpetual Adoration in her cloister
Traditional Catholic nuns Briullov Monakhini monastyria Sviatogo Serdtsa v Rime, poiushchie u organa.jpg
Traditional Catholic nuns

The religious habits of Catholic nuns typically consist of the following elements:

  • Tunic: This is the central piece of the habit. It is a loose dress made of serge fabric pleated at the neck and draping to the ground. It can be worn pinned up in the front or in the back to allow the nun to work.
  • Scapular : This symbolic apron hangs from both front and back; it is worn over the tunic, and Benedictine nuns also wear it over the belt, whereas some other orders wear it tied under the belt.
  • Cincture: The habit is often secured around the waist with a belt of leather, wool or a lanyard. The cincture of the Franciscan orders has three (or four) knots standing for the vows.
  • Coif : This is the garment's headpiece and includes the white cotton cap secured by a bandeau and a white wimple (to cover the neck and cheeks) and guimpe (to cover the chest, similar to a short cape) of starched linen, cotton, or (today) polyester. It is sometimes covered by a thin layer of black crêpe.
  • Veil : This element is worn pinned over the coif head coverings. Some veils can be worn down to cover the face or up to expose it. The veil sometimes includes a white underveil as well. The colour of the veil depends as well from the habit of the order and the status of the sister or nun (novices or postulants wear differently coloured veils than the professed sisters and nuns).

The coif and veil were common items of clothing for married women in medieval Europe.[ citation needed ]

Different orders adhere to different styles of dress; these styles have changed over time.

Sisters

Sisters of the Daughters of Mary in traditional habit Sisters (Daughters of Mary) Roman Catholic Singing.jpg
Sisters of the Daughters of Mary in traditional habit
Missionaries of Charity sisters in Haiti, wearing the order's traditional white sari with blue stripes Missionaries of Charity in Haiti.jpg
Missionaries of Charity sisters in Haiti, wearing the order's traditional white sari with blue stripes

Historically, the religious habit of Catholic sisters was a visible sign of a woman's consecration to God. [8] Different orders adhere to different styles of dress; these styles have changed over time. For example, in former times, the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul wore a cornette instead of a veil. Due the ecclesiastical document Perfectae caritatis , many congregations decided to simplify their habits, to conform to the attire of the culture they are working in, or to even discard their use entirely.

While styles vary, for those wearing the traditional habit, three pieces are consistently worn: tunic (robe), belt/cincture, veil. The habit of some Dominican Sisters consists of a tunic, belt (cincture), scapular, veil, rosary, and on formal occasions a cappa (mantle). [9] Even for orders that have chosen not to wear a habit, these sisters often share a common appearance: calf-length skirt, blouse or sweater, visible cross necklace.

Monks

Carthusian monks of the Chartreuse de Portes Monks Chartreuse de Portes.jpg
Carthusian monks of the Chartreuse de Portes

Monks in the Catholic church wear a tunic, a cincture, a hooded scapular, and, for the Liturgy of the Hours, a mantle (novices) or a cowl (professed monks).[ citation needed ]

Friars

Canons regular

Owing to the different traditions and origins that exist, there is no singular common habit worn by the Canons Regular. Historically the common habit was the distinctive white cassock, with white fascia, over time some communities of Canons have changed to wearing the black cassock with black fascia. The only item of the habit that is common to all Canons is the linen rochet a mark of the canonical status.

In the Netherlands, some wore a cacullae (a small asymmetrical black cope of cloth or sheepskin.) Some communities of canons, notably in Austria and Switzerland wear a sarotium, coming from the Latin sacrum rochettum, 'the sacred rochet'. It is a thin band of linen worn over the cassock when not in choir. As part of their choir dress, some communities of Canons wear a mozzetta, either black or purple over the rochet.

Outdoors Canons wear a black cloak and hood, but again adaptations have been made to this in some of the communities. Canons also traditionally wore a biretta.

Clergy

Usually, secular priests wear either a black cassock or an ordinary men's garb in black or another dark color along with a white clerical collar. White cassocks or clothes may be worn in hot climates. Also, a ferraiolo (a kind of cope) could be worn along with the cassock. Priests also traditionally wore a biretta along with the cassock.

Deacons, priests, and bishops belonging to religious institutes wear the habit of their institute.

Abbot or cardinal

Latin Church clergy other than bishops, in particular any who are abbots or apostolic prefects or ordinary of a personal ordinariate, may wear pontifical items. Mitre, crosier and ring are bestowed on an abbot at his blessing and the pectoral cross is a customary part of an abbatial habit.[ citation needed ]

Lutheranism

In Lutheranism, various religious orders have a habit of a different colour. The Daughters of Mary wear a blue habit. [10]

Anglicanism

Eastern Orthodoxy

The Analavos, worn by Orthodox monks and nuns of the Great Schema Megaloschema.svg
The Analavos, worn by Orthodox monks and nuns of the Great Schema

The Eastern Orthodox Church does not have distinct religious orders such as those in the Catholic Church. The habit (Greek : Σχήμα, romanized: Schēma) is essentially the same throughout the world. The normal monastic color is black, symbolic of repentance and simplicity. The habits of monks and nuns are identical; additionally, nuns wear a scarf, called an apostolnik. The habit is bestowed in degrees, as the monk or nun advances in the spiritual life. There are three degrees: (1) the beginner, known as the Rassaphore ('robe bearer') (2) the intermediate, known as the Stavrophore ('cross bearer'), and (3) the Great Schema worn by Great Schema Monks or Nuns. Only the last, the Schemamonk or Schemanun, the monastic of the highest degree, wears the full habit.

The habit is formally bestowed upon monks and nuns at the ceremony known as the tonsure (Greek κουρά). The parts of the Eastern Orthodox habit are:

St. Tikhon of Moscow wearing the patriarchal white koukoulion Tikhon of Moscow.jpg
St. Tikhon of Moscow wearing the patriarchal white koukoulion

The portions of the habit worn by the various degrees of monastics is as follows:

RasophoreStavrophoreGreat Schema
Inner RasonInner RasonInner Rason
BeltBeltBelt
ParamandParamand
Outer RasonOuter RasonOuter Rason
Analavos
Mantle (Russian use only)Mantle
Polystavrion
KalymafkiKalymafkiKoukoulion

Hinduism

In Hinduism, Religious clothing is a huge element of an individual’s life. Most Hindus are known to wear a religious pendant in their daily life to show their faith in God. Hindu women cover their heads with scarf as a sign of respect for not only religion but also their husbands.

In India, Most devoted Hindus are seen wearing a tilak & orange clothing depicting devotion to their religion. Most Hindu Pandits are either seen in a white or orange (kesari) religious clothing in India.

Brahmin Hindus are most known for their devotion to the religion among all Hindus. And they are seen wearing religious habits at various important moments in their life.

Overall, Religious Habits are still in heavy practice among hindus which ties the religion together & maintains their strength.

Islam

Islam does not have religious habits or monastic orders. Muslim ascetics do not have particular uniforms, but rather dress in humble clothing appropriate to their era and region. To read about Islamic dress, see Islamic clothing.

Jainism

Female ascetics and Svetambara male monks always wear un-stitched or minimally stitched white clothes. Digambara Jain monks do not wear clothes. A loin cloth which reaches up to the shins is called a Cholapattak. Another cloth to cover the upper part of the body is called Pangarani (Uttariya Vastra). A cloth that passes over the left shoulder and covers the body up to a little above the ankle is called a Kïmli. Kïmli is a woolen shawl. They also carry a woolen bed sheet and a woolen mat to sit on. Those who wear clothes have a muhapati, which is a square or rectangular piece of cloth of a prescribed measurement, either in their hand or tied on their face covering the mouth. Svetambara ascetics have an Ogho or Rajoharan (a broom of woolen threads) to clean insects around their sitting place or while they are walking. Digambara ascetics have a Morpichhi and a Kamandal in their hands. This practice may vary among different sects of Jains but essential principle remains the same to limit needs.

Judaism

Shinto

In Japan, various types of very traditional dress are worn by Shinto priests, often dating to styles worn by nobles during the Nara period or Heian period.

Hakama () are a type of traditional Japanese clothing, originally worn only by men, but today they are worn by both sexes. There are two types, divided umanori (馬乗り, "horse-riding hakama") and undivided andon bakama (行灯袴, "lantern hakama"). The umanori type have divided legs, similar to trousers, but both types appear similar. Hakama are tied at the waist and fall approximately to the ankles, and are worn over a kimono (hakamashita), with the kimono then appearing like a shirt.

A Jōe (浄衣) is a garment worn in Japan by people attending religious ceremonies and activities, including Buddhist and Shinto related occasions. Not only Shinto and Buddhist priests can be found wearing Jōe at rituals, but laymen as well, for example when participating in pilgrimage such as the Shikoku Pilgrimage. The garment is usually white or yellow and is made of linen or silk depending on its kind and use. The Shinto priest who wears the jōe is attired in a peaked cap called tate-eboshi, an outer tunic called the jōe proper, an outer robe called jōe no sodegukuri no o, an undergarment called hitoe, ballooning trousers called sashinuki or nubakama, and a girdle called jōe no ate-obi.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nun</span> Member of a religious community of women

A nun is a woman who vows to dedicate her life to religious service and contemplation, typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience in the enclosure of a monastery or convent. The term is often used interchangeably with religious sisters who do take simple vows but live an active vocation of prayer and charitable work.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mantle (monastic vesture)</span> Ecclesiastical overgarment

A mantle is an ecclesiastical garment in the form of a very full cape that extends to the floor, joined at the neck, that is worn over the outer garments. Especially in the case of Elijah, it was likely a tallit, a Hebrew garment that housed the fringes still seen today which are also translated at “the hem of His garment” in the New Testament. It is also likely that further ecclesiastical garments were based originally on this one.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Draped garment</span> Any item of clothing made from a length of cloth wrapped, folded, pinned, or tied around the body

A draped garment is a garment that is made of a single piece of cloth that is draped around the body; drapes are not cut away or stitched as in a tailored garment. Drapes can be held to the body by means of knotting, pinning, fibulae, clasps, sashes, belts, tying drawstrings, or just plain friction and gravity alone. Many draped garments consist of only one single piece.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cassock</span> Christian clerical coat

The cassock or soutane is a Christian clerical clothing coat used by the clergy and male religious of the Oriental Orthodox Churches, Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church, in addition to some clergy in certain Protestant denominations such as Anglicans and Lutherans. "Ankle-length garment" is the literal meaning of the corresponding Latin term, vestis talaris. It is related to the habits traditionally worn by nuns, monks, and friars.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vestment</span> Clothing prescribed for clergy performing specific roles

Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religion, especially by Eastern Churches, Catholics, Lutherans, and Anglicans. Many other groups also make use of liturgical garments; among the Reformed (Calvinist) Churches this was a point of controversy in the Protestant Reformation and sometimes since, in particular during the ritualist controversies in the Church of England in the 19th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Monk</span> Member of a monastic religious order

A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism by living a monastic lifestyle, either alone or with any number of other monks. A monk may be a person who decides to dedicate his life to serving other people and serving God, or to be an ascetic who voluntarily chooses to leave mainstream society and live his life in prayer and contemplation. The concept is ancient and can be seen in many religions and in philosophy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bhikkhu</span> Buddhist monk

A bhikkhu is an ordained male in Buddhist monasticism. Male and female monastics are members of the Sangha.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Scapular</span> Short cloak or cloth pieces, worn with ecclesiastical dress

A scapular is a Western Christian garment suspended from the shoulders. There are two types of scapulars, the monastic and devotional scapular; both forms may simply be referred to as "scapular". As an object of popular piety, a scapular serves to remind wearers of their commitment to live a Christian life.

A novice is a person who has entered a religious order and is under probation, before taking vows. A novice can also refer to a person who is entering a profession with no prior experience.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Girdle</span> Belt, esp. as a liturgical vestment

A belt without a buckle, especially if a cord or rope, is called a girdle in various contexts, especially historical ones, where girdles were a very common part of everyday clothing from antiquity until perhaps the 15th century, especially for women. Most girdles were practical pieces of costume to hold other pieces in place, but some were loose and essentially for decoration. Among the elite these might include precious metals and jewels.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Geneva gown</span> Ecclesiastical garment

The Geneva gown, also called a pulpit gown, pulpit robe, or preaching robe, is an ecclesiastical garment customarily worn by ordained ministers and accredited lay preachers in the Christian churches that arose out of the historic Protestant Reformation. It is particularly associated with Protestant churches of the Reformed, Methodist, Unitarian and Free Christian traditions.

Lay brother is a largely extinct term referring to religious brothers, particularly in the Catholic Church, who focused upon manual service and secular matters, and were distinguished from choir monks or friars in that they did not pray in choir, and from clerics, in that they were not in possession of holy orders.

Investiture is a formal installation or ceremony that a person undergoes, often related to membership in Christian religious institutes as well as Christian knighthoods or damehoods, in addition to government offices.

A cowl is an item of clothing consisting of a long, hooded garment with wide sleeves, often worn by monks.

Clerical clothing is non-liturgical clothing worn exclusively by clergy. It is distinct from vestments in that it is not reserved specifically for use in the liturgy. Practices vary: clerical clothing is sometimes worn under vestments, and sometimes as the everyday clothing or street wear of a priest, minister, or other clergy member. In some cases, it can be similar or identical to the habit of a monk or nun.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Choir dress</span> Formal religious clothing

Choir dress is the traditional vesture of the clerics, seminarians and religious of Christian churches worn for public prayer and the administration of the sacraments except when celebrating or concelebrating the Eucharist. It differs from the vestments worn by the celebrants of the Eucharist, being normally made of fabrics such as wool, cotton or silk, as opposed to the fine brocades used in vestments. It may also be worn by lay assistants such as acolytes and choirs. It was abandoned by most of the Protestant churches that developed from the sixteenth-century Reformation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Upāsaka</span> Lay followers of Buddhism, not monks or nuns

Upāsaka (masculine) or Upāsikā (feminine) are from the Sanskrit and Pāli words for "attendant". This is the title of followers of Buddhism who are not monks, nuns, or novice monastics in a Buddhist order, and who undertake certain vows. In modern times they have a connotation of dedicated piety that is best suggested by terms such as "lay devotee" or "devout lay follower".

<i>Kasaya</i> (clothing) Buddhist Cassock worn by fully-ordained Buddhist monks and nuns

Kāṣāya are the robes of fully ordained Buddhist monks and nuns, named after a brown or saffron dye. In Sanskrit and Pali, these robes are also given the more general term cīvara, which references the robes without regard to color.

The degrees of Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic monasticism are the stages an Eastern Orthodox monk or nun passes through in their religious vocation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zhiduo (clothing)</span> A traditional Chinese robe for men and Buddhist monks

Zhiduo, also known as zhishen when it is decorated with outside pendulums, and haiqing, refers to two types of traditional changyi or paofu which were worn as outer robes by men in the broad sense; i.e. the casual zhiduo in Hanfu and the priests’ zhiduo, in the broad sense. As a specific term, the zhiduo refers to the former. The zhiduo was also called daopao by Wang Zhishen in the Ming dynasty although the daopao refers to another kind of paofu. Nowadays, the haiqing is sometimes referred as daopao. In present days Taiwan, the haiqing is also worn by the Zhenyi Taoist priests. The term "haiqing" can also be a specific term which refers to the long black or yellow robe worn by Buddhist monks.

References

  1. Kieschnick, John. The Impact of Buddhism on Chinese Material Culture. Princeton University Press, Oxfordshire, 2003. p. 90.
  2. 1 2 Kieschnick, John. The Impact of Buddhism on Chinese Material Culture. Princeton University Press, Oxfordshire, 2003. p. 89.
  3. Hino, Shoun. Three Mountains and Seven Rivers. 2004. p. 55
  4. Hino, Shoun. Three Mountains and Seven Rivers. 2004. pp. 55–56
  5. Sujato, Bhante (2012), Sects & Sectarianism: The Origins of Buddhist Schools, Santipada, p. i, ISBN   9781921842085
  6. Mohr, Thea. Tsedroen, Jampa. Dignity and Discipline: Reviving Full Ordination for Buddhist Nuns. 2010. p. 266
  7. 1 2 Dudjom Rinpoche Perfect Conduct: Ascertaining the Three Vows. 1999. p. 16
  8. "Why do nuns (and monks) wear habits?". Aleteia — Catholic Spirituality, Lifestyle, World News, and Culture. 2020-07-09. Retrieved 2024-02-15.
  9. "Our Religious Habit". Dominican Sisters. Retrieved 2021-02-08.
  10. DuBois, Thomas A. (12 December 2017). Sacred to the Touch: Nordic and Baltic Religious Wood Carving. University of Washington Press. p. 90. ISBN   978-0-295-74242-7.
  11. Matthew 11:29–30

Further reading