|President of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal |
सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपालको राष्ट्रपति
|Style||The Right Honourable|
|Term length||Five years|
renewable once, consecutively
|Inaugural holder||Ram Baran Yadav|
|Formation||28 May 2008|
|Deputy||Vice President of Nepal|
|Salary||NPR 1,09,410 (monthly)|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The President of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (Nepali : नेपालको राष्ट्रपति, Nēpālakō rāṣṭrapati) is the head of state of Nepal and commander in chief of the Nepalese Armed Forces. The office was created in May 2008 after the country was declared as a republic. The first President of Nepal was Ram Baran Yadav. The current president is Bidhya Devi Bhandari, elected in October 2015. She is the first female Nepali head of state. The President is to be formally addressed as "The Right Honourable" (Nepali : सम्माननीय, Sam'mānanīya).
Nepali, known by the endonym Khas Kura also known as Gorkhali or Parbatiya, is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari. It is the official language of Nepal and one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. It is spoken mainly in Nepal and by about a quarter of the population in Bhutan. In India, Nepali is listed in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution as an Indian language, with official status in the state of Sikkim, and spoken in Northeast Indian states such as Assam and in West Bengal's Darjeeling district. It is also spoken in Burma and by the Nepali diaspora worldwide. Nepali developed in proximity to a number of Indo-Aryan languages, most notably the other Pahari languages and Maithili, and shows Sanskrit influence. However, owing to Nepal's location, it has also been influenced by Tibeto-Burman languages. Nepali is mainly differentiated from Central Pahari, both in grammar and vocabulary, by Tibeto-Burman idioms owing to close contact with this language group.
A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.
The Nepalese Armed Forces are the military forces of Nepal. The current Nepalese Army traces its direct historic roots from the Royal Nepalese Army, renamed in recognition of Nepal's transition from a monarchy to a popularly elected republic in 2006. Composed primarily of the ground-based Nepalese Army, organized into six active combat divisions, the Nepalese Armed Forces also operates the smaller Nepalese Army Air Service designed to support army operations and provide close light combat support. The Nepalese Army also operates smaller formations responsible for the organization of air defense, logistics, military communications, artillery, and airborne forces within Nepalese territory. In addition, the Nepalese Armed Police Force acts as a paramilitary force tasked with maintaining internal security within Nepal.
Under the Interim Constitution adopted in January 2007, all powers of governance were removed from the King of Nepal, and the Nepalese Constituent Assembly elected in the 2008 Constituent Assembly election was to decide in its first meeting whether to continue the monarchy or to declare a republic. During the suspension of the monarchy, Girija Prasad Koirala, then Prime Minister of Nepal, acted as Head of State. On 28 May 2008, the Assembly voted to abolish the monarchy. Dr. Ram Baran Yadav won the historic election from the Constituent Assembly, and was sworn in as the nation's first president ending a 247 year old monarchy.
Constitution of Nepal 2015 is the present governing Constitution of Nepal. Nepal is governed according to the Constitution which came into effect on Sept 20, 2015, replacing the Interim Constitution of 2007. The constitution of Nepal is divided into 35 parts, 308 Articles and 9 Schedules.
The King of Nepal was Nepal's head of state and monarch from 1768 to 2008. He served as the head of the Nepalese monarchy—Shah Dynasty. The monarchy was abolished on 28 May 2008 by the 1st Constituent Assembly. The subnational monarchies in Mustang, Bajhang, Salyan, and Jajarkot were also abolished in October.
Nepal Ratna Girija Prasad Koirala, affectionately known as Girija Babu, also known as G.P. Koirala, was a Nepalese politician. He headed the Nepali Congress and served as the Prime Minister of Nepal on four occasions, including from 1991 to 1994, 1998 to 1999, 2000 to 2001, and from 2006 to 2008. He was the Acting Head of State of Nepal between January 2007 and July 2008 as the country transitioned from a monarchy to a republic.
The President is elected by an electoral college comprising the Parliament of Nepal and the members of the provincial legislatures. A law shall determine the weight of each of their votes.
Whoever receives a majority of the delegates' votes is elected. If no one receives a majority in the first round, runoffs are held between the top two candidates until one receives a majority.
The presidential term is five years. A President may be elected any number of times, but not more than twice in succession.
The President's powers are almost entirely ceremonial. In some parliamentary republics, the president is vested with executive powers on paper, but is bound by convention to act on the advice of the prime minister and the government. In Nepal, however, the President is not even the nominal chief executive, as the Constitution explicitly vests executive power in the Council of Ministers and the Prime Minister.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature. There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies. Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems, but with a dependency upon parliamentary power.
A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state. In some states, notably those Commonwealth of Nations states that follow the Westminster system and whose political systems derive from British constitutional law, most government functions are guided by constitutional convention rather than by a formal written constitution. In these states, actual distribution of power may be markedly different from those the formal constitutional documents describe. In particular, the formal constitution often confers wide discretionary powers on the head of state that, in practice, are used only on the advice of the head of government, and in some cases not at all.
|Portrait||Party||Elected||Took office||Left office||Vice President||Votes|
|1|| Ram Baran Yadav |
|Nepali Congress||2008||23 July 2008||29 October 2015||Parmanand Jha|
308 / 601
|2|| Bidhya Devi Bhandari |
| Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist)/|
Nepal Communist Party
|2015||29 October 2015||14 March 2018||Nanda Kishor Pun|
327 / 601
|2018||14 March 2018||Incumbent |
(Term expires on 14 March 2023)
39,275 / 52,569
The position of Vice President of Nepal constitutes the deputy head of state of Nepal and was created when the Nepalese monarchy was abolished in May 2008. The current vice-president of Nepal is Nanda Kishor Pun. The vice president is to be formally addressed as 'His Excellency'.
The politics of Nepal function within a framework of a republic with a multi-party system. Currently, the position of President of Nepal is occupied by Bidhya Devi Bhandari. The position of Prime Minister is held by Khadga Prasad Oli. Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and his cabinet, while legislative power is vested in the Parliament.
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev reigned as the last King of Nepal from 2001 to 2008 and is also known as the world's last Hindu King. His reign had begun due to the 2001 Nepalese royal massacre.
The President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state, head of government and the commander-in-chief of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) under the Constitution of South Africa. From 1961 to 1994, the head of state was called the State President.
The Nepali Congress is a social-democratic political party in Nepal. It is the largest opposition party in the House of Representatives and the National Assembly.
Pushpa Kamal Dahal, commonly known as Prachanda, is a Nepalese politician, co-chair of the Nepal Communist Party and twice Prime Minister of Nepal, from 2008 to 2009 and from 2016 to 2017.
The Parliament of Pakistan is the federal and supreme legislative body of Pakistan. It is a bicameral federal legislature that consists of the Senate as the upper house and the National Assembly, as the lower house. According to the constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the President of Pakistan is also a component of the Parliament. The National Assembly is elected for a five-year term on the basis of adult franchise and one-man one-vote. The tenure of a Member of the National Assembly is for the duration of the house, or sooner, in case the Member dies or resigns. The tenure of the National Assembly also comes to an end if dissolved on the advice of the Prime Minister or by the president in his discretion under the Constitution.
The National Assembly is the upper house of the bicameral Federal Parliament of Nepal, the lower house being the House of Representatives. The composition and powers of the Assembly are established by Part 8 and 9 of the Constitution of Nepal. There are a total of 59 members: 8 members are elected from each of the seven states by an electoral college of each state, and three are appointed by the President on recommendation of the government.
A general election for the Constituent Assembly was held in Nepal on 10 April 2008 after having been postponed from earlier dates of 7 June 2007 and 22 November 2007. The Nepalese Constituent Assembly will draft a new constitution; it will therefore decide, amongst other things, on the issue of federalism. The number of eligible voters was around 17.5 million. The Constituent Assembly will have a term of two years.
The 1st Nepalese Constituent Assembly was a unicameral body of 601 members that served from May 28, 2008 to May 28, 2012. It was formed as a result of the first Constituent Assembly election held on April 10, 2008. The Constituent Assembly was tasked with writing a new constitution, and acting as the interim legislature for a term of two years. 240 members were elected in single seat constituencies, 335 were elected through proportional representation, and the remaining 26 seats were reserved for nominated members.
Kul Bahadur Gurung is a Nepalese politician and leader of the Nepali Congress party. Gurung has worked as general secretary of the party. He had been Minister of Education in the cabinet of Girija Prasad Koirala in 1997.
Indirect presidential elections were held in Nepal in July 2008. The first round of voting was held on 19 July, with a run-off on 21 July. The Nepalese Constituent Assembly (CA) elected in April 2008 elected a new President and Vice-President after the Fifth Amendment to the Interim Constitution was passed on 14 July. This would be the first President to be elected after Nepal became a republic a few months earlier.
Ram Baran Yadav is a Nepalese politician and physician who served as the First President of Nepal following the declaration of a republic in 2008. He served as a Nepalese President from 23 July 2008 to 29 October 2015. Previously he served as Minister of Health from 1999 to 2001 and General Secretary of the Nepali Congress. Yadav was Minister of State for Health in the 1991–1994 Nepali Congress government. He was elected to the House of Representatives in the 1999 election as a candidate of the Nepali Congress. After that election, he became Minister of Health.
Second Constituent Assembly of Nepal was the unicameral legislature of Nepal. It was formed as the result of the 2013 Constituent Assembly elections after the failure of the first Constituent Assembly to promulgate a new constitution. The legislature ended its term on 14 October 2017.
Events from the year 2013 in Nepal.
The following lists events that happened during 2008 in Nepal.
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On 23 May 2009, Madhav Kumar Nepal was elected the new Prime Minister of Nepal, after his predecessor Pushpa Kamal Dahal resigned as the head of the government after president Ram Baran Yadav overruled the former cabinet's decision to dismiss the chief of the Nepalese Army. About 20 of the 25 parties represented in the 1st Nepalese Constituent Assembly voted in favour of Madhav Nepal, who was up for vote without an opponent. Three days after his election, the new Prime Minister was sworn in and started to form his coalition cabinet. After almost three weeks of talks, the cabinet was finalized on 17 June 2009.