Dashain

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Dashain
Also calledBijaya Dashami
Observed by Nepali Hindu religion
TypeReligious, Cultural
SignificanceCelebrates the victory of good over evil
CelebrationsMarks the end of Durga Puja
ObservancesPeople worship Kali, Chandi, Bhairabi, Barahi and take the tika and jamara with elders, pandals (stages), plays, community gathering, recitation of scriptures, immersion of Durga or burning of Ravana.
Date Ashvin or Kartik (September to November)

Dashain (Dashain, Nepal or Baḍadasaiबडादशैँ), also Bijaya Dashami) is a festival originating from Nepal. In other parts of South Asia, it is called Dashain. [1] Dashain is celebrated by the Hindus of Nepal and the Nepali language speaking people of the Darjeeling hills, Sikkim, Siliguri, Assam and other North-Eastern states of India [2] and among the Lhotshampa of Bhutan [3] and the Burmese Gurkhas of Myanmar. Many people of Nepal celebrate this festival. It is famous in Hindu region.

Contents

It is the longest and the most auspicious festival in the Bikram Sambat and Nepal Sambat annual calendars, celebrated by Nepalese people, along with their diaspora throughout the globe. It is the most anticipated festival in Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, and North Indian hills. People return from all parts of the world, as well as different parts of the country, to celebrate together. [2] All government offices, educational institutions, and other offices remain closed during the festival period. The festival falls in September or October, starting from the shukla paksha (bright lunar fortnight) of the month of Ashwin and ending on Purnima, the full moon. Among the fifteen days on which it is celebrated, the most important days are the first, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, and fifteenth. [4]

Among the Newar of the Kathmandu Valley, during the Dashain festival, a popular Newari festival called Mohani, is celebrated as the most important festival of Nepal Sambat calendar year. [5] Among Hindu and Buddhist Newars, it is celebrated differently, where each nine days Navaratri (Nepal Bhasa : नवरात्री) leading up to the 10th day called 'Dashami', carry special importance. [6] The goddess Durga and her various manifestations are especially worshiped by Newars throughout the Shaktipeeths of Kathmandu Valley. Among Newars, Dashain is also important for its emphasis on family gatherings as well as on a renewal of community ties, highlighted by special family dinners called Nakhtyā (Nepal Bhasa : नख्त्या) and various communal processions of deities called Jātrā (Nepal Bhasa : जात्रा) throughout the three royal cities of Kathmandu Valley.it is celebrated to worship god durga

Significance

Dashain symbolizes the victory of good over evil.

For followers of Shaktism, it represents the victory of the goddess Durga. In Hindu mythology, the demon Mahishasura had created terror in the devaloka (the world where gods lives) but Durga killed the rakshas (demon). [7] [8] [9] The first nine days of Dashain symbolize the battle which took place between the different manifestations of Durga and Mahishasura. The tenth day is the day when Durga finally defeated him. For other Hindus, this festival symbolizes the victory of Ram over Ravan as recounted in the Ramayana .

Day 1: Ghatasthapana Dashain

The tilaka (in red) and jamara used during Dashain Tika and jamara.jpg
The tilaka (in red) and jamara used during Dashain

Ghaṭasthāpanā (घटस्थापना "sowing Jamara") marks the beginning of Dashain. [10] [11] Literally, it means placing a kalasha or a pot, which symbolizes goddess Durga. Ghaṭasthāpanā falls on the first day of the festival. On this day the Kalash is filled with holy water and is then sewn with barley seeds. Then the Kalash is put in the center of a rectangular sand block. The remaining bed of sand is also seeded with grains. The priest then starts the puja by asking Durga to bless the vessel with her presence. This ritual is performed at a certain auspicious time which is determined by the astrologers. [12] The goddess is believed to reside in the vessel during Navratri. [13]

The room where all this is done is known as the Dashain Ghar. Traditionally, outsiders are not allowed to enter it. A family member worships the Kalash twice every day, once in the morning and then in the evening. The Kalash is kept away from direct sunlight [14] and holy water is offered to it every day so that by the tenth day of the festival the seed will have grown to five or six inches long yellow grass. This sacred grass is known as jamara. These rituals continue until the seventh day.

Day 7: Phulpati

Phulpati is a major celebration occurring on the seventh day of Dashain.

Traditionally, on this day, the royal Kalash, banana stalks, jamara, and sugar cane tied with red cloth is brought by Magars from Gorkha, a three-day walk, about 169 kilometres (105 mi) away from the Kathmandu Valley. Hundreds of government officials gather together in the Tundikhel grounds in conventional formal dress to witness the event. The king used to observe the ceremony in Tundikhel while the Phulpati parade was headed towards the Hanuman Dhoka royal palace. Then there is a majestic display of the Nepalese Army along with a celebratory firing of weapons that continues for ten to fifteen minutes honoring Phulpati. The Phulpati is taken to the Hanuman Dhoka Royal Palace by the time the occasion ends in Tundikhel, where a parade is held. [15]

Since 2008, when the royal family was overthrown, the two-century-old tradition is changed so that the holy offering of Phulpati goes to the residence of the president. The President has taken over the king's social and religious roles after the fall of the royal government.

Day 8: Maha Asthami

The eighth day is called Maha Asthami. This is the day when the most fierce of Goddess Durga’s manifestations, the bloodthirsty Kali, is appeased through the sacrifice of buffaloes, goats, hens, and ducks in temples throughout the nation. Blood, symbolic for its fertility, is offered to the Goddesses. Appropriately enough, the night of this day is called Kal Ratri(Black Night). It is also the norm for buffaloes to be sacrificed in the courtyards of all the land revenue offices in the country on this day. The old palace in Basantapur Hanuman Dhoka is active throughout the night with worships and sacrifices in almost every courtyard. On the midnight of the very day the Dashain Ghar, a total of 54 buffaloes and 54 goats are sacrificed in observance of the rites. After the offering of the blood, the meat is taken home and cooked as "prasad", or food blessed by divinity. This food is offered in tiny leaf plates to the household gods, then distributed amongst the family. Eating this food is thought to be auspicious. While the puja is being carried out, great feasts are held in the homes of common people. On this day Newar community has an event called "Khadga Puja" where they do puja of their weapons.

Day 9: Maha Navami

Maha Navami in 1856 Dashain (1856).png
Maha Navami in 1856

The ninth day of Dashain is called Mahanavami, "the great ninth day". This is the last day of Navaratri. Ceremonies and rituals reach a peak on this day. On this day, official military ritual sacrifices are held in one of the Hanuman Dhoka royal palaces, the Kot courtyard. On this occasion, the state offers the sacrifices of buffaloes under the gunfire salutes. This day is also known as the demon-hunting day because members of the defeated demon army try to save themselves by hiding in the bodies of animals and fowls.

On Mahanavami, Vishvakarman, the god of creation, is worshipped as it believed that all the things which help us in making a living should be kept happy. Artisans, craftsmen, traders, and mechanics worship and offer animal and fowl blood to their tools, equipment, and vehicles. Moreover, since it is believed that worshipping the vehicles on this day avoids accidents for the year all the vehicles from bikes, cars to trucks are worshipped on this day.

The Taleju Temple gates are opened to the general public on only this day of the year. Thousands of devotees go and pay respect to the goddess this day. The temple is filled with devotees all day long. [16]

Day 10: Bijaya Dashami or Vijayadashami

The tenth day of the festival is the 'Vijayadashami'. On this day, a mixture of rice, yogurt and vermilion is prepared. This preparation is known as "tika". Often Dashain tika time [17] is different every year. Elders put this tika and jamara which is sown in the Ghatasthapana on the forehead of younger relatives to bless them with abundance in the upcoming years. The red also symbolizes the blood that ties the family together. Elders give "Dakshina", or a small amount of money, to younger relatives at this time along with the blessings. This continues to be observed for five days till the full moon during which period families and relatives visit each other to exchange gifts and greetings. This ritual of taking tika from all the elder relatives (even the distant relatives) helps in the renewal of the community ties greatly. This is one reason why the festival is celebrated with so much vigour and enthusiasm.

Day 15: Kojagrat Purnima

The last day of the festival which lies on the full moon day is called 'Kojagrat' Purnima. The literal meaning of Kojagrat is 'who is awake'. On this day Goddess Laxmi who is believed to be the goddess of wealth is worshipped as it believed that Goddess Laxmi descends on earth and showers whoever is awake all night with wealth and prosperity. People enjoy the night by playing cards and much more.

Elder celebrating Dashain festival by putting tika on a child Putting Tika From Elder.jpeg
Elder celebrating Dashain festival by putting tika on a child

Animal sacrifices are often the norms during this time, as the festival commemorates the mythical bloody battles between the "divine" and "demonic" powers. The proponents of animal sacrifice interpret that this sacrificial act as the symbolic sacrifice of our animal qualities, but those who are opposed to animal sacrifice stress that the sacrificial act is nothing but an excuse to fulfill the appetite for food/meat. [18]

Forms of celebration

swing of a village pirkee ping.jpg
swing of a village

The Malshree dhun is incorporated into mainstream Nepalese music as the music of Dashain. It is the tune that announces the Dashain has arrived. Malashree dhoon is one of the oldest surviving devotional music of Newa art form, with its origin in the 17th century. [19] In due time and also the fact that Dashain happens to be celebrated not just by Newars but by all Nepalese, this dhoon caught up and now is part of the national culture and played during Dashain.

Dashain ritual Dashain Ritual.jpg
Dashain ritual

As Dashain approaches, kite flying becomes more and more common. Riding kites has been a very important part of celebrating Dashain in the country, as it is considered to be one way of reminding God not to send rain anymore. [20] During the festival people of all ages fly kites from their roofs. Colourful kites and voices shouting out 'changā chet' (this phrase is usually used when one cuts the other person's kite string) fill the days during the festival.

Playing cards is another way of celebrating Dashain. [20] While children are busy flying kites during Dashain, the older members of the family pass their time by getting together and playing cards with each other for money and fun.

Buying and wearing new clothes is an important part of the festival. As many people living in the villages are below the poverty line, for them it is often the case that new clothes come only with Dashain. [20] Almost all the shops have festival offers and discounts. This makes shopping more attractive. Clothes have the highest sales during the festival. [16]

Children playing on traditional bamboo swings Dasain ping.jpg
Children playing on traditional bamboo swings

Bamboo swings are constructed in many parts of the country as a way of celebration. Dashain swings are called 'ping' in Nepali. They present the best of local culture, tradition, community spirit, and fun. [21] These swings are constructed by community members with traditional methods which use ropes made from tough grass, bamboo sticks and wood, etc. The swings are normally constructed a week before Ghatasthapana and dismantled only after the festival of Tihar which comes after Dashain. The height of some swings exceeds twenty feet. People of all ages enjoy the swings. They are especially famous with children.

Fairs and celebrations are organized during the festival. Usually, small fairs are organized in the villages with Ferris wheels for children and other entertainment for the adults. However, in the city commercial fairs and celebrations are usually organized.

Thousands of animals including buffalo, ducks, and rams are slaughtered in Dashain every year. It has been considered an important ritual since it is believed that the goddesses are appeased by such sacrifices. Almost all the temples, especially the Durga and Kali temples, are offered with thousands of sacrifices. Ashtami and Navami are the days when the sacrifices reach a peak. While thousands of animals are sacrificed to appease the goddesses, people also slaughter animals for feasts. Since many feasts and gatherings are organized throughout the fifteen days of the festival, the demand for meat goes up considerably. To meet the demand, the slaughtering of animals becomes considerably high and necessary. [22] [23]

Controversy

The festival of Dashain is often criticized for its animal sacrifice. [24] [25] [26] Many online petitions have been registered on Change.org, calling for a government action against mass slaughter. Driven by the belief that offerings of fresh blood will appease goddess Durga, scores of animals and birds are ritually slaughtered especially in the eighth and ninth day of the festival. [27] Birds and animals that are traditionally eligible for sacrifice include goats, buffaloes, sheep, chickens, and ducks. [28] Some animal activists have called for the use of pumpkins and coconuts, as opposed to birds and animals. [29]

Numerous national luminaries and animal rights activists alike have expressed their concerns over the issue of animal cruelty in the festival. On 3 October 2016, renowned Nepali comedian Hari Bansha Acharya wrote a satirical piece on Nepal Saptahik – entitled "Euta Khasiko Aatmakatha" (Autobiography of a Goat) – in light of "horrendous" exploitation inflicted upon animals during the festival. [30]

Dashain has also become controversial in Nepal's current political climate as several indigenous groups (adivasi janajati) argue that festival has been imposed on them by the state. In an effort to resist what they view as the cultural domination by the Hindu elites that dominate the Nepali state, several organizations have organized a boycott of Dashain. Especially communists within a country and missionaries. So far those campaigns have had a limited effect across the country, but they do reveal the political origins and importance of the festival. [31]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Vijayadashami Annual Hindu festival, celebrated at the end of Navaratri

Vijayadashami also known as Dussehra, Dasara or Dashain, is a major Hindu festival celebrated at the end of Navaratri every year. It is observed on the tenth day in the Hindu calendar month of Ashvin, the seventh month of the Hindu Luni-Solar Calendar, which typically falls in the Gregorian months of September and October.

Durga Puja Hindu festival

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Culture of Nepal

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Tihar (festival)

Tihar, also known as Deepawali and Yamapanchak or Swanti, is a five-day-long Hindu festival celebrated in Nepal and Indian states of Sikkim and West Bengal, particularly the towns of Darjeeling and Kalimpong, which host a large number of ethnic Nepali people. Tihar is analogous to the Indian festival of Diwali, the festival of lights, but with some significant differences. Like with Diwali, Tihar is marked by lighting diyas inside and outside the home but unlike the Indian festival, the five days of Tihar include celebration and worship of the four creatures associated with the Hindu god of death Yama, with the final day reserved for people themselves. According to the Vikram Samvat calendar, the festival begins with Kaag (crow) Tihar on Trayodashi of Kartik Krishna Paksha and ends with Bhai (brother) Tika on Dwitiya of Kartik Sukla Paksha every year. In the Gregorian calendar, the festival falls sometime between October and November every year. In the year 2020, Tihar began on 16 November 2020 and ended on 20 November 2020.

Bode, Nepal Municipality in Bagmati Zone, Nepal

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Tokha Chandeshwari Village of Tokha Municipality in No. 3, Nepal

Tokha Chandeshwari is a village and former Village Development Committee that is now part of Tokha Municipality in Kathmandu District in Province No. 3 of central Nepal. At the time of the 2011 Nepal census it had a population of 3961. Tokha Chandeshwari now is part of Tokha municipality.

Khokana part of lalitpur Metropolitant in Bagmati Zone, Nepal

Khokana is a former Village Development Committee (VDC) which has been merged with the neighbouring VDC's of Bungamati, Chhampi, Dukuchhap, Sainbu and other 38 VDC's to form the Metropolitan City of Lalitpur in Lalitpur District in the Bagmati Zone of central Nepal. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census, Khokana had a population of 4258 living in 699 individual households. According to 2011 Nepal census, Khokana had a population of 4927 living in 1056 individual households.

Sankhu Place in Bagmati Zone, Nepal

Sankhu (साखु) is the ancient Newar town located in the north-eastern corner of Kathmandu Valley which is about 17 km from the city center of Kathmandu. Sankhu was formerly divided into three Village Development Committee, namely, Pukhulachhi, Suntol and Bajrayogini. Recently the town of Sankhu has been declared as Shankharapur Municipality merging three above-mentioned VDCs and other neighbouring VDCs. At the time of the 2011 Nepal census it had a population of 4333 living in 928 individual households. Sankhu lies between river Salinakhu in east and Asakhu in the west.

Asan, Kathmandu

Asan is a ceremonial, market and residential square in central Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal. It is one of the most well-known historical locations in the city and is famed for its bazaar, festival calendar and strategic location. Asan has been described as one of the fine Newar examples of a traditional Asian bazaar. The Tuladhar, Maharjan, Shrestha, Bajracharya and Shakya castes make up most of the population.

Navaratri Annual Hindu festival

Navaratri is a Hindu festival that spans nine nights and is celebrated every year in the autumn. It is observed for different reasons and celebrated differently in various parts of the Indian cultural sphere. Theoretically, there are four seasonal Navaratri. However, in practice, it is the post-monsoon autumn festival called Sharada Navaratri that is the most observed in the honor of the divine feminine Devi (Durga). The festival is celebrated in the bright half of the Hindu calendar month Ashvin, which typically falls in the Gregorian months of September and October.

Kali Puja Hindu festival dedicated to the goddess Kali

Kali Puja, also known as Shyama Puja or Mahanisha Puja, is a festival, originating from the Indian subcontinent, dedicated to the Hindu goddess Kali, celebrated on the new moon day of the Hindu month Kartik especially in the regions of Bengal, Mithila, Odisha, Assam and the town of Titwala in Maharashtra. It coincides with the Lakshmi Puja day of Diwali. While the Hindu Bengalis, Odias, Assamese and Maithils worship the goddess Kali on this day, the rest of India and Nepal worships goddess Lakshmi on Diwali.

Gadhimai festival annual event in Nepal

Gadhimai festival is a sacrificial ceremony held every five years in Nepal at the Gadhimai Temple of Bariyarpur, in Bara District, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the capital Kathmandu, and about 4.35 miles (7.00 km) east of the city of Kalaiya, near the Indo-Nepal border. It is primarily celebrated by Madhesi people. The event involves large-scale sacrificial slaughter of animals including water buffalo, pigs, goats, chickens, and pigeons, with the goal of pleasing Gadhimai, the goddess of power. People also offer coconuts, sweets, red-coloured clothes, etc. The festival has been described as the world's largest animal sacrifice event.

Animal sacrifice in Hinduism

The modern practice of Hindu animal sacrifice is mostly associated with Shaktism, and in currents of folk Hinduism strongly rooted in local popular or tribal traditions. Animal sacrifices were part of the ancient Vedic religion in India, and are mentioned in scriptures such as the Yajurveda. Some Puranas forbid animal sacrifice.

Mohani

Mohani or Mohni is one of the most important festivals among the Newars which involves a packed itinerary of religious services, pilgrimages, family gatherings and outdoor celebrations lasting several days. Special dinners known as Nakhtya (नख्त्या), to which all the relatives are invited, continue for weeks later. Mohani is the equivalent of Nepal's biggest festival Dasain, and there are similarities and differences between the two.

Swanti (festival)

Swanti is a five-day festival of Nepal which is one of the year's greatest celebrations for the Newar people. It is the Newar version of Tihar or Diwali. The festival highlights the central role of women in the household, and the rituals are related to wishing for good fortune of the family members by presenting them auspicious items and praying for longevity by placating the god of death.

Depukhu Newar festival in Nepal

Depukhu, also De pukhu or Dyo pukhu in Newar language, Deopokhari festival in English, and Deopokhari jatra in Nepali, is a festival celebrated in August each year by the Newar community of Khokana in central Nepal. It involves the ritual sacrifice of a virgin she-goat in the Deopokhari pond which is situated in the premises of Rudrayani temple in Khokana, in a process described as inhumane and barbaric by animal rights activists. Once taken as a matter of cultural pride, international outcry and criticism has led the locals to attempt to reform the festival in recent years.

Naradevi Temple Temple in Nepal

Naradevi Temple, also called Swetakaali Temple an ancient Hindu temple located in the older parts of Kathmandu, Nepal. It is believed that occult and tantric rituals are performed in the temple and there is a female energy in the temple. The goddess housed in the temple, Sweta Kali is believed to receive human sacrifice in the ancient times. The goddess is also referred as Neta Ajima by the Newar community. The goddess is also considered to be the mother of the goddess Kumari Chandeswori Bhagwati.

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