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Statue of Ravana from the 18th century CE
|Affiliation||The King of Lanka, Rakshasa|
|Predecessor||Kubera (King of Lanka)|
|Successor||Vibhishana (King of Lanka)|
|Texts||Ramayana and its versions|
|Siblings||Kumbhakarna, Vibhishana, Shurpanakha|
|Children||Indrajit, Atikaya, Akshayakumara, Narantaka, Devantaka, Trishira|
|Part of a series on|
Ravana( // ; Sanskrit : रावण, IAST : Rāvaṇa, pronounced [ˈraːʋɐɳɐ] ) is a king of Lanka and the chief antagonist in the Hindu epic Ramayana and its adaptations. In the Ramayana, Ravana is described to be the eldest son of sage Vishrava and Rakshasi Kaikeshi. He abducted Rama's wife Sita and took her to his kingdom of Lanka, where he held her as a prisoner in Ashok Vatika, and also expressed a desire to marry her. Later, Rama, with the support of vanara King Sugriva and his army of vanars, attacked Ravana in Lanka. They killed Ravana and Rama rescued his beloved wife Sita.
Ravana is widely considered to be symbol of evil. In Sri Lankan mythology, however, he is considered as a great ruler.Ravana also had many qualities that made him a learned scholar. He was well-versed in the six shastras and the four Vedas. Ravana is considered to be the most revered devotee of Shiva. Images of Ravana are seen associated with Shiva at some places. He also appears in the Buddhist Mahayana text Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra , in Buddhist Ramayanas and Jatakas, as well as in Jain Ramayanas. In some scriptures, he is depicted as one of Vishnu’s cursed doorkeepers.
The word Rāvaṇa (Sanskrit: रावण) means roaring opposite of Vaiśravaṇa meaning "hear distinctly" (passive).Both Ravana and Vaiśravaṇa, who is popularly known as Kubera, are considered to be patronymics derived as "sons of Vishrava".
Rāvana was a title taken on later by Dashānana, and it means "screamer" in Sanskrit (Ravana would sing hymns).Further, roravana is Sanskrit for "loud roaring." In Abhinava Gupta's Krama Shaiva scripture, yāsām rāvanam is used as an expression to mean people who are truly aware in terms of the materialism of their environment.
Ravana has many other popular names, such as Dasis Ravana, Dasis Sakvithi Maha Ravana, Dashaanan, Ravula, Lankeshwar, Lankeshwaran, Ravanasura, Ravanaeshwaran, and Eela Vendhar.[ citation needed ]
Ravana is depicted and described as having ten heads, although sometimes he is shown with only nine heads, as he cut one off to convince Shiva.[ citation needed ] He is described as a devout follower of Shiva, a great scholar, a capable ruler and a maestro of the Veena (pronounced veh-nah; a chordophone instrument). Ravana is also depicted as the author of the Ravana Samhita, a book on Hindu astrology, and the Arka Prakasham, a book on Siddha medicine and treatment. Ravana possessed a thorough knowledge of Siddha and political science. He is said to have possessed the nectar of immortality, which was stored inside his belly, thanks to a celestial boon by Brahma. [ page needed ]
Ravana was born to great sage Vishrava (or Vesamuni), and his wife, the Rakshasa princess Kaikesi in the Treta Yuga. People of Bisrakh village in Uttar Pradesh claim that Bisrakh was named after Vishrava, and that Ravana was born there. [ citation needed ]But according to Hela historical sources and folklore, Ravana was born in Lanka, where he later became king.
Ravana's grandfather on his father's side, the sage Pulastya,was one of the ten Prajapatis or mind-born sons of Brahma and one of the Saptarishi (Seven Great Sages Rishi) in the first Manvantara (age of Manu). His maternal grandfather was Sumali (or Sumalaya); the king of the Rakshasas and the son of Sukesha. Sumali had ten sons and four daughters. Sumali wished Kaikeshi to marry the most powerful being in the mortal world, so as to produce an exceptional heir. He rejected the kings of the world, as they were less powerful than him. Kaikesi searched among the sages and finally chose Vishrava, the father of Kubera. Ravana and his siblings were born to the couple. They completed their education from their father, with Ravana being a great scholar of the Vedas.
Ravana and his two brothers Kumbhakarna and Vibhishana performed penances on Mt Gokarna for 11,000 years and won boons from Brahma. Ravana was blessed with a boon that would make him invincible to the creation of Brahma, except for humans.He also received weapons, chariot as well as the ability to shapeshift from Brahma. Ravana later usurped Lanka from his half-brother Kubera and became the King of Lanka. He appointed Shukracharya as his priest and learned the Arthashastra (Science of Politics) from him.
One of the most Popular Images of Shiva is called as "Ravananugraha" which was popular in Gupta era which depicts Ravan beneath Mount Kailasa Playing the Veena Made out of his head and hand and strings made out of his Tendons with Shiva Parvati sitting on top.According to scriptures, Ravana once tried to lift Mount Kailash, but Shiva pushed the mountain into place and trapped Ravana beneath it. For a thousand years, the imprisoned Ravana sang hymns (Shiva Tandava Stotra) in praise of Shiva, who finally blessed him and granted him an invincible sword and a powerful linga (Shiva's an iconic symbol, Atmalinga) to worship.
Ravana's family are hardly mentioned outside the Ramayana, which is viewed by some as being only the point of view of Rama devotees. According to that:
Ravana is said in some version to have had Shukracharya, the priest of the Asuras, as his minister, and in some versions Brihaspati, the priest of the Devas.
One of the most original, which is not found in earlier manuscripts, tells how Ravana orders his court priest Brhaspati (all the gods being his slaves) to read the Chandi stava (mantras of Chandi), that is, the Devi Mahatmya, in order to stave off defeat if he can recite it. According to the Krttivasa text, Ravana arranged for a peaceful yajna (sacrifice) and to start the recitation of Chandi, Brihaspati was invited. Accordingly, Brihaspati recited the same correctly.
In the Bhagavata Purana, Ravana and his brother, Kumbhakarna, were said to be reincarnations of Jaya, and Vijaya, gatekeepers at Vaikuntha, the abode of Vishnu and were cursed to be born in Earth for their insolence.
These gatekeepers refused entry to the Sanatha Kumara monks—- who, because of their powers and austerity, appeared as young children. For their insolence, the monks cursed them to be expelled from Vaikuntha and to be born on Earth.
Vishnu agreed that they should be punished. They were given two choices, that they could be born seven times as normal mortals and devotees of Vishnu, or three times as powerful and strong people, but as enemies of Vishnu. Eager to be back with the Lord, they choose the latter one. Ravana and his brother Kumbhakarna were born to fulfill the curse on the second birth as enemies of Vishnu in the Treta Yuga. The curse of first birth was fulfilled by Hiranyakashipu and his brother Hiranyaksha in Satya Yuga when they were both vanquished by earlier avatars of Vishnu (Hiranyaksha by Varaha and Hiranyakashipu by Narasimha) and the curse of third birth was fulfilled by Dantavakra and Shishupala in the Dvapara Yuga when they both were slain by Krishna, the eighth avatar.
Ravana had gotten into a conflict with some other major Asuras.
As he is considered one of the most revered devotees of Shiva, Ravana is worshiped in several places.There are some Shiva temples where Ravana is worshiped.
The Kanyakubja Brahmins of Vidisha district worship Ravana; they personify him as a symbol of prosperity and regard him as a saviour, claiming that Ravana was also a Kanyakubja Brahmin. Thousands of Kanyakubja Brahmins of the village Ravangram of Netaran, in the Vidisha District of Madhya Pradesh, perform daily puja (worship) in the Ravan temple and offer naivedyam / bhog (a ritual of sacrifice to the Gods). Centuries ago King Shiv Shankar built a Ravana temple at Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh. The Ravana temple is opened once a year, on Dashehra Day, to perform puja for the welfare of Ravana.
Ravana also worshiped by Hindus of Bisrakh, who claim their town to be his birthplace.
The Sachora Brahmins of Gujarat also claim to descend from Ravana, and sometimes have "Ravan" as their surnames.
Some Saraswat Brahmins from Mathura claim Ravana as a saraswat brahmin as per his lineage.
There is also reference to "Ravani", the lineage of Upadhyaya Yasastrata II, who was of the Gautama gotra and was a son of Acharya Vasudatta, and described as "born of Ravani".
The Gondi people of central India claim to be descendants of Ravana, and they also have temples set up for him, his wife Mandodari, and their son Meghnad. They also state that Ravana was an ancient Gond king and the tenth dharmaguru of their tribe. Every year on Dussehra, the Gondis of the village of Paraswadi carry an image of Ravana riding on an elephant in a procession
There are a number of temples in India for Ravana
A Ramleela actor wears the traditional attire of Ravana. One of the most important literary works of ancient India, the Ramayana has had a profound impact on art and culture in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
Effigies of Ravana are burned on Vijayadashami in many places throughout India. It is said that this symbolizes Rama's triumph over evil (i.e., Ravana).
The ancient instrument is known as a ravanahatha is said to have belonged to a sovereign in present-day India around 5000 BC. It replicates the ancient instrument called the Ravan hatta which is found even today in Rajasthan. Mythology credits this creation to Ravana.
There are also texts attributed to Ravana. The Ravan Samhita is an astrological text or scripture narrated by Shiva and written by Ravana.
The Ravanakumara Tantra is a part of the tantric rituals of the Kriyakalagunottara Tantra, [ citation needed ] It is also known as the Ravanaproktabalacikitsasutra ("Sutra Spoken by Ravana on the Curing of Children's Diseases").and it is an 11th-century Sanskrit work for the treatment of children's diseases.
Ravana appears as the composer of the 16th century C.E. text, Arka Prakasa, which is a dialogue between the king of Lanka and his wife Mandodhari about which herbs and chemicals can be used in a mixture to cure illnesses, such as syphilis.
Ravana is also the composer of the 16th century C.E. scriptures Nadi Pariksa and Nadi Vijnana on knowledge about the veins.
Ravana is the composer of the Ravanabhet, a Vedic text on the phonetics of the Sanskrit language.
Ravana is also the composer of the Ravaniya, also known as Ravanabaith, a text on the phonetics of the Telugu language.
The Prakrta-Kamadhenu grammatical text on the Prakrit language is attributed to "Ravana Lankesvara".
The Samkhya scripture known as the Ravana-bhasya, also known as Ravanabhasya, is believed to be written by Ravana.
The Vaisesika scripture Katandi (a commentary on the Vaisesika Sutra ) is attributed to Ravana.
Ravana is also the name used by a commentator of the Shaiva Rudrapurascharana.
"Ravanacharya" is the scholar who wrote the Padaratna, a commentary on the Rig Veda.
Ravana is the composer of the Shavite scripture Shiva Tandava Stotram.
Rama is always the protagonist. In Rin-spuns-pa Tibetan Ramayana, it is prophesied that "Ravana" will return as the Buddha incarnation of Vishnu in the Kali Yuga.[ citation needed ]
The Tai Khamti Ramayana (Phra Chow Lamang) of Arunachal Pradesh as well describes Rama as a Bodhisattva incarnated to get tortured by Ravana.
In the Laotian Buddhist text Phra Lak Phra Lam , Rama is a Bodhisattva and the embodiment of virtues, while Ravana is a Brahmin ("mahabrahma") son of Virulaha who is highly materialistic.
In the Cambodian Buddhist text Preah Ream , Buddha is an incarnation of Rama and Ravana. He is a rakshasa.
In the Thai Buddhist text Ramakien , Rāvana is a rakshasa.There, he is instead known as "Thotsakan" (ทศกัณฐ์, from Sanskrit दशकण्ठ, Daśakaṇṭha, "ten necks"), and he is depicted with green skin.
In the Lankavatara Sutra , Gautama Buddha pays a visit to Lanka, and in the scripture he is addressed as a Rakshasa. He is normally identified as a demon.
In the Karandavyuha Sutra , the god Yama asks if the visitor in hell (Avalokitesvara) whom he hasn't seen yet is a god or a demon, and asks whether he is Vishnu, Mahesvara, or the rakshasa ("demon") Rama.
Jain accounts vary from the traditional Hindu accounts of Ramayana. The incidents are placed at the time of the 20th Tirthankara, Munisuvrata. According to Jain version, both Rama as well as Ravana were devout Jains.Ravana was a Vidyadhara King who had magical powers. Also, as per the Jain accounts, Ravana was killed by Lakshmana and not Rama in the end.
In the Ayyavazhi version, Ravana is considered an Asura, not a Rakshasa.[ citation needed ]
Pulavar Kuzhanthai’s Ravana Kaaviyam, is a panegyric on Ravana. The book is made of 3100 poetic stanzas in which Ravana is the hero. The book was released in 1946. The book was banned by the then Congress state government. The ban was lifted only in 1971.
|Sampoorna Ramayanam (1958 film)||T. K. Bhagavathi|
|Sampoorna Ramayana||B. M. Vyas|
|Seeta Rama Kalyanam||N. T. Rama Rao|
|Indrajeet (Sati Sulochana)||S. V. Ranga Rao|
|Sita Kalyanam (1976 film)||Kaikala Satyanarayana|
|Bajrangbali (film)||Prem Nath|
|Sri Rama Pattabhishekam||N. T. Rama Rao|
|Ramayana: The Legend of Prince Rama||Amrish Puri (voice)|
|Ramayanam (1996 film)||Swathi Baalineni|
|Raavanan||Vikram (Based on Ravana's character)|
|Ramayana: The Epic||Ashutosh Rana (voice)|
|TV Series||Played by||Channel||Country|
|Ramayan (1987 TV series)||Arvind Trivedi||DD National||India|
|Bharat Ek Khoj||Om Puri||DD National|
|Jai Hanuman (1997 TV series)||Anil Yadav||DD Metro|
|Vishnu Puran||Nimai Bali||Zee TV|
|Ramayan (2002 TV series)||Surendra Pal||Zee TV|
|Raavan (2006)||Narendra Jha||Zee TV|
|Ramayan (2008 TV series)||Akhilendra Mishra||NDTV Imagine|
|Jai Jai Jai Bajrang Bali||Nimai Bali||Sahara One|
|Devon Ke Dev...Mahadev||Tarun Khanna||Life OK|
|Ramayan (2012 TV series)||Sachin Tyagi||Zee TV|
|Ramleela – Ajay Devgn Ke Saath||Aman Verma||Life OK|
|Siya Ke Ram||Karthik Jayaram||Star Plus|
|Sankatmochan Mahabali Hanuman|| Aarya Babbar |
|Sony Entertainment Television|
|Vighnaharta Ganesha||Paras Chhabra||Sony Entertainment Television|
|Ram Siya Ke Luv Kush||Shalin Bhanot||Colors TV|
|Ravana||Januka Rajapaksha||TV Derana||Sri Lanka|
Rāmāyana is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Mahābhārata. Along with the Mahābhārata, it forms the Hindu Itihasa.
Rakshasa is a supernatural being in Hindu mythology. As this mythology influenced other religions, the rakshasa was later incorporated into Buddhism. Rakshasas are also called "man-eaters". A female rakshasa is known as a rakshasi. A female rakshasi in human form is a rakshesha. The terms asura and rakshasa are sometimes used interchangeably.
Kubera also known as Kuvera, Kuber or Kuberan, is the Lord of Wealth and the god-king of the semi-divine Yakshas in Hindu culture. He is regarded as the regent of the North (Dik-pala), and a protector of the world (Lokapala). His many epithets extol him as the overlord of numerous semi-divine species and the owner of the treasures of the world. Kubera is often depicted with a plump body, adorned with jewels, and carrying a money-pot and a club.
Lanka is the name given in Hindu epics to the island fortress capital of the legendary asura king Ravana in the epics of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. The fortress was situated on a plateau between three mountain peaks known as the Trikuta Mountains. The ancient city of Lankapura is thought to have been burnt down by Hanuman. After its king, Ravana, was killed by Rama with the help of Ravana's brother Vibhishana, the latter was crowned king of Lankapura. The site of Lankā is identified with Sri Lanka. His descendants were said to still rule the kingdom during the period of the Pandavas. According to the Mahabharata, the Pandava Sahadeva visited this kingdom during his southern military campaign for the rajasuya of Yudhishthira.
In the Hindu epic Ramayana, Maricha, or Mareecha is a rakshasa (demon), who was killed by Rama, the hero of the epic and an avatar of God Vishnu. He is mentioned as an ally of Ravana, the antagonist of the epic. His most notable exploit is his role in the kidnapping of Sita, Rama's wife. His son Kalanemi was killed by Hanuman.
Vibhishana is the younger brother of Ravana, the king of Lanka in the ancient Indian epic Ramayana. Though a Rakshasa himself, Vibhishana deserted Ravana and joined Rama's army. Later, when Rama defeated Ravana, Rama crowned Vibhishana as the king of Lanka before returning to Ayodhya.
Kumbhakarna is a named rakshasa and younger brother of Ravana in the famous Hindu Legends in the events of Ramayana. Despite his gigantic size and great appetite, he was described to be of good character and a great warrior in those times, though he killed and ate many monkeys only to show his power.
Shurpanakha, also known as Meenakshi, is a character in Valmiki's epic, the Ramayana, and appears in the other versions of the epic. She is the sister of Lanka king, Ravana, and the daughter of the sage Vishrava and Rakshasi Kaikeshi. Shurpanakha's role in the original epic is small but significant.
Raavan is an Indian mythological drama series aired on Zee TV from 18 November 2006 to 16 November 2008, based on the life of the primary antagonist of the epic Ramayana, Ravana.
In Hindu mythology, Kabandha is a Rakshasa (demon) who is killed and freed from a curse by the god Rama – an Avatar of Vishnu – and his brother Lakshmana. Kabandha's legend appears in the Hindu epics Ramayana and Mahabharata, as well as in later Ramayana adaptations.
Vishrava was the son of Pulastya, the brother of celebrated sage Agastya Muni and the grandson of Brahma, the Creator, and a powerful Rishi as described in the great Hindu scripture epic Ramayana of Ancient India. A scholar par excellence, he earned great powers through Tapasya, which in turn, earned him great name and fame amongst his fellow Rishis. Bharadwaja, in particular, was so impressed with Vishrava that he gave him his daughter, Ilavida, in marriage. Ilavida bore Vishrava a son, Kubera, the Lord of Wealth and the original ruler of Lanka.
Ilavida or Idavida is a character in the Ramayana, as the stepmother of Ravana and the first wife of Vishrava. Vishrava was the son of Pulastya and the grandson of Brahma, the Creator.
Adbhuta Ramayana is a Sanskrit work traditionally attributed to the sage Valmiki. It is considerably more obscure than both the Valmiki Ramayana—generally considered the original version—as well as Tulsidas’ Awadhi version entitled Ramacharitamanasa, northern India's most popular version of the Ramayana story.
Jai Hanuman is a 1997 Indian television series based on the life of the Hindu deity Hanuman, an avatar of Shiva, in Hindi. It was directed by Sanjay Khan. The series was initially shown on the state-run DD Metro, and was later shown on Sony Entertainment Television in 2008.
Trijata is a rakshasi (demoness) in the Ramayana who is assigned the duty of guarding Sita who was kidnapped by king of Lanka Ravana. In latter adaptions of Ramayana, Trijata is describe as a daughter of Vibhishana.
Bisrakh is a village 10 km away of Greater Noida, in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Siya Ke Ram is an Indian TV series on Star Plus produced by Nikhil Sinha under the banner of Triangle Film Company. This show presents the epic Ramayana, the story of Rama and Devi Sita from Sita's perspective. The show features Madirakshi Mundle and Ashish Sharma playing as Goddess Sita and Lord Rama, respectively, and Karthik Jayaram as Raavan. It premiered on 16 November 2015 and ended on 4 November 2016.
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|Emperor of Lanka||Succeeded by|