Madhvacharya

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Madhvacharya
13th century portrait of Jagadguru Shri Madhvacharya in Udupi.jpg
Personal
Born
Vāsudeva

c.1199(or 1238) [1]
Religion Hinduism
Order Vedanta
Founder of Udupi Sri Krishna Matha
Philosophy Dvaita Vedanta
Religious career
GuruAchyuta-preksha [3]
Literary works Sarvamula Granthas
HonorsPūrṇa-prajña
Jagadguru
Quotation

Reality is twofold: independent and dependent things. The Lord Vishnu is the only independent thing. [4]

Contents

Madhvacharya (IAST : Madhvācārya; Sanskrit pronunciation:  [mɐdʱʋaːˈtɕaːɽjɐ] ; CE 1199-1278 [5] or CE 1238–1317 [6] ), sometimes anglicised as Madhva Acharya, and also known as Purna Prajna (IAST : Pūrṇa-Prajña) and Ānanda Tīrtha, was an Indian philosopher, theologian and the chief proponent of the Dvaita (dualism) school of Vedanta. [1] [7] Madhva called his philosophy Tattvavāda meaning "arguments from a realist viewpoint". [7]

Madhvacharya was born on the west coast of Karnataka state in 13th-century India. [8] As a teenager, he became a Sanyasi (monk) joining Brahma-sampradaya guru Achyutapreksha, of the Ekadandi order. [1] [3] Madhva studied the classics of Hindu philosophy, particularly the Principal Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahma Sutras ( Prasthanatrayi ). [1] He commented on these, and is credited with thirty seven works in Sanskrit. [9] His writing style was of extreme brevity and condensed expression. His greatest work is considered to be the Anuvyakhyana , a philosophical supplement to his bhasya on the Brahma Sutras composed with a poetic structure. [8] In some of his works, he proclaimed himself to be an avatar of Vayu, the son of god Vishnu. [10] [11]

Madhvacharya was a critic of Adi Shankara's Advaita Vedanta and Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita Vedanta teachings. [7] [8] He toured India several times, visiting places such as Bengal, Varanasi, Dwaraka, Goa and Kanyakumari, engaging in philosophical debates and visiting Hindu centres of learning. [9] Madhva established the Krishna Mutt at Udupi with a murti secured from Dwarka Gujarat in CE 1285. [8]

Madhvacharya's teachings are built on the premise that there is a fundamental difference between Atman (individual soul, self) and the Brahman (ultimate reality, God Vishnu), these are two different unchanging realities, with individual soul dependent on Brahman, never identical. [7] His school's theistic dualism teachings disagreed with the monist [12] teachings of the other two most influential schools of Vedanta based on Advaita's nondualism and Vishishtadvaita's qualified nondualism. [7] [13] Liberation, asserted Madhva, is achievable only through the grace of God. [7] [14] The Dvaita school founded by Madhva influenced Vaishnavism, the Bhakti movement in medieval India, and has been one of the three influential Vedānta philosophies, along with Advaita Vedanta and Vishishtadvaita Vedanta. [8] [15] [16] Madhva's historical influence in Hinduism, state Kulandran and Kraemer: "has been salutary, but not extensive." [11]

Biography

The biography of Madhvacharya is unclear. [17] Many sources date him to 1238–1317 period, [15] [18] but some place him about the 1199–1278 period. [17] [19]

Madhvācārya was born in Pajaka near Udupi, a coastal district in the present day Indian state of Karnataka. [20] Traditionally it is believed that Naddantillaya (Sanskrit: Madhyageha, Madhyamandira) was the name of his father and Vedavati was Madhvācārya's mother. [20] Born in a Tulu speaking Brahmin household, he was named Vāsudeva. [20] Later he became famous by the names Purnaprajna, Anandatirtha and Madhvacarya (or just Madhva). [8] Pūrnaprajña was the name given to him at the time of his initiation into sannyasa (renunciation), as a teenager. [20] The name conferred on him when he became the head of his monastery was "Ānanda Tīrtha". [20] All three of his later names are found in his works. [1] Madhvācārya or Madhva are names most commonly found in modern literature on him, or Dvaita Vedanta related literature. [8] [7]

Madhva began his school after his Upanayana at age seven, and became a monk or Sannyasi in his teenage, [20] although his father was initially opposed to this. [21] He joined an Advaita Vedanta monastery in Udupi (Karnataka), [3] accepted his guru to be Achyutrapreksha, [17] who is also referred to as Achyutraprajna in some sources. [1] Madhva studied the Upanishads and the Advaita literature, but was unconvinced by its nondualism philosophy of oneness of human soul and god, had frequent disagreements with his guru, [20] left the monastery, and began his own Dvaita movement based on dualism premises of Dvi – asserting that human soul and god (as Vishnu) are two different things. [17] Madhva never acknowledged Achyutrapreksha as his guru or his monastic lineage in his writings. [3] Madhva is said to have been clever in philosophy, and also to have been tall and strongly built. [22]

Madhvacharya established a matha (monastery) dedicated to Dvaita philosophy, and this became the sanctuary for a series of Dvaita scholars such as Jayatirtha, Sripadaraja, Vyasatirtha, Vadiraja Tirtha, Raghuttama Tirtha, Raghavendra Tirtha and Satyanatha Tirtha who followed in the footsteps of Madhva. [17] [23]

A number of hagiographies have been written by Madhva's disciples and followers. Of these, the most referred to is the sixteen cantos Sanskrit biography Madhvavijaya by Narayana Panditacharya – son of Trivikrama Pandita, who himself was a disciple of Madhva. [8]

Incarnation of Vayu, the wind god

Vayu three avatars Madhva, Bhima, Hanuman along with Vedavyasa and Lord Vishnu are depicted in this portrait. Jagadguru Madhvacharya.jpg
Vayu three avatars Madhva, Bhima, Hanuman along with Vedavyasa and Lord Vishnu are depicted in this portrait.

In several of his texts, state Sarma and other scholars, "Madhvacharya proclaims himself to be the third avatar or incarnation of Vayu, wind god, the son of Vishnu". [10] [24] He, thus, asserted himself to be like Hanuman – the first avatar of Vayu, and Bhima – a Pandava in the Mahabharata and the second avatar of Vayu. [10] In one of his bhasya on the Brahma Sutras, he asserts that the authority of the text is from his personal encounter with Vishnu. [25] Madhva, states Sarma, believed himself to be an intermediary between Vishnu and Dvaita devotees, guiding the latter in their journey towards Vishnu. [11] [10]

Madhva is said to have performed several miracles during his lifetime, including transforming Tamarind grains into coins, fighting and winning against robbers and wild animals, crossing the Ganges without getting his clothes wet, and giving light to his students through the nails of his big toes after the lamp went out while they were interpreting a text at night. [26]

Madhvacharya is said to have quoted some verses from his unique recensions of scriptures. Also, he is said to have quoted many unique books like Kamatha Sruti. The interpretation of Balittha Sukta by Madhvacharya and his followers to prove that Madhvacharya was an incarnation of Vayu is considered highly unique by standard commentaries on them like Sayana and Horace Hayman Wilson. [27]

Works of Madhvacharya

Thirty seven Dvaita texts are attributed to Madhvacharya. [28] Of these, thirteen are bhasya (review and commentary) on earliest Principal Upanishads, [19] a Madhva-bhasya on the foundational text of Vedanta school of Hinduism – Brahma Sutras, [19] another Gita-bhasya on Bhagavad Gita, [19] [28] a commentary on forty hymns of the Rigveda, a review of the Mahabharata in poetic style, a commentary called Bhagavata-tatparya-nirnaya on Bhagavata Purana. [28] Apart from these, Madhva is also attributed for authoring many stotras, poems and texts on bhakti of Vishnu and his avatars. [7] [29] [30] The Anu-Vyakhyana, a supplement to Madhvacharya's commentary on Brahma Sutras, is his masterpiece, states Sharma. [29]

While being a profusely productive writer, Madhvacharya restricted the access to and distribution of his works to outsiders who were not part of Dvaita school, according to Sarma. [note 1] However, Bartley disagrees and states that this is inconsistent with the known history of extensive medieval Vedantic debates on religious ideas in India which included Dvaita school's ideas. [31]

Madhva's philosophy

Madhvacharya along with Vedavyasa Maharshi are depicted in this portrait Madhva8.jpg
Madhvacharya along with Vedavyasa Maharshi are depicted in this portrait

The premises and foundations of Dvaita Vedanta, also known as Dvaitavada and Tattvavada, are credited to Madhvacharya. His philosophy championed unqualified dualism. [28] Madhva's work is classically placed in contrast with monist [12] ideas of Shankara's Advaita Vedanta and Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita Vedanta. [28]

Epistemology

Madhva calls epistemology as Anu pramana. [32] It accepts three pramānas , that is three facts or three correct means of knowledge, in contrast to one of Charvaka and six of Advaita schools of Hindu philosophies: [33] [34]

Madhva and his followers introduced kevala-pramaana as the "knowledge of an object as it is", separate from anu-pramana described above. [42]

Madhva's Dvaita school holds that Vishnu as a God, who is also Hari, Krishna, Vasudeva and Narayana, can only be known through the proper samanvaya (connection) and pramana of the Vedic scriptural teachings. [43] [44] Vishnu, according to Madhvacharya, is not the creator of the Vedas, but the teacher of the Vedas. [43] Madhva's school of thought assert, knowledge is intrinsically valid, and the knower and the known are independently real. [43] Both the ritual part (karma-kanda, Mimamsa) and the knowledge part (jnana-kanda, Upanishadic Vedanta) in the Vedas, asserted Madhvacharya, are equally valid and interconnected whole. [43] As asserted by the Mimamsa school of Hindu philosophy, Madhvacharya held that the Vedas are author-less, and that their truth is in all of its parts (i.e. the saṃhitas, brāhmaņas, āraņyakās and upanișads)... [43]

Metaphysics

The metaphysical reality is plural, stated Madhvacharya. [7] There are primarily two tattvas or categories of reality — svatantra tattva (independent reality) and asvatantra tattva (dependent reality). [44] Ishvara (as God Vishnu or Krishna) is the cause of the universe and the only independent reality, in Madhvacharya's view. [44] The created universe is the dependent reality, consisting of Jīva (individual souls) and Jada (matter, material things). [7] Individual souls are plural, different and distinct realities. Jīvas are sentient and matter is non-sentient, according to Madhvacharya. [7] [45]

Madhva further enumerates the difference between dependent and independent reality as a fivefold division (pancha-bheda) between God, souls and material things. [28] These differences are: [7] [14] (1) Between material things; (2) Between material thing and soul; (3) Between material thing and God; (4) Between souls; and (5) Between soul and God.

This difference is neither temporary nor merely practical; it is an invariable and natural property of everything. Madhva calls it Taratamya (gradation in pluralism). [44] There is no object like another, according to Madhvacharya. There is no soul like another. All souls are unique, reflected in individual personalities. The sea is full; the tank is full; a pot is full; everything is full, yet each fullness is different, asserted Madhvacharya. [44] [46]

According to Madhvacharya, even in liberation (moksha), the bliss is different for each person based on each's degree of knowledge and spiritual perfection. [46] [45] This liberation according to him, is only achievable with grace of God Vishnu. [19]

Nature of the Brahman

Madhva conceptualised Brahman as a being who enjoys His own bliss, while the entire universe evolves through a nebulous chaos. [47] He manifests, every now and then, to help the evolution process. The four primary manifestation of Him as the Brahman are, according to Madhva, Vasudeva, Pradyumna, Aniruddha and Sankarasana, which are respectively responsible for the redemptive, creative, sustaining and destructive aspects in the universe. [47] His secondary manifestations are many, and all manifestations are at par with each other, it is the same infinite no matter how He manifests. [48] Brahman is the creator of the universe, perfect in knowledge, perfect in knowing, perfect in its power, and distinct from souls, distinct from matter. [48] For liberation, mere intellectual conceptualization of Brahman as creator is not enough, the individual soul must feel attraction, love, attachment and devotional surrender to Him, and only His grace leads to redemption and liberation, according to Madhva. [19] [49] [50]

The Vishnu as Brahman concept of Madhvacharya is a concept similar to God in major world religions. [51] [52] His writings led some early colonial-era Indologists such as George Abraham Grierson to suggest the 13th-century Madhva was influenced by Christianity, [11] but later scholarship has rejected this theory. [19] [53]

Soteriology

Madhvacharya considered Jnana Yoga and Karma Yoga to be insufficient to the path of liberation without Bhakti. [54] [55] Krishna was the supreme God to Madhva, who can only be reached through Vayu – the son of God; he further states, faith leads to the grace of God, and grace leads to the liberation of soul. [54]

The knowledge of God, for Madhvacharya, is not a matter of intellectual acceptance of the concept, but an attraction, affection, constant attachment, loving devotion and complete surrender to the grace of God. [56] He rejects monist theories believing that knowledge liberates, asserting instead that it is Divine grace through Bhakti that liberates. [57] To Madhva, God obscures reality by creating Maya and Prakriti, which causes bondage and suffering; and only God can be the source of soul's release. [58] Liberation occurs when, with the grace of God, one knows the true nature of self and the true nature of God. [59]

Ethics

Evil and suffering in the world, according to Madhvacharya, originates in man, and not God. [60] Every Jiva (individual soul) is the agent of actions, not Jada (matter), and not Ishvara (God). [61] While Madhva asserts each individual self is the Kartritva (real agency), the self is not an absolutely independent agent to him. [62] This is because, states Madhva, the soul is influenced by sensory organs, one's physical body and such material things which he calls as gifts of God. [62] Man has free will, but is influenced by his innate nature, inclinations and past karma. [62]

Madhvacharya asserts, Yathecchasi tatha kuru, which Sharma translates and explains as "one has the right to choose between right and wrong, a choice each individual makes out of his own responsibility and his own risk". [62] Madhva does not address the problem of evil, that is how can evil exist with that of a God who is omnipotent, omniscient, and omnibenevolent. [63] [64] According to Sharma, "Madhva's tripartite classification of souls makes it unnecessary to answer the problem of evil". [65] According to David Buchta, this does not address the problem of evil, because the omnipotent God "could change the system, but chooses not to" and thus sustains the evil in the world. [63] This view of self's agency of Madhvacharya was, states Buchta, an outlier in Vedanta school and Indian philosophies in general. [63]

This accusation of David Buchta is answered by the arrangement that the tripartite characteristic is intrinsic of the souls. That is to say, those characteristics define the soul. And any attempt to change that would mean replacing souls themselves. Seeing no point in repairing the prevalent characteristics if the very identity of the souls is in danger, the omnipotent does not change them. Thus answering the problem of evil.

Moral laws and ethics exist, according to Madhva, and are necessary for the grace of God and for liberation. [66]

Views on other schools

Madhvacharya was a fierce critic of competing Vedanta schools, [67] and other schools of Indian philosophies such as Buddhism and Jainism. [68] [69] [70] He wrote up arguments against twenty one ancient and medieval era Indian scholars to help establish the foundations of his own school of thought. [19]

Madhvacharya was fiercest critic of Advaita Vedanta, accusing Shankara and Advaitins for example, as "deceitful demons" teaching Buddhism under the cover of Vedanta. [28] Advaita's nondualism asserts that Atman (soul) and Brahman are blissful and identical, unchanging transcendent Reality, there is interconnected oneness of all souls and Brahman, and there are no pluralities. [7] [16] Madhva in contrast asserts that Atman (soul) and Brahman are different, only Vishnu is the Lord (Brahman), individual souls are also different and depend on Vishnu, and there are pluralities. [7] [16] Madhva criticized Advaita as being a version of Mahayana Buddhism, which he regarded as nihilistic. [71] Of all schools, Madhva focussed his criticism on Advaita most, and he wrote four major texts, including Upadhikhandana and Tattvadyota, primarily dedicated to criticizing Advaita. [71]

Madhvacharya disagreed with aspects of Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita. [67] Vishishtadvaita school, a realist system of thought like Madhvacharya's Dvaita school, also asserts that Jiva (human souls) and Brahman (as Vishnu) are different, a difference that is never transcended. [16] [72] God Vishnu alone is independent, all other gods and beings are dependent on Him, according to both Madhvacharya and Ramanuja. [50] However, in contrast to Madhvacharya's views, Vishishtadvaita school asserts "qualified non-dualism", [7] that souls share the same essential nature of Brahman, [7] and that there is a universal sameness in the quality and degree of bliss possible for human souls, and every soul can reach the bliss state of God Himself. [16] [73] While the older school of Vishishtadvaita asserted "qualitative monism and quantitative pluralism of souls", states Sharma, Madhvacharya asserted both "qualitative and quantitative pluralism of souls". [74]

Shankara's Advaita school and Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita school are premised on the assumption that all souls can hope for and achieve the state of blissful liberation; in contrast, Madhvacharya posited that some souls enjoy spreading chaos and irreligion, and even enjoy being eternally doomed and damned as such. [75] [76] [77]

Madhvacharya's style of criticism of other schools of Indian philosophy was part of the ancient and medieval Indian tradition. He was part of the Vedanta school, which emerged in post-Vedic period as the most influential of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, and his targeting of Advaita tradition, states Bryant, reflects it being the most influential of Vedanta schools. [78]

Influence

Sri Krishna Temple, Udupi
Udupi - Scenes of Sri Krishna Temple12.jpg
Udupi, Sri Krishna Temple established by Madhvacharya
Udupi-krishnaa.jpg
Sri Krishna Temple idol installed by Madhvacharya, Udupi

Madhvacharya extended an independent, original philosophy in the inference of Vaishnavism. [46]

The Madhwa Sampradaya fostered Bhakti and search of Knowledge. Madhwacharya and his ascetic followers propagated the Dvaita Siddhanta through their commentaries and critical lectures. Such literature and works for critical thinking were written majorly in Sanskrit and not readily accessible to common people . An alternate avenue evolved organically by Sishyas or Bhaktas of teh Madhwa Philosophy who studied these core books, read philosophy, practised asceticism though living a householder's life, dedicated themselves to the service of God. This set of followers undertook the mission of carrying Madhva's teaching to the four comers of the country using Kannada or the local language as a vehicle of communication. These spirited missionaries were known as the Hari-Dasas. The HariDasas pioneered in breaking the shackles of caste, creed and regionalism - they practiced devotion in its purest form and were instrumental in delivering the marvels of Madhwa Siddhantha to the common man by way of songs, suladees and Bhakti Dasa Sahitya. These Haridasas came to be known as the Dasa Section or Dasa-Kuta of the Madhwa Sampradaya in contrast with the Vyaasa-Kuta who were Scholars, Pandits or teachers of literature & critical thought.

There is no difference between the Vyasa-kuta and Dasa-Kuta in their learning, training, or approach to philosophy. While Vyasa-Kuta being scholars, Acharyas or Pandits strongly believed in acquiring Jnaana/Knowledge traditionally, the Dasa-Kuta simplified the acquired knowledge into Bhakti or devotion. The terms ‘Dasaru’ and ‘Vyasaru’ first came into vogue at the time of Purandaradasa and his religious preceptor, Vyasaraya. Over time, ‘Vyasakuta’ meant the branch of devotees who were well-versed in Sanskrit and who knew the philosophy in the original, and ' Dasakuta' or Dasa Dasapantha, [79] meant that branch of devotees who conveyed the meassage of Dvaita philosophy through simplified vernacular Bhakti movement. [80]

Other influential subschools of Vaishnavism competed with the ideas of Madhvacharya, such as the Chaitanya subschool, whose Jiva Gosvami asserts only Krishna is "Svayam Bhagavan" (supreme form of God), in contrast to Madhva who asserts that all Vishnu avatars are equal and identical, with both sharing the belief that emotional devotion to God is the means to spiritual liberation. [81] Chaitanya Mahaprabhu(1496-1534) is said to be a disciple of Isvara Puri who was a disciple of Madhavendra Puri who was a disciple of Lakshmipati Tirtha who was a disciple of Vyasatirtha(1469-1539) of Madhvacharya's Sampradaya. [82] According to Sharma, the influence of Madhva's Dvaita ideas have been most prominent on the Chaitanya school of Bengal Vaishnavism, [83] and in Assam. [79]

A subsect of Gaudiya Vaishnavas from Orissa and West Bengal claim to be followers of Madhvacharya. Madhva established in Udupi Krishna Matha attached to a god Krishna temple. Gaudiya Vaishnavas also worship Krishna, who is in the mode of Vrindavana. [84]

Hindu-Christian-Muslim controversies

Madhvacharya was misperceived and misrepresented by both Christian missionaries and Hindu writers during the colonial era scholarship. [85] [86] The similarities in the primacy of one God, dualism and distinction between man and God, devotion to God, the son of God as the intermediary, predestination, the role of grace in salvation, as well as the similarities in the legends of miracles in Christianity and Madhvacharya's Dvaita tradition fed these stories. [85] [86] Among Christian writers, GA Grierson creatively asserted that Madhva's ideas evidently were "borrowed from Christianity, quite possibly promulgated as a rival to the central doctrine of that faith". [87] Among Hindu writers, according to Sarma, SC Vasu creatively translated Madhvacharya's works to identify Madhvacharya with Christ, rather than compare their ideas. [88]

Modern scholarship rules out the influence of Christianity on Madhvacharya, [11] [19] as there is no evidence that there ever was a Christian settlement where Madhvacharya grew up and lived, or that there was a sharing or discussion of ideas between someone with knowledge of the Bible and Christian legends, and him. [86] [89]

There are also assumptions Madhva was influenced by Islam. [90] The Madhvavijaya [90] tells about Madhva meeting the Sultan of Delhi and saying to him in fluent Persian that both worship the same one God of the universe, and that he spreads the faith in God. [91] [ dubious ] The sultan is said to have been so impressed by this that he wanted give half of the empire to Madhva, which he refused. [92] [ dubious ] However, the indologist and religious scholar Helmuth von Glasenapp assumes that monotheism can also be derived from the Indian intellectual world, [90] and that there is no reason supporting the theory that Madhva's views on afterlife were influenced by Muslim or Christian impulses. [93]

Monasteries

The Entrance to Sri Krishna Matha at Udupi Udupi Sri Krishna Matha Temple.jpg
The Entrance to Sri Krishna Matha at Udupi
Madhvacharya idol at Pajaka. Download (23).jpg
Madhvacharya idol at Pajaka.

Madhvacharya established eight mathas (monasteries) in Udupi with his eight disciples as its head along with Adi Matha. These are referred to as Madhva mathas, or Udupi ashta matha, and include Palimaru matha, Adamaru matha, Krishnapura matha, Puttige matha, Shirur matha, Sodhe matha, Kaniyooru matha and Pejavara matha. [94] These eight surround the Anantheswara Krishna Hindu temple. [94] The matha are laid out in a rectangle, the temples on a square grid pattern. [94] The monks in the matha are sannyasis, and the tradition of their studies and succession (Paryaya system) were established by Madhvacharya. [94] The monastery has a pontiff system, that rotates after a fixed period of time. The pontiff is called Swamiji, and he leads daily Krishna prayers according to Madhva tradition, [95] as well as annual festivals. [96] The process and Vedic mantra rituals for Krishna worship in Dvaita monasteries follow the procedure written by Madhvacharya in Tantrasara. [96] The Krishna worship neither involves bali (sacrifice) nor any fire rituals. [96] The succession ceremony in Dvaita school involves the outgoing Swamiji welcoming the incoming one, then walking together to the icon of Madhvacharya at the entrance of Krishna temple in Udupi, offering water to him, expressing reverence then handing over the same vessel with water that Madhvacharya used when he handed over the leadership of the monastery he founded. [95] The monastery include kitchens, bhojan-shala, run by monks and volunteers. [97] These serve food daily to nearly 15,000 to 20,000 monks, students and visiting pilgrims without social discrimination. [97] During succession ceremonies, over 80,000 people are served a vegetarian meal by Udupi bhojan-shalas. [97]

Madhvacharya established Adi Matha with his disciple Padmanabha Tirtha as its head with the instructions that his disciples Narahari Tirtha, Madhava Tirtha and Akshobhya Tirtha should inturn become the successors of this matha. Padmanabha Tirtha and his descendants such as Narahari Tirtha, Akshobhya Tirtha, Jayatirtha, Sripadaraja, Vyasatirtha, Raghuttama Tirtha, Vijayendra Tirtha, Raghavendra Tirtha, Vidyadhisha Tirtha, Sumatindra Tirtha, Satyanatha Tirtha and Satyabodha Tirtha are responsible for the spread of Dvaita Vedanta outside Tulu Nadu region. [98] [99] [100] All the mathas outside of the Tulu region are one way or the other descended from Padmanabha Tirtha. According to Surendranath Dasgupta, Uttaradi Math was divided twice, and so we end up with three mathas, the other two being Vyasaraja Math and Raghavendra Math. [101] Uttaradi Math, along with Vyasaraja Math and Raghavendra Math, is considered to be the three premier apostolic institutions of Dvaita Vedanta and are jointly referred as Mathatraya. [102] [101] [103] It is the pontiffs and pandits of the Mathatraya that have been the principle architects of post-Madhva Dvaita Vedanta through the centuries. [104] Among the mathas outside of Tulu Nadu region, Uttaradi Matha is the largest. [105]

Including those in Udupi, there are twenty-four Madhva mathas in India. [95] The main center of Madhva's tradition is in Karnataka. [95]

Professor Kiyokazu Okita and Indologist B. N. K. Sharma says, Sannyasis in the lineage of Dvaita school of Vedanta belongs to Ēkadaṇḍi tradition just like the Sanyasi's of Advaita of Adi Shankara. [106]

Film

In 1986 a film directed by G. V. Iyer named Madhvacharya was premiered, it was one of the films made entirely in Kannada language. [107] [108]

See also

Notes

  1. Quote from Bartley: Madhvacharya, the founder, prohibited outsiders from reading certain texts and from learning from teachers. These restrictions on eligibility, it is claimed, "insulated his position from criticism and evaluation." [31]

Related Research Articles

Vedanta, also Uttara Mīmāṃsā, is one of the six (āstika) schools of Hindu philosophy. Literally meaning "end of the Vedas", Vedanta reflects ideas that emerged from, or were aligned with, the speculations and philosophies contained in the Upanishads, specifically, knowledge and liberation. Vedanta contains many sub-traditions on the basis of a common textual connection called the Prasthanatrayi: the Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita.

Dvaita Vedanta School of thought in Hinduism

Tattvavada, is a sub-school in the Vedanta tradition of Hindu philosophy. Alternatively known as Bhedavāda, Bimbapratibimbavāda, Pūrnabrahmavāda and Svatantra-Advitiya-Brahmavāda, the Dvaita Vedanta sub-school was founded by the 13th-century scholar Madhvacharya. The Dvaita Vedanta school believes that God and the individual souls (jīvātman) exist as independent realities, and these are distinct, being said that Vishnu (Narayana) is independent, and souls are dependent on him. The Dvaita school contrasts with the other two major sub-schools of Vedanta, the Advaita Vedanta of Adi Shankara which posits nondualism – that ultimate reality (Brahman) and human soul (Ātman) are identical and all reality is interconnected oneness, and Vishishtadvaita of Ramanuja which posits qualified nondualism – that ultimate reality (Brahman) and human soul are different but with the potential to be identical. Sanyasi's of Dvaita Vedanta order belongs paramahamsa tradition.

Ramanuja Hindu philosopher, exegete of Vishishtadvaita Vedanta school

Ramanuja, also known as Ramanujacharya, was an Indian Hindu philosopher, guru and a social reformer. He is noted to be one of the most important exponents of the Sri Vaishnavism tradition within Hinduism. His philosophical foundations for devotionalism were influential to the Bhakti movement.

The standard problem of evil found in monotheistic religions does not apply to almost all traditions of Hinduism because it does not posit an omniscient, omnipotent, omnibenevolent creator.

<i>Matha</i> Hindu monastery

A matha, also written as math, muth, mutth, mutt, or mut, is a Sanskrit word that means 'institute or college', and it also refers to a monastery in Hinduism. An alternative term for such a monastery is adheenam.

Vyasatirtha 16th-century Indian philosopher

Vyāsatīrtha, also called Vyasaraja or Chandrikacharya, was a Hindu philosopher, scholar, polemicist, commentator and poet belonging to the Madhwacharya's Dvaita order of Vedanta. As the patron saint of the Vijayanagara Empire, Vyasatirtha was at the forefront of a golden age in Dvaita which saw new developments in dialectical thought, growth of the Haridasa literature under bards like Purandara Dasa and Kanaka Dasa and an amplified spread of Dvaita across the subcontinent. Three of his polemically themed doxographical works Nyayamruta, Tatparya Chandrika and Tarka Tandava documented and critiqued an encyclopaedic range of sub-philosophies in Advaita, Visistadvaita, Mahayana Buddhism, Mimamsa and Nyaya, revealing internal contradictions and fallacies. His Nyayamruta caused a significant stir in the Advaita community across the country requiring a rebuttal by Madhusudhana Saraswati through his text, Advaitasiddhi. He is considered as an amsha of Prahlada.

The concept of God in Hinduism varies in its diverse traditions. Hinduism spans a wide range of beliefs such as henotheism, monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism, pandeism, monism, agnosticism, atheism and nontheism.

Sri Vaishnavism One of the major Vaishnava Sampradaya

Sri Vaishnavism, or the Sri Vaishnava Sampradaya, is a denomination within the Vaishnavism tradition of Hinduism. The name refers to goddess Lakshmi, as well as a prefix that means "sacred, revered", and the god Vishnu, who are together revered in this tradition.

Madhva tradition Tradition in Hinduism linked to Dvaita Vedanta

Madhva Traditon (originally named Sadh Vaishnavism and Brahma Sampradaya, is a denomination within the Vaishnavism—Bhagavata tradition of Hinduism, founded by the thirteenth century philosopher Madhvacharya. It is a movement in Hinduism that developed during its classical period around the beginning of the Common Era. Philosophically, Madhva tradition is aligned with Dvaita Vedanta, and regards Madhvacharya as its founder or reformer.

Vishnu Tirtha (Subhaktiman) is a scholar of the Dvaita school of Vedanta philosophy and the founder of the monasteries at Sodhe and Subramanya. He left his home after his parents died to join the order of Brahma Sampradaya. He was initiated into the order by his older brother Madhvacharya, the founder of the Dvaita school. Subhaktiman was rechristened Vishnu Tirtha after the initiation. He was succeeded by Aniruddha Tirtha at the Subramanya monastery. He also had an elder sister.

Uttaradi Math Hindu monastery

Shri Uttaradi Math, is one of the premier monasteries (matha) founded by Madhvacharya to preserve and propagate Sanatana dharma and Dvaita Vedanta (Tattvavada) with Padmanabha Tirtha as its head. The Uttaradi Math is an important institution among the Madhvas and also deeply respected among the Vaishnavas and the other Hindus. Most of the Deshastha Madhvas and majority of Madhvas outside Tulu Nadu region are followers of this matha. Uttaradi Math has followers across Karnataka (outside Tulunadu region), Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Bihar regions.

Achintya Bheda Abheda Philosophical school of Vendata

Achintya-Bheda-Abheda is a school of Vedanta representing the philosophy of inconceivable one-ness and difference. In Sanskrit achintya means 'inconceivable', bheda translates as 'difference', and abheda translates as 'non-difference'.

Vijayindra Tirtha Indian philosopher

Vijayīndra Tīrtha(also known as Vijayendra Tīrtha) was a Dvaita philosopher and dialectician. A prolific writer and an unrelenting polemicist, he is said to have authored 104 treatises expounding the principles of Dvaita and defending it against attacks from the contemporary orthodox schools of Vedanta. He held the pontifical seat at Kumbakonam under the rule of Thanjavur Nayaks where he participated in polemical discussions with the Advaita philosopher Appayya Dikshita Inscriptions from that era record grants of villages received by Vijayindra for his triumph over theological debates. Legend ascribes to him mastery over 64 arts and his erudition, writes Sharma, "is evident from a few of his works bearing on Purva Mimamsa, Nyaya and Kavya literature".

Madhva Brahmins Indian Hindu Brahmin communities

Madhva Brahmins, are Hindu Brahmin communities in India, who follow Sadh Vaishnavism and Dvaita philosophy propounded by Madhvacharya. They are found mostly in the Indian states of Karnataka, Maharashtra, Goa, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.

Raghuttama Tirtha Hindu guru

Raghuttama Tirtha was an Indian philosopher, scholar, theologian and saint. He was also known as Bhavabodhacharya. His diverse oeuvre include commentaries on the works of Madhva and Jayatirtha. He served as the fourteenth pontiff of Madhvacharya Peetha - Uttaradi Math from 1557-1595, which he occupied, with remarkable distinction for thirty-nine years. He is considered to be one of the most important seers in the history of Dvaita school of thought. His shrine at Tirukoilur attracts thousands of visitors every year.

Vidyadhiraja Tirtha Indian philosopher and Scholar

Vidyadhiraja Tirtha was a Hindu philosopher, dialectician and the seventh pontiff of Madhvacharya Peetha and served as peetadhipathi from.

Satyanatha Tirtha 17th-century Indian philosopher

Satyanatha Tirtha ; IAST:Śrī Satyanātha Tīrtha), also called Abhinava Vyasaraja, was a Hindu philosopher, scholar, theologian, logician and dialectician belonging to the Dvaita order of Vedanta. He served as the twentieth pontiff of Uttaradi Math from 1660 to 1673. He was a fiery and prolific writer and very ambitious of the glory of Dvaita Vedanta. He is considered to be one of the stalwarts in the history of the Dvaita school of thought, on account of his sound elucidations of the works of Madhvacharya, Jayatirtha and Vyasatirtha. Three of his polemically themed doxographical works are reminiscent of "Vyasatraya". His refutation work Abhinava Gada is a devastating criticism of Appayya's Madhvamathamukhamardhana. His independent treatise Abhinava Chandrika is considered a brilliant work relating to the Brahma Sūtras, being a commentary on Jayatirtha's Tattvaprakashika. His work Abhinava Tarka Tandava refuted the works of rival systems, especially those of Prabhākara of Mimamsa, Ramanuja's Visistadvaita, and Gangesha Upadhyaya, Raghunatha Siromani of the Nyaya school, on the same lines as Vyasatirtha's Tarka Tandava. Indologist B.N.K.Sharma wrote, "His energy and determination to crush out the rivalry of Monism is reflected even in the choice of the titles of some of his works, four of which go by the name "Paraśus" ".

Satyadhyana Tirtha Hindu guru

Satyadhyana Tirtha was an Indian Hindu philosopher, scholar, yogi, mystic, theologian and saint. He was the 38th pontiff of Uttaradi Math and served the pontificate from 1911-1942. He was considered most active and zealous pontiffs of 20th century. He was an untiring propagandist, the best debater of his days and almost a terror to his adversaries in philosophical polemics. It was at his initiative and inspiration that a splendid Marathi translation of Madhva's Brahmasutra Bhashya, with the Tatvaprakashika of Jayatirtha was published for the benefit of a large number of followers of Madhvacharya in Maharashtra. He made extensive tours all over India, held disputations and published polemical tracts and phamplets in many languages in North and South India for free distribution. He started, Sriman Madhva Siddhanta Abhivruddhikarini Sabha around 1905-06 and registered in 1930 to promote the study of Sanskrit literature and philosophy, particularly the study of Dvaita Philosophy, to hold meetings and conferences of Madhva scholars.

Kavindra Tirtha Hindu guru

Kavīndra Tīrtha (Sanskrit:कवीन्द्रतीर्थ);, was a Dvaita philosopher, saint, scholar and the seventh peetadhipathi of Madhvacharya Peetha — Uttaradi Math from 1392-1398.

B. N. K. Sharma Sanskrit writer from India

Bhavani Narayanrao Krishnamurti Sharma, commonly known as B. N. K. Sharma or B. N. Krishnamurti Sharma, was an Indian writer, scholar, professor, and Indologist. Sharma was professor and Head of the Department of Sanskrit in Ruparel College, Bombay from (1953–1969). Sharma was one of the foremost exponents of Madhvacharya's school of Dvaita Vedanta. B. N. K. Sharma learned the art of debates under Satyadhyana Tirtha of Uttaradi Math. Sharma travelled along with Satyadhyana Tirtha from, learned all philosophical knowledge from him and also used to rectify his doubts from Satyadhyana Tirtha.

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