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Translations of
Sanskrit निर्वाण
(IAST: nirvāṇa)
Pali nibbāna
Burmese နိဗ္ဗာန်
(MLCTS: neɪʔbàɰ̃)
Chinese 涅槃
(Pinyin: nièpán)
Indonesian nirwana
Japanese 涅槃
(Rōmaji: nehan)
Khmer និព្វាន
(UNGEGN: nĭpvéan; ALA-LC: nibvān; IPA: [nippiən] )
Korean 열반
(RR: yeolban)
Mon နဳဗာန်
Mongolian Нирваан дүр
(nirvaan dür)
Shan ၼိၵ်ႈပၢၼ်ႇ
Sinhala නිර්වාණ
Tibetan མྱ་ངན་ལས་འདས་པ།
(mya ngan las 'das pa)
Tagalog nirvanna
Thai นิพพาน
(RTGS: nipphan)
Vietnamese niết bàn
Glossary of Buddhism
Translations of
Englishfreedom, liberation
Sanskrit निर्वाण
(IAST: nirvāṇa)
Bengali নির্বাণ
Gujarati નિર્વાણ
Hindi निर्वाण
Javanese ꦤꦶꦂꦮꦤ
Kannada ನಿರ್ವಾಣ
Malayalam നിർവാണം
Marathi निर्वाण
Nepali निर्वाण
Odia ନିର୍ବାଣ
Punjabi ਨਿਰਬਾਣ
Tamil வீடுபேறு
Telugu నిర్వాణం
Glossary of Hinduism terms

Nirvāṇa ( /nɪərˈvɑːnə/ neer-VAH-nə, /-ˈvænə/ -VAN-ə, /nɜːr-/ nur-; [1] Sanskrit : निर्वाणnirvāṇa [nɪɽʋaːɳɐ] ; Pali: nibbāna; Prakrit: ṇivvāṇa; literally, "blown out", as in an oil lamp [2] ) is a concept in Indian religions (Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, and Sikhism) that represents the ultimate state of soteriological release, the liberation from duḥkha and saṃsāra . [3] [web 1] [4]


In Indian religions, nirvana is synonymous with moksha and mukti. [note 1] All Indian religions assert it to be a state of perfect quietude, freedom, highest happiness as well as the liberation from attachment and worldly suffering and the ending of samsara, the round of existence. [6] [7] However, non-Buddhist and Buddhist traditions describe these terms for liberation differently. [8] In Hindu philosophy, it is the union of or the realization of the identity of Atman with Brahman, depending on the Hindu tradition. [9] [10] [11] In Jainism, nirvana is also the soteriological goal, representing the release of a soul from karmic bondage and samsara. [12] In the Buddhist context, nirvana refers to realization of non-self and emptiness, marking the end of rebirth by stilling the fires that keep the process of rebirth going. [8] [13] [14] To achieve this status, one has to get rid of three psychological evils – Raga (greed, desire), Dwesha (anger) and Moha (delusion).


The ideas of spiritual liberation, with the concept of soul and Brahman, appear in Vedic texts and Upanishads, such as in verse 4.4.6 of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. [15]

The term nirvana in the soteriological sense of "blown out, extinguished" state of liberation appears at many places in Vedas particularly in Bhagavata Purana, however populist opinion does not give credit to either the Vedas or the Upanishads. Erroneously Collins states, "the Buddhists seem to have been the first to call it nirvana." [16] This may have been deliberate use of words in early Buddhism, suggests Collins, since Atman and Brahman were described in Vedic texts and Upanishads with the imagery of fire, as something good, desirable and liberating. [17] Collins says the word nirvāṇa is from the verbal root "blow" in the form of past participle vāna "blown", prefixed with the preverb nis meaning "out". Hence the original meaning of the word is "blown out, extinguished". (Sandhi changes the sounds: the v of vāna causes nis to become nir, and then the r of nir causes retroflexion of the following n: nis+vāna > nirvāṇa). [18] However the Buddhist meaning of nirvana also has other interpretations.

L. S. Cousins said that in popular usage nirvana was "the goal of Buddhist discipline,... the final removal of the disturbing mental elements which obstruct a peaceful and clear state of mind, together with a state of awakening from the mental sleep which they induce." [19]


Nirvāṇa is a term found in the texts of all major Indian religionsHinduism, [20] Jainism [21] Buddhism, [22] and Sikhism. [23] [24] It refers to the profound peace of mind that is acquired with moksha, liberation from samsara, or release from a state of suffering, after respective spiritual practice or sādhanā. [note 2]

The liberation from Saṃsāra developed as an ultimate goal and soteriological value in the Indian culture, and called by different terms such as nirvana, moksha, mukti and kaivalya. This basic scheme underlies Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism, where "the ultimate aim is the timeless state of moksa, or, as the Buddhists first seem to have called it, nirvana." [28] Although the term occurs in the literatures of a number of ancient Indian traditions, the concept is most commonly associated with Buddhism. [web 1] Some writers believe the concept was adopted by other Indian religions after it became established in Buddhism, but with different meanings and description, for instance the use of (Moksha) in the Hindu text Bhagavad Gita of the Mahabharata . [20]

The idea of moksha is connected to the Vedic culture, where it conveyed a notion of amrtam, "immortality", [29] [30] and also a notion of a timeless, "unborn", or "the still point of the turning world of time". It was also its timeless structure, the whole underlying "the spokes of the invariable but incessant wheel of time". [note 3] The hope for life after death started with notions of going to the worlds of the Fathers or Ancestors and/or the world of the Gods or Heaven. [29] [note 4]

The earliest Vedic texts incorporate the concept of life, followed by an afterlife in heaven and hell based on cumulative virtues (merit) or vices (demerit). [31] However, the ancient Vedic Rishis challenged this idea of afterlife as simplistic, because people do not live an equally moral or immoral life. Between generally virtuous lives, some are more virtuous; while evil too has degrees, and either permanent heaven or permanent hell is disproportionate. The Vedic thinkers introduced the idea of an afterlife in heaven or hell in proportion to one's merit, and when this runs out, one returns and is reborn. [32] [33] [34] The idea of rebirth following "running out of merit" appears in Buddhist texts as well. [35] This idea appears in many ancient and medieval texts, as Saṃsāra , or the endless cycle of life, death, rebirth and redeath, such as section 6:31 of the Mahabharata [36] and verse 9.21 of the Bhagavad Gita . [37] [38] [note 5] The Saṃsara, the life after death, and what impacts rebirth came to be seen as dependent on karma. [41]


Khmer traditional mural painting depicts Gautama Buddha entering nirvana, Dharma assembly pavilion, Wat Botum Wattey Reacheveraram, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Gautama Buddha gains nirvana.jpg
Khmer traditional mural painting depicts Gautama Buddha entering nirvana, Dharma assembly pavilion, Wat Botum Wattey Reacheveraram, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Nirvana (nibbana) literally means "blowing out" or "quenching". [42] It is the most used as well as the earliest term to describe the soteriological goal in Buddhism: release from the cycle of rebirth ( saṃsāra ). [43] Nirvana is part of the Third Truth on "cessation of dukkha" in the Four Noble Truths doctrine of Buddhism. [43] It is the goal of the Noble Eightfold Path. [44]

The Buddha is believed in the Buddhist scholastic tradition to have realized two types of nirvana, one at enlightenment, and another at his death. [45] The first is called sopadhishesa-nirvana (nirvana with a remainder), the second parinirvana or anupadhishesa-nirvana (nirvana without remainder, or final nirvana). [45]

In the Buddhist tradition, nirvana is described as the extinguishing of the fires that cause rebirths and associated suffering. [46] The Buddhist texts identify these "three fires" [47] or "three poisons" as raga (greed, sensuality), dvesha (aversion, hate) and avidyā or moha (ignorance, delusion). [48] [49]

The state of nirvana is also described in Buddhism as cessation of all afflictions, cessation of all actions, cessation of rebirths and suffering that are a consequence of afflictions and actions. [43] Liberation is described as identical to anatta (anatman, non-self, lack of any self). [50] [51] In Buddhism, liberation is achieved when all things and beings are understood to be with no Self. [51] [52] Nirvana is also described as identical to achieving sunyata (emptiness), where there is no essence or fundamental nature in anything, and everything is empty. [53] [54]

In time, with the development of Buddhist doctrine, other interpretations were given, such as being an unconditioned state, [55] a fire going out for lack of fuel, abandoning weaving (vana) together of life after life, [18] and the elimination of desire. [56] However, Buddhist texts have asserted since ancient times that nirvana is more than "destruction of desire", it is "the object of the knowledge" of the Buddhist path. [57]


The most ancient texts of Hinduism such as the Vedas and early Upanishads don't mention the soteriological term Nirvana. [20] This term is found in texts such as the Bhagavad Gita [20] and the Nirvana Upanishad, likely composed in the post-Buddha era. [58] The concept of Nirvana is described differently in Buddhist and Hindu literature. [59] Hinduism has the concept of Atman – the soul, self [60] [61] [62] – asserted to exist in every living being, while Buddhism asserts through its anatman doctrine that there is no Atman in any being. [63] [64] Nirvana in Buddhism is "stilling mind, cessation of desires, and action" unto emptiness, states Jeaneane Fowler, while nirvana in post-Buddhist Hindu texts is also "stilling mind but not inaction" and "not emptiness", rather it is the knowledge of true Self (Atman) and the acceptance of its universality and unity with Brahman. [59]


The ancient soteriological concept in Hinduism is moksha, described as the liberation from the cycle of birth and death through self-knowledge and the eternal connection of Atman (soul, self) and metaphysical Brahman. Moksha is derived from the root muc* (Sanskrit : मुच्) which means free, let go, release, liberate; Moksha means "liberation, freedom, emancipation of the soul". [65] [66] In the Vedas and early Upanishads, the word mucyate (Sanskrit : मुच्यते) [65] appears, which means to be set free or release - such as of a horse from its harness.

The traditions within Hinduism state that there are multiple paths (Sanskrit : marga) to moksha: jnana-marga, the path of knowledge; bhakti-marga, the path of devotion; and karma-marga, the path of action. [67]

Brahma-nirvana in the Bhagavad Gita

The term Brahma-nirvana appears in verses 2.72 and 5.24-26 of the Bhagavad Gita. [68] It is the state of release or liberation; the union with the Brahman. [6] According to Easwaran, it is an experience of blissful egolessness. [69]

According to Zaehner, Johnson and other scholars, nirvana in the Gita is a Buddhist term adopted by the Hindus. [20] Zaehner states it was used in Hindu texts for the first time in the Bhagavad Gita, and that the idea therein in verse 2.71-72 to "suppress one's desires and ego" is also Buddhist. [20] According to Johnson the term nirvana is borrowed from the Buddhists to confuse the Buddhists, by linking the Buddhist nirvana state to the pre-Buddhist Vedic tradition of metaphysical absolute called Brahman. [20]

According to Mahatma Gandhi, the Hindu and Buddhist understanding of nirvana are different because the nirvana of the Buddhists is shunyata, emptiness, but the nirvana of the Gita means peace and that is why it is described as brahma-nirvana (oneness with Brahman). [70]


Kalpasutra folio on Mahavira Nirvana. Note the crescent shaped Siddhashila, a place where all siddhas reside after nirvana. Kalpasutra Mahavira Nirvana.jpg
Kalpasutra folio on Mahavira Nirvana. Note the crescent shaped Siddhashila, a place where all siddhas reside after nirvana.

The terms moksa and nirvana are often used interchangeably in the Jain texts. [71] [72]

Rishabhanatha, believed to have lived over a million years ago, was the first Tirthankara to attain nirvana. Photo of lord adinath bhagwan at kundalpur.JPG
Rishabhanatha, believed to have lived over a million years ago, was the first Tirthankara to attain nirvana.

Uttaradhyana Sutra provides an account of Sudharman – also called Gautama, and one of the disciples of Mahavira – explaining the meaning of nirvana to Kesi, a disciple of Parshva. [73] [note 6]

There is a safe place in view of all, but difficult of approach, where there is no old age nor death, no pain nor disease. It is what is called nirvāṇa, or freedom from pain, or perfection, which is in view of all; it is the safe, happy, and quiet place which the great sages reach. That is the eternal place, in view of all, but difficult of approach. Those sages who reach it are free from sorrows, they have put an end to the stream of existence. (81-4) – Translated by Hermann Jacobi, 1895


The concept of liberation as "extinction of suffering", along with the idea of sansara as the "cycle of rebirth" is also part of Sikhism. [74] Nirvana appears in Sikh texts as the term Nirban. [75] [76] However, the more common term is Mukti or Moksh, [77] a salvation concept wherein loving devotion to God is emphasized for liberation from endless cycle of rebirths. [76] In sikhism Nirvana is not an after life concept but a goal for the living. Furthermore Sikh nirvana/mukti is achieved thru devotion to satguru/truth who sets you free from reincarnation bharam/superstition/false belief.


The term Nirvana (also mentioned is parinirvana) is in the 13th or 14th century Manichaean work "The great song to Mani" and "The story of the Death of Mani", referring to the realm of light. [78]

See also


  1. Also called vimoksha, vimukti. The Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism: "Vimoksha [解脱] (Skt; Jpn gedatsu). Emancipation, release, or liberation. The Sanskrit words vimukti, mukti, and moksha also have the same meaning. Vimoksha means release from the bonds of earthly desires, delusion, suffering and transmigration. While Buddhism sets forth various kinds and stages of emancipation, or enlightenment, the supreme emancipation is nirvana, [5] [web 2]
  2. It is sometimes referred to as bhavana, which refers to spiritual "development" or "cultivating" or "producing" [25] [26] in the sense of "calling into existence", [27]
  3. The wheel is a typical Vedic, or Indo-European, symbol, which is manifested in various symbols of the Vedic religion and of Buddhism and Hinduism. See, for examples, Dharmacakra, Chakra, Chakravartin, Kalachakra, Dukkha and Mandala.
  4. See also Heaven (Christianity) and Walhalla
  5. Many texts discuss this theory of rebirth with the concepts of Devayana (path of gods) and Pitryana (path of fathers). [39] [40]
  6. The authenticity of this text is in doubt because Parshva, in Jain tradition, lived about 250 years before Mahavira, and his disciple Kesi would have been a few hundred years old when he met the disciple of Mahavira. See Jacobi (1895), footnotes. [73]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Reincarnation</span> Concept of rebirth in different physical form

Reincarnation, also known as rebirth or transmigration, is the philosophical or religious concept that the non-physical essence of a living being begins a new life in a different physical form or body after biological death. Resurrection is a similar process hypothesized by some religions, in which a soul comes back to life in the same body. In most beliefs involving reincarnation, the soul is seen as immortal and the only thing that becomes perishable is the body. Upon death, the soul becomes transmigrated into a new infant to live again. The term transmigration means passing of soul from one body to another after death.

Ātman is a Sanskrit word that refers to the (universal) Self or self-existent essence of individuals, as distinct from ego (Ahamkara), mind (Citta) and embodied existence (Prakṛti). The term is often translated as soul, but is better translated as "Self," as it solely refers to pure consciousness or witness-consciousness, beyond identification with phenomena. In order to attain moksha (liberation), a human being must acquire self-knowledge.

<i>Saṃsāra</i> Cyclicality of all life, matter, existence

Saṃsāra is a Pali/Sanskrit word that means "world". It is also the concept of rebirth and "cyclicality of all life, matter, existence", a fundamental belief of most Indian religions. Popularly, it is the cycle of death and rebirth. Saṃsāra is sometimes referred to with terms or phrases such as transmigration/reincarnation, karmic cycle, or Punarjanman, and "cycle of aimless drifting, wandering or mundane existence".

<i>Moksha</i> Spiritual liberation, soteriological goal in Hinduism

Moksha, also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism for various forms of emancipation, enlightenment, liberation, and release. In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth. In its epistemological and psychological senses, moksha is freedom from ignorance: self-realization, self-actualization and self-knowledge.

In Buddhism, the term anattā or anātman refers to the doctrine of "non-self" – that no unchanging, permanent self or essence can be found in any phenomenon. While often interpreted as a doctrine denying the existence of a self, anatman is more accurately described as a strategy to attain non-attachment by recognizing everything as impermanent, while staying silent on the ultimate existence of an unchanging essence. In contrast, Hinduism asserts the existence of Atman as pure awareness or witness-consciousness, "reify[ing] consciousness as an eternal self."

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Indian philosophy</span> Philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent

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Rebirth in Buddhism refers to the teaching that the actions of a sentient being lead to a new existence after death, in an endless cycle called saṃsāra. This cycle is considered to be dukkha, unsatisfactory and painful. The cycle stops only if moksha (liberation) is achieved by insight and the extinguishing of craving. Rebirth is one of the foundational doctrines of Buddhism, along with karma, Nirvana and liberation. Rebirth was however less relevant among early Buddhist teachings, which also mentioned the beliefs in an afterlife, ancestor worship, and related rites. The concept varies among different Buddhist traditions.

Ātman, attā or attan in Buddhism is the concept of self, and is found in Buddhist literature's discussion of the concept of non-self (Anatta).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Buddhism and Jainism</span> Buddhism and Jainism

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A śramaṇa or samaṇa means "one who labours, toils, or exerts themselves for some higher or religious purpose" or "seeker, one who performs acts of austerity, ascetic". During its development, the term came to refer to several non-Brahmanical ascetic religions parallel to but separate from the Vedic religion. The Śramaṇa tradition includes primarily Jainism, Buddhism, and others such as the Ājīvika.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Buddhism</span> Indian religion or philosophy based on the Buddhas teachings

Buddhism, also known as Buddha Dharma and Dharmavinaya, is an Indian religion or philosophical tradition based on teachings attributed to the Buddha. It originated in present-day North India as a śramaṇa–movement in the 5th century BCE, and gradually spread throughout much of Asia via the Silk Road. It is the world's fourth-largest religion, with over 520 million followers (Buddhists) who comprise seven percent of the global population.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Saṃsāra (Buddhism)</span> Cycle of repeated birth, mundane existence and dying again

Saṃsāra in Buddhism and Hinduism is the beginningless cycle of repeated birth, mundane existence and dying again. Samsara is considered to be dukkha, suffering, and in general unsatisfactory and painful, perpetuated by desire and avidya (ignorance), and the resulting karma.

<i>Dhyana</i> in Hinduism Term for contemplation and meditation

Dhyana in Hinduism means contemplation and meditation. Dhyana is taken up in Yoga practices, and is a means to samadhi and self-knowledge.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brahmā (Buddhism)</span> Dharma protector and deity in Buddhism

Brahmā is a leading god (deva) and heavenly king in Buddhism. He is considered as a protector of teachings (dharmapala), and he is never depicted in early Buddhist texts as a creator god. In Buddhist tradition, it was the deity Brahma Sahampati who appeared before the Buddha and invited him to teach, once the Buddha attained enlightenment.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gautama Buddha in Hinduism</span> Avatar of the god Vishnu

The historic Buddha or Gautama Buddha, is considered the ninth avatar among the ten major avatars of the god Vishnu, in Vaishnava tradition.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Buddhism and Hinduism</span> Relationship between Buddhism and Hinduism

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nirvana (Buddhism)</span> Release from rebirths in saṃsāra in Buddhism

Nirvana is "blowing out" or "quenching" of the activities of the worldly mind and its related suffering. Nirvana is the goal of the Hinayana and Theravada Buddhist paths, and marks the soteriological release from worldly suffering and rebirths in saṃsāra. Nirvana is part of the Third Truth on "cessation of dukkha" in the Four Noble Truths, and the "summum bonum of Buddhism and goal of the Eightfold Path."

<i>Brahman</i> Metaphysical concept, unchanging Ultimate Reality in Hinduism

In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest universal principle, the ultimate reality in the universe. In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists. It is the pervasive, infinite, eternal truth, consciousness and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept refers to the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe.

Anātman in Sanskrit means that "which is different from atman" or "non-self". In Hinduism, the former definition is found in some texts, while in Buddhism, anātman or anattā means non-self.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Buddhist influences on Advaita Vedanta</span>

Advaita Vedanta and Mahayana Buddhism share significant similarities. Those similarities have attracted Indian and Western scholars attention, and have also been criticised by concurring schools. The similarities have been interpreted as Buddhist influences on Advaita Vedanta, though some deny such influences, or see them as expressions of the same eternal truth.


  1. "nirvana". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary .
  2. Richard Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benāres to Modern Colombo. Routledge
  3. Chad Meister (2009). Introducing Philosophy of Religion. Routledge. p. 25. ISBN   978-1-134-14179-1. Buddhism: the soteriological goal is nirvana, liberation from the wheel of samsara and extinction of all desires, cravings and suffering.
  4. Kristin Johnston Largen. What Christians Can Learn from Buddhism: Rethinking Salvation. Fortress Press. pp. 107–108. ISBN   978-1-4514-1267-3. One important caveat must be noted: for many lay Buddhists all over the world, rebirth in a higher realm – rather than realizing nirvana – has been the primary religious goal. [...] while many Buddhists strongly emphasize the soteriological value of the Buddha's teaching on nirvana [escape from samsara], many other Buddhists focus their practice on more tangible goals, in particular on the propitious rebirth in one's next life.
  5. "IN THE PRESENCE OF NIBBANA:Developing Faith in the Buddhist Path to Enlightenment". Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  6. 1 2 Gavin Flood, Nirvana. In: John Bowker (ed.), Oxford Dictionary of World Religions
  7. Anindita N. Balslev (2014). On World Religions: Diversity, Not Dissension. SAGE Publications. pp. 28–29. ISBN   978-93-5150-405-4.
  8. 1 2 Loy, David (1982). "Enlightenment in Buddhism and Advaita Vedanta". International Philosophical Quarterly. Philosophy Documentation Center. 22 (1): 65–74. doi:10.5840/ipq19822217. What most distinguishes Indian from Western philosophy is that all the important Indian systems point to the same phenomenon: Enlightenment or Liberation. Enlightenment has different names in the various systems – kaivalya, nirvana, moksha, etc. – and is described in different ways...
  9. Brian Morris (2006). Religion and Anthropology: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge University Press. p. 51. ISBN   978-0-521-85241-8. There has been some dispute as to the exact meaning of nirvana, but clearly the Buddhist theory of no soul seems to imply quite a different perspective from that of Vedantist philosophy, in which the individual soul or self [atman] is seen as identical with the world soul or Brahman [god] (on the doctrine of anatta [no soul] ...
  10. Gwinyai H. Muzorewa (2000). The Great Being. Wipf. pp. 52–54. ISBN   978-1-57910-453-5. Even the Atman depends on the Brahman. In fact, the two are essentially the same. [...] Hindu theology believes that the Atman ultimately becomes one with the Brahman. One's true identity lies in realizing that the Atman in me and the Brahman - the ground of all existence - are similar. [...] The closest kin of Atman is the Atman of all living things, which is grounded in the Brahman. When the Atman strives to be like Brahman it is only because it realizes that that is its origin - God. [...] Separation between the Atman and the Brahman is proved to be impermanent. What is ultimately permanent is the union between the Atman and the Brahman. [...] Thus, life's struggle is for the Atman to be released from the body, which is impermanent, to unite with Brahman, which is permanent - this doctrine is known as Moksha.
  11. Fowler 2012, p. 46: "Shankara interpreted the whole of the Gita as extolling the path of knowledge as the best means to moksha, and a total identity of the atman with Brahman...,
  12. John E. Cort (1990), MODELS OF AND FOR THE STUDY OF THE JAINS, Method & Theory in the Study of Religion, Vol. 2, No. 1, Brill Academic, pages 42-71
  13. Collins 1990, pp. 81–84.
  14. Peter Harvey (2001). Buddhism. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 98–99. ISBN   978-1-4411-4726-4. [Nirvana is] beyond the processes involved in dying and reborn. [...] Nirvana is emptiness in being void of any grounds for the delusion of a permanent, substantial Self, and because it cannot be conceptualized in any view which links it to 'I' or 'mine' or 'Self'. It is known in this respect by one with deep insight into everything as not-Self (anatta), empty of Self.
  15. Max Müller (2011). Theosophy Or Psychological Religion. Cambridge University Press. pp. 307–310. ISBN   978-1-108-07326-4.
  16. Collins 1998, pp. 137–138.
  17. Collins 1998, p. 216–217.
  18. 1 2 Collins 2010, pp. 63–64.
  19. The Concise Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2000. p.  632.
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fowler 2012, p. 48.
  21. Helmuth von Glasenapp (1999). Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 234, 492. ISBN   978-81-208-1376-2.
  22. Trainor 2004, p. 68.
  23. Pruthi 2004, p. 200.
  24. Duiker & Spielvogel 2008, pp. 52–53.
  25. Pali Text Society (1921–1925). "Bhāvanā". The Pali Text Society's Pali-English dictionary. London: Chipstead. p. 503. Retrieved 27 January 2022 via Digital Dictionaries of South Asia.
  26. Monier-Williams (1899). "Bhāvana" and "Bhāvanā" (PDF). p. 755. Retrieved 9 December 2008 via U. Cologne.
  27. Nyanatiloka 1980, p. 67.
  28. Collins 2010, p. 31.
  29. 1 2 Collins 2010, p. 29.
  30. Collins 1998, p. 136.
  31. James Hastings; John Alexander Selbie; Louis Herbert Gray (1922). Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics. T. & T. Clark. pp. 616–618. ISBN   9780567065124.
  32. Frazier 2011, pp. 84–86.
  33. Atsushi Hayakawa (2014). Circulation of Fire in the Veda. LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 101–103 with footnote 262. ISBN   978-3-643-90472-0. The concept of punarmrtyu appeared, which conveys that even those who participated in rituals die again in the life after death when the merit of the ritual runs out.
  34. Krishan, Yuvraj (1997). The Doctrine of Karma: Its Origin and Development in Brāhmaṇical, Buddhist, and Jaina Traditions. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. pp. 17–27. ISBN   9788120812338.;
    The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 8. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1998. p. 533. ISBN   978-0-85229-633-2. [These Upanishadic texts] record the traditions of sages (Rishis) of the period, notably Yajnavalkya, who was a pioneer of new religious ideas. [...] Throughout the Vedic period, the idea that the world of heaven was not the end – and that even in heaven death was inevitable – had been growing. [...] This doctrine of samsara (reincarnation) is attributed to sage Uddalaka Aruni, [...] In the same text, the doctrine of karma (actions) is attributed to Yajnavalkya...
  35. Patrul Rinpoche (1998). The Words of My Perfect Teacher. Boston: Shambhala. pp. 95–96. ISBN   978-0-7619-9027-7. After enjoying the happiness of a celestial realm, when his merit runs out he will be reborn here.
    Patrul Rinpoche (1998). "The Words of My Perfect Teacher" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 May 2017.
  36. Frazier 2011, pp. 84–86, Quote: "They reach the holy world of Indra and enjoy the celestial pleasures of the gods in heaven, but having enjoyed the vast world of heaven, they come back to the world of mortals when their merit runs out. So, by following the injunctions of the three Vedas with a desire for pleasures, they get to travel to and fro. (Mahābhārata 6.31:20–1)".
  37. Christopher Key Chapple, ed. (2010). The Bhagavad Gita: Twenty-fifth–Anniversary Edition. Translated by Winthrop Sargeant. State University of New York Press. p. 397. ISBN   978-1-4384-2840-6. Having enjoyed the vast world of heaven, they enter the world of mortals when their merit is exhausted. Thus conforming to the law of the three Vedas, Desiring enjoyments, they obtain the state of going and returning.
  38. Yuvraj Krishan (1988), Is Karma Evolutionary?, Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research, Volume 6, pages 24-26
  39. Surendranath Dasgupta (1956). A History of Indian Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 520–522.
  40. Paul Deussen (2015). The System of the Vedanta: According to Badarayana's Brahma-Sutras and Shankara's Commentary thereon. KB Classics. pp. 357–359. ISBN   978-1-5191-1778-6.
  41. Collins 2010, p. 30.
  42. Collins 1998, p. 191.
  43. 1 2 3 Buswell & Lopez 2014, pp. 589–590.
  44. Keown 2004, pp. 194–195.
  45. 1 2 Buswell & Lopez 2014, p. 590.
  46. "nirvana". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  47. Gombrich 2006, p. 65.
  48. Gombrich 2006, p. 66.
  49. Buswell & Lopez 2014, p. 589.
  50. Collins 1990 , pp. 82, 84: "Like all other things or concepts (dhammā) it is anattā, 'not-self. Whereas all 'conditioned things' (samkhāra - that is, all things produced by karma) are 'unsatisfactory and impermanent' (sabbe samkhāra dukkhā . . . aniccā) all dhammā whatsoever, whether conditioned things or the unconditioned nibbāna, are 'not-self (sabbe dhammā anattā). [...] The absolute indescribability of nirvana, along with its classification as anattā, 'not-self, has helped to keep the separation intact, precisely because of the impossibility of mutual discourse."
  51. 1 2 Sue Hamilton (2000). Early Buddhism: A New Approach : the I of the Beholder. Routledge. pp. 18–21. ISBN   978-0-7007-1280-9. Quote: "The corrected interpretation they offered, widely accepted to his day, still associated anatta with nirvana. What it means, it was now states, is that in order to achieve liberation you need to understand that you are not, and nor do you have, and nor have you ever been or had, an abiding self."
  52. Paul Williams; Anthony Tribe (2000). Buddhist Thought. Routledge. p. 61. ISBN   978-0-415-20701-0. He makes no mention of discovering the True Self in the Anattalakkhana Sutta. As we have seen, the Buddha explains how liberation comes from letting-go of all craving and attachment simply through seeing that things are not Self anatta. That is all there is to it. One cuts the force that leads to rebirth and suffering. There is no need to postulate a Self beyond all this. Indeed any postulated Self would lead to attachment, for it seems that for the Buddha a Self fitting the description could legitimately be a suitable subject of attachment. There is absolutely no suggestion that the Buddha thought there is some additional factor called the Self (or with any other name, but fitting the Self-description) beyond the five aggregates.
  53. Mun-Keat Choong (1999). The Notion of Emptiness in Early Buddhism. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 1–4, 85–88. ISBN   978-81-208-1649-7. Emptiness is a characteristically Buddhist teaching. The present study is concerned with this teaching of emptiness (P. sunnata, Skt. sunyata) as presented in the texts of early Buddhism. [...] The teaching of emptiness is recognized as the central philosophy of early Mahayana. However, this teaching exists in both early Buddhism and early Mahayana Buddhism, where it is connected with the meaning of conditioned genesis, the middle way, nirvana and not-self (P. anatta, Skt. anatman).,
  54. Ray Billington (2002). Understanding Eastern Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 58–60, 136. ISBN   978-1-134-79348-8., Quote (p 59-60): "We may better understand what anatman implies if we examine Nagarjuna's concept of the void: shunyata or emptiness. Nagarjuna argued that there is no such thing as the fundamental nature, or essence, of anything. (...) In a word, all is emptiness, shunyata; instead of essence, there is a void. (...) everything is empty."; Quote (p 136): "What we can say, whichever branch of Buddhism we may have in mind, is that the state of nirvana, to which all Buddhists aspire, is like samadhi, a non-dual state. (...) the Buddhist concept of enlightened mind - bodhichitta - refers to a state beyond desire (dukkha) whereby the one who seeks nirvana has achieved shunyata, the emptiness or void described on pages 58-9."
  55. John J. Makransky (1997). Buddhahood Embodied: Sources of Controversy in India and Tibet. State University of New York Press. p. 85. ISBN   978-0-7914-3431-4.
  56. Charles S. Prebish (2010). Buddhism: A Modern Perspective. Penn State Press. pp. 134–135. ISBN   978-0-271-03803-2.
  57. Collins 2010, p. 54.
  58. Olivelle 1992, pp. 5–9, 227–235, Quote: "Nirvana Upanishad...".
  59. 1 2 Fowler 2012, pp. 48–49.
  60. "Atman (in Oxford Dictionaries)". Oxford University Press. 2012. Archived from the original on 30 December 2014. Quote: 1. real self of the individual; 2. a person's soul
  61. Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase. p. 51. ISBN   978-0-8160-7564-5.; Quote: The atman is the self or soul.
  62. David Lorenzen (2004). Mittal, Sushil; Thursby, Gene (eds.). The Hindu World. Routledge. pp. 208–209. ISBN   9781134608751. Advaita and nirguni movements, on the other hand, stress an interior mysticism in which the devotee seeks to discover the identity of individual soul (atman) with the universal ground of being (brahman) or to find god within himself.
  63. [a] Anatta, Encyclopædia Britannica (2013), Quote: "Anatta in Buddhism, the doctrine that there is in humans no permanent, underlying soul. The concept of anatta, or anatman, is a departure from the Hindu belief in atman ("the self").";
    [b] Steven Collins (1994), Religion and Practical Reason (Editors: Frank Reynolds, David Tracy), State Univ of New York Press, ISBN   978-0791422175, page 64; "Central to Buddhist soteriology is the doctrine of not-self (Pali: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman, the opposed doctrine of ātman is central to Brahmanical thought). Put very briefly, this is the [Buddhist] doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence.";
    [c] John C. Plott et al (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN   978-8120801585, page 63, Quote: "The Buddhist schools reject any Ātman concept. As we have already observed, this is the basic and ineradicable distinction between Hinduism and Buddhism";
    [d] Katie Javanaud (2013), Is The Buddhist 'No-Self' Doctrine Compatible With Pursuing Nirvana?, Philosophy Now;
    [e] David Loy (1982), Enlightenment in Buddhism and Advaita Vedanta: Are Nirvana and Moksha the Same?, International Philosophical Quarterly, Volume 23, Issue 1, pages 65-74
  64. [a] Christmas Humphreys (2012). Exploring Buddhism. Routledge. pp. 42–43. ISBN   978-1-136-22877-3.
    [b] Richard Gombrich (2006). Theravada Buddhism. Routledge. p. 47. ISBN   978-1-134-90352-8. Buddha's teaching that beings have no soul, no abiding essence. This 'no-soul doctrine' (anatta-vada) he expounded in his second sermon.,
  65. 1 2 मुच Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary, Germany (2008)
  66. Heinrich Robert Zimmer (1951). Philosophies of India. Princeton University Press. p. 41. ISBN   0-691-01758-1. Moksa, from the root muc, "to loose, set free, let go, release, liberate, deliver" [...] means "liberation, escape, freedom, release, rescue, deliverance, final emancipation of the soul.
  67. Chad Meister (2009). Introducing Philosophy of Religion. Routledge. p. 25. ISBN   978-1-134-14179-1.
  68. Christopher Key Chapple, ed. (2010). The Bhagavad Gita: Twenty-fifth–Anniversary Edition. Translated by Winthrop Sargeant. State University of New York Press. pp. 157, 266–268. ISBN   978-1-4384-2840-6.
  69. Easwaran 2007, p. 268.
  70. Mahatma Gandhi (2009), John Strohmeier (ed.), The Bhagavad Gita – According to Gandhi, North Atlantic Books, p. 34, The nirvana of the Buddhists is shunyata, emptiness, but the nirvana of the Gita means peace and that is why it is described as brahma-nirvana [oneness with Brahman]
  71. Jaini, Padmanabh (2000). Collected Papers on Jaina Studies. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN   81-208-1691-9.: "Moksa and Nirvana are synonymous in Jainism". p. 168
  72. Michael Carrithers, Caroline Humphrey (1991) The Assembly of listeners: Jains in society Cambridge University Press. ISBN   0521365058: "Nirvana: A synonym for liberation, release, moksa." p. 297
  73. 1 2 Jacobi, Hermann; Ed. F. Max Müller (1895). Uttaradhyayana Sutra, Jain Sutras Part II, Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 45. Oxford: The Clarendon Press.
  74. William Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. p. 68. ISBN   978-1-898723-13-4.
  75. Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 219–220. ISBN   978-1-4411-5366-1.
  76. 1 2 H. S. Singha (2000). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism. Hemkunt Press. p. 148. ISBN   978-81-7010-301-1.
  77. W. H. McLeod (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow. pp. 134–. ISBN   978-0-8108-6344-6.
  78. Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN   978-0-834-82414-0 page 669

Online references


Further reading