Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Last updated
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Type of site
Online encyclopedia
Created by James Fieser
EditorJames Fieser and Bradley Dowden
Launched1995;24 years ago (1995)
ISSN 2161-0002

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers. [1] The IEP combines open access publication with peer reviewed publication of original papers. Contribution is generally by invitation, and contributors are recognized and leading international specialists within their field. [2] [3]



The IEP was founded by philosopher James Fieser in 1995, operating through a non-profit organization with the aim of providing accessible and scholarly information on philosophy. [4] The current general editors are philosophers James Fieser and Bradley Dowden, with the staff also including numerous area editors as well as volunteers. [5] [6] The entire website was redesigned in the summer of 2009, moving from static HTML pages to the open-source publishing platform WordPress . [7]


The intended audience for the IEP is philosophy students and faculty who are not specialists within the field, and thus articles are written in an accessible style. [8] Articles consist of a brief survey or overview, followed by the body of the article, and an annotated bibliography. [9] Articles are searchable either by an alphabetical index or through a Google-power search mechanism. [9]


Similarweb analytics suggest that the IEP website is accessed worldwide between two and three million times per month. [10] Some 75% of this usage is through internet searches, 18% is through direct access, and 5% through referral, with the referring websites including other reference websites and university library guides. [10]


The IEP is included by the American Library Association in its listing of Best Free Reference Sites; [11] listed as an online philosophy resource by the Federation of Australasian Philosophy in Schools Associations; [12] listed by EpistemeLinks as one of the "outstanding resources" in philosophy on the internet; [13] and listed as a reliable resource in many university philosophy guides. [14]

See also

Related Research Articles

An online encyclopedia, also called a digital encyclopedia, is an encyclopedia accessible through the internet. The idea to build a free encyclopedia using the Internet can be traced at least to the 1994 Interpedia proposal; it was planned as an encyclopedia on the Internet to which everyone could contribute materials. The project never left the planning stage and was overtaken by a key branch of old printed encyclopedias.

Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. Most academic work is published in academic journal article, book or thesis form. The part of academic written output that is not formally published but merely printed up or posted on the Internet is often called "grey literature". Most scientific and scholarly journals, and many academic and scholarly books, though not all, are based on some form of peer review or editorial refereeing to qualify texts for publication. Peer review quality and selectivity standards vary greatly from journal to journal, publisher to publisher, and field to field.

Academic journal peer-reviewed periodical relating to a particular academic discipline

An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation, scrutiny, and discussion of research. They are usually peer-reviewed or refereed. Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, and book reviews. The purpose of an academic journal, according to Henry Oldenburg, is to give researchers a venue to "impart their knowledge to one another, and contribute what they can to the Grand design of improving natural knowledge, and perfecting all Philosophical Arts, and Sciences."

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users. It is maintained by Stanford University. Each entry is written and maintained by an expert in the field, including professors from many academic institutions worldwide. Authors contributing to the encyclopedia give Stanford University the permission to publish the articles, but retain the copyright to those articles.

John Elof Boodin was a Swedish-born American philosopher and educator. He was the author of numerous books proposing a systematic interpretation of nature. Boodin's work preserved the tradition of philosophical idealism within the framework of contemporary science. Boodin also focused on the social nature of human behavior believing an understanding required an appreciation of individual participation in social life and interpersonal relationship.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to philosophy:

The Dictionary of Scientific Biography is a scholarly reference work that was published from 1970 through 1980. It is supplemented by the New Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Both these publications are comprised in an electronic version, called the Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography.

Reference and User Services Association awards

The Reference and User Services Association (RUSA) annual Outstanding Reference Sources awards are considered the highest awards honoring academic reference books or media,. Besides these awards, the American Library Association (ALA) also grants other medals and honors including the Andrew Carnegie Medals for Excellence in Fiction and Nonfiction and the Dartmouth Medal for the "creation of a reference work of outstanding quality and significance." In addition, the ALA List of Notable Books for Adults, selected by the RUSA Notable Books Council, has been chosen yearly since 1944.

Philosophers' Imprint is a refereed philosophy journal.

Peter Suber American philosopher

Peter Dain Suber is a philosopher specializing in the philosophy of law and open access to knowledge. He is a Senior Researcher at the Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society, Director of the Harvard Office for Scholarly Communication, and Director of the Harvard Open Access Project (HOAP). Suber is known as a leading voice in the open access movement, and as the creator of the game Nomic.

A philosophy encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work that seeks to make available to the reader a number of articles on the subject of philosophy. Many paper and online encyclopedias of philosophy have been written, with encyclopedias in general dating back to the 1st century AD with Pliny the Elder's Naturalis Historia.

Larry Sanger American former professor, co-founder of Wikipedia, founder of Citizendium and other projects

Lawrence Mark Sanger is an American internet project developer and co-founder of the Internet encyclopedia Wikipedia for which he coined the name and wrote much of its original governing policy. Sanger has also worked on other online educational websites such as Nupedia, Citizendium, Everipedia, and the Encyclosphere.

Philosophy Documentation Center

The Philosophy Documentation Center (PDC) is a non-profit publisher and resource center that provides access to scholarly materials in applied ethics, classics, philosophy, religious studies, and related disciplines. It publishes academic journals, conference proceedings, anthologies, and online research databases, often in cooperation with scholarly and professional associations. It also provides membership management and electronic publishing services, and hosts electronic journals, series, and other publications from several countries.

Noesis is a domain-specific search engine and open access journal for academic philosophy. The current online version is a prototype release. Noesis may be treated as a sort of clearinghouse for scholarly e-journals in philosophy.

<i>Análisis Filosófico</i> journal

Análisis Filosófico is a peer-reviewed biannual open access academic journal that publishes scholarly articles on theoretical and practical philosophy "in order to contribute to philosophical analysis development." The journal was established in 1981 as the official journal of the Argentine Society of Analytic Philosophy. The first editor-in-chief of Análisis Filosófico was the Argentine philosopher Eduardo Rabossi. It is available online through SciELO and is indexed in the Philosopher's Index.

<i>The Leibniz Review</i> Academic journal devoted to Gottfried Leibniz’s thought and work

The Leibniz Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal devoted to scholarly examination of Gottfried Leibniz’s thought and work. It publishes contemporary articles and reviews, as well as original Leibniz texts. The Leibniz Review is sponsored by the Leibniz Society of North America and is produced at Ohio State University in Mansfield, Ohio. All issues are available online from the Philosophy Documentation Center.

Katarina Majerhold is a Slovenian philosopher (MSc), writer, screenwriter, lecturer and editor. She is particularly interested in philosophy of emotions, especially in philosophy of love and sexuality, happiness, philosophical counseling and ethics. In 2017 she published her article History of Love in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. She has been a member of Society for the Philosophy of Sex + Love since 1998 She has been the only Slovenian philosopher who had her own philosophical counseling column in the magazine O osebnosti (2007–2010) and in the biggest Slovenian newspaper, online version She also wrote numerous articles on philosophical counseling. In 2007 she got certificate for philosophical counseling by acclaimed Canadian philosophical counselor and professor Peter Raabe from University of Fraser Valley.

James Fieser is professor of philosophy at the University of Tennessee at Martin. He received his B.A. from Berea College, and his M.A. and Ph.D. in philosophy from Purdue University. He is founder and general editor of the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. He is author, coauthor or editor of more than ten text books.

Feminist Philosophy Quarterly (FPQ) is an online, open access, peer-reviewed journal dedicated to promoting feminist philosophical scholarship. Founded on 22 July 2015, the journal is published quarterly and strives to include and incorporate the entirety of feminist philosophy across the world and including different traditions. The editors-in-chief are Samantha Brennan, Carla Fehr, Alice MacLachlan, and Kathryn Norlock; Brennan also served as a co-founder of the journal.


  1. Oxford University ARCH Project, accessed 11 September 2017.
  2. Oxford University ARCH Project, accessed 11 September 2017
  3. See also Kooy, B. 2015. 'Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy', in Reference Review, Vol.29, No. 4, p. 12.
  4. Kooy, B. 2015. 'Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy', in Reference Review, Vol.29, No.4, p.12; see also "About the IEP". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  5. "Law in Free Internet Encyclopedias of Philosophy (SEP & IEP) - The University of Chicago Library News - The University of Chicago Library".
  6. See also Kooy, B. 2015. 'Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy', in Reference Review, Vol.29, No.4, p.12.
  7. "IEP Staff". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  8. Kooy, B. 2015. 'Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy', in Reference Review, Vol. 29, No. 4, p. 12.
  9. 1 2 Kooy, B. 2015. 'Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy', in Reference Review, Vol.29, No.4, p. 12.
  10. 1 2 Similarweb data on IEP, at, accessed 18 September 2017.
  11. "Best Free Reference Web Sites 2016 18th Annual List RUSA Emerging Technologies Section (ETS)". Reference & User Services Association (RUSA). December 29, 2016.
  12. "Online guides to Philosophy – FAPSA".
  13. "Account has been suspended".
  14. team, Philosophy Library. "LibGuides: Philosophy: Philosophy eresources".