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Vermilion as a tertiary color on the RYB color wheel
Vermilion (Cinnabar)
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #E34234
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(227, 66, 52)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 84, 71, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(5°, 77%, 89%)
SourceMaerz and Paul [1]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
The Venetian painter Titian used vermilion for dramatic effect. In the Assumption of the Virgin (1516-18) the vermilion robes draw the eye to the main characters. Tizian 041.jpg
The Venetian painter Titian used vermilion for dramatic effect. In the Assumption of the Virgin (1516–18) the vermilion robes draw the eye to the main characters.
A Chinese "cinnabar red" carved lacquer box from the Qing dynasty (1736-1795), National Museum of China, Beijing Lacquerware-roundbox-w-children.jpg
A Chinese "cinnabar red" carved lacquer box from the Qing dynasty (1736–1795), National Museum of China, Beijing

Vermilion (sometimes spelled vermillion) [2] [3] is both a brilliant red or scarlet pigment, originally made from the powdered mineral cinnabar, and the name of the resulting color. [4] It was widely used in the art and decoration of Ancient Rome, in the illuminated manuscripts of the Middle Ages, in the paintings of the Renaissance, as sindoor in India, and in the art and lacquerware of China. [5] [6]

Red color

Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet. It has a dominant wavelength of approximately 625–740 nanometres. It is a primary color in the RGB color model and the CMYK color model, and is the complementary color of cyan. Reds range from the brilliant yellow-tinged scarlet and vermillion to bluish-red crimson, and vary in shade from the pale red pink to the dark red burgundy. The red sky at sunset results from Rayleigh scattering, while the red color of the Grand Canyon and other geological features is caused by hematite or red ochre, both forms of iron oxide. Iron oxide also gives the red color to the planet Mars. The red colour of blood comes from protein hemoglobin, while ripe strawberries, red apples and reddish autumn leaves are colored by anthocyanins.

Scarlet (color) color shade of bright red

Scarlet is a brilliant red color with a tinge of orange. In the spectrum of visible light, and on the traditional color wheel, it is one-quarter of the way between red and orange, slightly less orange than vermilion.

Pigment material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light

A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light. Most materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light. Materials that humans have chosen and developed for use as pigments usually have special properties that make them useful for coloring other materials. A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials it colors. It must be stable in solid form at ambient temperatures.



The word vermilion came from the Old French word vermeillon, which was derived from vermeil, from the Latin vermiculus, the diminutive of the Latin word vermis, or worm. The name originated because it had a similar color to the natural red dye made from an insect, the Kermes vermilio , which was widely used in Europe. [7] The first recorded use of vermilion as a color name in English was in 1289. [8] [9] The term cinnabar was used interchangeably with vermilion until the 17th century, when vermilion became the more common name. By the late 18th century 'cinnabar' applied to the unground natural mineral only.[ citation needed ]

Kermes vermilio is one of the species of Kermes used to make the crimson dye also called kermes.

In some Iberian languages the word for "red" is also derived from vermiculus, making the words for "red" and "vermillion" doublets. Compare Portuguese vermelho ("red") and vermelhão ("vermillion").

Portuguese language Romance language that originated in Portugal

Portuguese is a Western Romance language originating in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Angola, and São Tomé and Príncipe. It also has co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Macau in China. As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole speakers are also found in Goa, Daman and Diu in India; in Batticaloa on the east coast of Sri Lanka; in the Indonesian island of Flores; in the Malacca state of Malaysia; and the ABC islands in the Caribbean where Papiamento is spoken, while Cape Verdean Creole is the most widely spoken Portuguese-based Creole. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation may be referred to as "Lusophone" in both English and Portuguese.

Chemistry and manufacture

Vermilion is a dense, opaque pigment with a clear, brilliant hue. [10] The pigment was originally made by grinding a powder of cinnabar (mercury sulfide). Like most mercury compounds, it is toxic.

Cinnabar Red mercury sulfide mineral

Cinnabar and cinnabarite, likely deriving from the Ancient Greek: κιννάβαρι (kinnabari), refer to the common bright scarlet to brick-red form of mercury(II) sulfide (HgS) that is the most common source ore for refining elemental mercury, and is the historic source for the brilliant red or scarlet pigment termed vermilion and associated red mercury pigments.

Mercury sulfide chemical compound

Mercury sulfide, mercuric sulfide, mercury sulphide, or mercury(II) sulfide is a chemical compound composed of the chemical elements mercury and sulfur. It is represented by the chemical formula HgS. It is virtually insoluble in water.

Vermilion is not one specific hue; mercuric sulfides make a range of warm hues, from bright orange-red to a duller reddish-purple that resembles fresh duck liver. Differences in hue are caused by the size of the ground particles of pigment. Larger crystals produce duller and less-orange hue.

Cinnabar pigment was a side-product of the mining of mercury, and mining cinnabar was difficult, expensive and dangerous, because of the toxicity of mercury. The Greek philosopher Theophrastus of Eresus (371–286 BC) described the process in "De Lapidibus", the first scientific book on minerals. Efforts began early to find a better way to make the pigment.

Theophrastus ancient greek philosopher

Theophrastus, a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos, was the successor to Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. He came to Athens at a young age and initially studied in Plato's school. After Plato's death, he attached himself to Aristotle who took to Theophrastus his writings. When Aristotle fled Athens, Theophrastus took over as head of the Lyceum. Theophrastus presided over the Peripatetic school for thirty-six years, during which time the school flourished greatly. He is often considered the father of botany for his works on plants. After his death, the Athenians honoured him with a public funeral. His successor as head of the school was Strato of Lampsacus.

The Chinese were probably the first to make a synthetic vermilion as early as the 4th century BC. The Greek alchemist Zosimus of Panopolis (Third–Fourth century AD) wrote that such a method existed. In the early ninth century the process was accurately described by the Persian alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan (722–804) in his book of recipes of colors, and the process began to be widely used in Europe. [10] [11]

Jabir ibn Hayyan Islamic Pershia polymath

Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān, is the supposed author of an enormous number and variety of works in Arabic often called the Jabirian corpus. The scope of the corpus is vast and diverse covering a wide range of topics, including alchemy, cosmology, numerology, astrology, medicine, magic, mysticism and philosophy. He has been widely described as the father or the founder of early chemistry, inventing many of the basic processes and equipment still used by chemists today.

The process described by Jabir ibn Hayyan was fairly simple. Mercury and sulfur were mixed together, forming a black compound of sulphide of mercury, called Aethiopes mineralis. This was then heated in a flask. The compound vaporized, and recondensed in the top of the flask. The flask was broken, the vermilion was taken out, and it was ground. When first created the pigment was almost black, but as it was ground the red color appeared. The longer the color was ground, the finer the color became. The Italian Renaissance artist Cennino Cennini wrote: "if you were to grind it every day even for twenty years it would keep getting better and more perfect." [12]

During the 17th century a new method of making the pigment was introduced, known as the 'Dutch' method. Mercury and melted sulfur were mashed to make black mercury sulfide, then heated in a retort, producing vapors condensing as a bright, red mercury sulfide. To remove the sulfur these crystals were treated with a strong alkali, washed and finally ground under water to yield the commercial powder form of pigment. [13] The pigment is still made today by essentially the same process.

Vermilion has one important defect: it is liable to darken, or develop a purplish-gray surface sheen. [10] Cennino Cennini wrote, "Bear in mind ... that it is not in its character to be exposed to air but it is more resistant on panel than on walls since, when it is used and laid on a wall, over a period of time, standing in the air, it turns black." [14] Newer research indicates that chlorine ions and light may aid in decomposing vermilion into elemental mercury, which is black in finely dispersed form. [15] [16]

Vermilion was the primary red pigment used by European painters from the Renaissance until the 20th century. However, because of its cost and toxicity, it was almost entirely replaced by a new synthetic pigment, cadmium red, in the 20th century.

Genuine vermilion pigment today comes mostly from China; it is a synthetic mercuric sulfide, labeled on paint tubes as PR-106 (Red Pigment 106). The synthetic pigment is of higher quality than vermilion made from ground cinnabar, which has many impurities. The pigment is very toxic, and should be used with great care. [17]



The first documented use of vermilion pigment, made with ground cinnabar, dates to 8000–7000 BC, and was found at the neolithic village of Catalhoyuk, in modern-day Turkey. Cinnabar was mined in Spain beginning in about 5300 BC. In China, the first documented use of Cinnabar as a pigment was by the Yangshao culture (5000–4000 BC), where it was used to paint ceramics, to cover the walls and floors of rooms, and for ritual ceremonies. [18]

The principal source of cinnabar for the ancient Romans was the Almaden mine in northwest Spain, which was worked by prisoners. Since the ore of mercury was highly toxic, a term in the mines was a virtual death sentence. Pliny the Elder described the mines this way:

Nothing is more carefully guarded. It is forbidden to break up or refine the cinnabar on the spot. They send it to Rome in its natural condition, under seal, to the extent of some ten thousand pounds a year. The sales price is fixed by law to keep it from becoming impossibly expensive, and the price fixed is seventy sesterces a pound. [19]

In Rome, the precious pigment was used to paint frescoes, decorate statues, and even as a cosmetic. In Roman triumphs, the victors had their faces covered with vermilion powder, and the face of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill was also colored vermilion. Cinnabar was used to paint the walls of some of the most luxurious villas in Pompeii, including the Villa of the Mysteries. Pliny reported that the painters of that villa stole a large portion of the expensive pigment by frequently washing their brushes and saving the wash water. [20]

In the Byzantine Empire, the use of cinnabar and the vermilion color was reserved for the use of the Imperial family and administrators; official letters and imperial decrees were written in vermilion ink, made with cinnabar. [20]

In the Americas

Vermilion was also used by the peoples of North and South America, to paint ceramics, figurines, murals, and for the decoration of burials. It was used in the Chavin Civilization (400 BC – 200 AD), and in the Maya, Sican, Moche, and Inca Empire. The major source was the Huancavelica mine in the Andes mountains in central Peru.

The most dramatic example of the use of vermilion in the Americas was the so-called Tomb of the Red Queen, located in Temple XIII in the ruins of the Mayan city of Palenque in Chiapas, Mexico, dated to between 600–700 AD, discovered in 1994 by Mexican archeologist Arnoldo Gonzales Cruz. The body and all the objects in the sarcophagus were covered with bright red vermilion powder made from cinnabar. [21]

In the Middle Ages and Renaissance

The technique for making a synthetic vermilion by combining sulphur and mercury was in use in Europe in the 9th century, but the pigment was still expensive. Since it was almost as expensive as gold leaf, it was used only in the most important decoration of illuminated manuscripts, while the less expensive minium, made with red lead, was used for the red letters and symbols in the text.

Vermilion was also used by painters in the Renaissance as a very vivid and bright red, though it did have the weakness of sometimes turning dark with time. The Florentine artist Cennino Cennini described it in his handbook for artists:

this pigment is made by alchemy, prepared in a retort, which subject I will leave be since to put every method and recipe into my discussion would be too longwinded. The reason? Because if you care to take the trouble you will find a lot of recipes for it, and particularly if you cultivate friendships with monks. But, so that you do not waste your time with the many different techniques, I advise you, just take what you can find at the apothecary's for your money. And I want to teach you how to buy it and how to recognise the good vermilion. Always buy solid vermilion and not crushed or ground. The reason? Because more often than not you are cheated either with red lead or crushed brick. [22]

By the 20th century, the cost and toxicity of vermilion led to its gradually being replaced by synthetic pigments, particularly cadmium red, which had a comparable color and opacity.

Chinese red

On the other side of the world, in China, the color vermilion was also playing an important role in the national culture. The color was most used in creating Chinese lacquerware, which was exported around the world, giving rise to the term "Chinese red".

The lacquer came from the Chinese lacquer tree, or Toxicodendron vernicifluum , a relative of the sumac tree, which grew in regions of China, Korea and Japan. The sap or resin of the tree, called urushiol, was caustic and toxic (it contained the same chemical compound as poison ivy) but, painted on to wood or metal, it hardened into a fine natural plastic, or lacquer surface. The pure sap was dark brown, but beginning in about the 3rd century BC, during the Han Dynasty, Chinese artisans colored it with powdered cinnabar or with red ochre (ferric oxide), giving it an orange-red color. [23] [24] Beginning in about the 8th century, Chinese chemists began making synthetic vermilion from mercury and sulfur, which reduced the price of the pigment and allowed the production of Chinese lacquerware on a larger scale.

The shade of red of the lacquerware has changed over the centuries. During the Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD) the Chinese word for red referred to a light red. However, during the Tang Dynasty (618–907), when the synthetic vermilion was introduced, that color became darker and richer. The poet Bai Juyi (772–846) wrote that "the flowers in the river when the sun rises are redder than flames", and the word he used for red was the word for vermilion, or Chinese red. [25]

When Chinese lacquerware and the ground cinnabar used to color it were exported to Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, European collectors considered it to be finer than the European vermilion. In 1835 "Chinese vermilion" was described as a cinnabar so pure that it only had to be ground into powder to become a perfect vermilion. Historically European vermilion often included adulterants including brick, orpiment, iron oxide, Persian red, iodine scarlet—and minium (red lead), an inexpensive and bright but fugitive lead-oxide pigment. [26]

In China from ancient times, vermilion was regarded as the color of blood, and thus the color of life. It was used to paint temples, the carriages of the Emperor, and as the printing paste for personal seals. It was also used for unique red calligraphic ink reserved for Emperors. Chinese Taoists associated vermilion with eternity.

In nature

Vermilion flycatcher (male) Vermilion flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus) male 2.JPG
Vermilion flycatcher (male)

In art and culture

Hindu culture

Sindoor is a vermilion-colored powder with which Indian women make a mark in their hairline to indicate they are married. Red tikka powder.jpg
Sindoor is a vermilion-colored powder with which Indian women make a mark in their hairline to indicate they are married.

Hindu women use vermilion along the hair parting line known as Sindoor, to signify that they are married. Hindu men and women often wear vermilion on their forehead during religious ceremonies and festivals.




History of computing



Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FF5349
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(255, 83, 73)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 68, 71, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(3°, 71%, 100 [31] %)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the Crayola color red-orange.

Red-orange has been a Crayola color since 1930.


Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FF4500
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(255, 69, 0)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 73, 100, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(16°, 100%, 100 [32] %)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the web color orange-red. It was formulated in 1987 as one of the X11 colors, which became known as the X11 web colors after the invention of the World Wide Web in 1991.

Medium vermilion

Medium Vermilion
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #D9381E
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(217, 96, 59)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 56, 73, 15)
HSV     (h, s, v)(14°, 73%, 85 [33] %)
Source Plochere
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is the medium tone of vermilion called "vermilion" on the Plochere color list, a color list formulated in 1948 that is used widely by interior designers.

Chinese red

Chinese Red
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #AA381E
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(170, 56, 30)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 67, 82, 33)
HSV     (h, s, v)(11°, 82%, 67 [34] %)
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

"China red" or "Chinese red" is the name used for the vermilion shade used in Chinese lacquerware. One version is shown in the color box at right; the shade could vary from dark to light depending upon how the pigment was made and how the lacquer was applied. Chinese red was originally made from the powdered mineral cinnabar, but beginning in about the 8th century it was made more commonly by a chemical process combining mercury and sulphur. Vermilion has significance in Taoist culture, and is regarded as the color of life and eternity.

The first recorded use of Chinese red as a color name in English was in 1924. [35]

The source of this color is: ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names (1955)--Color Sample of Chinese red (color sample #36).

See also

Related Research Articles

Violet (color) color

Violet is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light between blue and the invisible ultraviolet. Violet color has a dominant wavelength of approximately 380-450 nanometers. Light with a shorter wavelength than violet but longer than X-rays and gamma rays is called ultraviolet. In the color wheel historically used by painters, it is located between blue and purple. On the screens of computer monitors and television sets, a color which looks similar to violet is made, with the RGB color model, by mixing red and blue light, with the blue twice as bright as the red. This is not true violet, for it does not match the color of a single wavelength shorter than that of blue light.

Ultramarine A deep blue color pigment which was originally made with ground lapis lazuli

Ultramarine is a deep blue color pigment which was originally made by grinding lapis lazuli into a powder. The name comes from the Latin ultramarinus, literally "beyond the sea", because the pigment was imported into Europe from mines in Afghanistan by Italian traders during the 14th and 15th centuries.

Lacquer liquid, powder coating material which is applied thinly to objects

The term lacquer is used for a number of hard and potentially shiny finishes applied to materials such as wood. These fall into a number of very different groups.

Ochre painting material and color

Ochre or ocher is a natural clay earth pigment which is a mixture of ferric oxide and varying amounts of clay and sand. It ranges in colour from yellow to deep orange or brown. It is also the name of the colours produced by this pigment, especially a light brownish-yellow. A variant of ochre containing a large amount of hematite, or dehydrated iron oxide, has a reddish tint known as "red ochre".

Oil paint type of slow-drying paint

Oil paint is a type of slow-drying paint that consists of particles of pigment suspended in a drying oil, commonly linseed oil. The viscosity of the paint may be modified by the addition of a solvent such as turpentine or white spirit, and varnish may be added to increase the glossiness of the dried oil paint film. Oil paints have been used in Europe since the 12th century for simple decoration, but were not widely adopted as an artistic medium until the early 15th century. Common modern applications of oil paint are in finishing and protection of wood in buildings and exposed metal structures such as ships and bridges. Its hard-wearing properties and luminous colors make it desirable for both interior and exterior use on wood and metal. Due to its slow-drying properties, it has recently been used in paint-on-glass animation. Thickness of coat has considerable bearing on time required for drying: thin coats of oil paint dry relatively quickly.

Venetian red is a light and warm (somewhat unsaturated) pigment that is a darker shade of scarlet, derived from nearly pure ferric oxide (Fe2O3) of the hematite type. Modern versions are frequently made with synthetic red iron oxide.

Tertiary color color made by mixing either one primary color with one secondary color

A tertiary color or intermediate color is a color made by mixing full saturation of one primary color with half saturation of another primary color and none of a third primary color, in a given color space such as RGB, CMYK or RYB (traditional).

Red mercury is a hoax substance of uncertain composition purportedly used in the creation of nuclear bombs.

<i>Toxicodendron vernicifluum</i> species of plant

Toxicodendron vernicifluum, also known by the common name Chinese lacquer tree, is an Asian tree species of genus Toxicodendron native to China and the Indian subcontinent, and cultivated in regions of China, Korea and Japan. Other common names include Japanese lacquer tree, Japanese sumac, and varnish tree. The trees are cultivated and tapped for their toxic sap, which is used as a highly durable lacquer to make Chinese, Japanese, and Korean lacquerware.

Shades of orange

In optics, orange has a wavelength between approximately 585 and 620 nm and a hue of 30° in HSV color space. In the RGB color space it is a secondary color numerically halfway between gamma-compressed red and yellow, as can be seen in the RGB color wheel. The complementary color of orange is azure. Orange pigments are largely in the ochre or cadmium families, and absorb mostly blue light.

Japanese lacquerware Japanese craft using lacquer to coat objects

Lacquerware is a Japanese craft with a wide range of fine and decorative arts, as lacquer has been used in urushi-e, prints, and on a wide variety of objects from Buddha statues to bento boxes for food.

Shades of red colors that are variations of red

Varieties of the color red may differ in hue, chroma or lightness, or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are also called tints and shades, a tint being a red or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below.

Shades of purple variations of the color purple

There are numerous variations of the color purple, a sampling of which are shown below.

Minium (pigment)

Minium, also known as red lead, is a bright orange red pigment that was widely used in the Middle Ages for the decoration of manuscripts and for painting. It was made by roasting white lead pigment in the air; the white lead would gradually turn yellow, then into an orange lead tetroxide. The color varied depending upon how long the mineral was roasted.

Chinese pigments are the traditional medium to execute traditional Chinese brush paintings, besides ink. Chinese pigments is similar to Western gouache paint in that it contains more glue than watercolours, but more so than gouache. The high glue content makes the pigment bind better to Chinese paper and silk as well as enabling works of art to survive the wet-mounting process of Chinese hanging scroll mountings without smudging or bleeding.


Notes and citations

  1. The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called vermilion in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color vermilion is displayed on page 27, Plate 2, Color Sample L11. It is noted on page 193 that the color cinnabar is another name for the color vermilion.
  2. "Vermilion". Merriam-Webster. 21 May 2018. Retrieved 16 June 2018.
  3. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  4. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (2002), 5th Edition, Oxford University Press.
  5. Gettens, R. J., Feller, R. L. & Chase, W. T., Artists' Pigments: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993, p. 159
  6. Cox, Robert E. (2009). The elixir of immortality: A modern-day alchemist's discovery of the philosopher's stone. Rochester: Inner Traditions. pp. 22–23. ISBN   978-1-59477-303-7.
  7. Eastaugh, p. 211
  8. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 206; Color Sample of Vermilion: Page 27 Plate 2 Color Sample L11
  9. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 193; Color Sample of Cinnabar (It is noted on page 193 that Cinnabar is the same color as Vermilion): Page 27 Plate 2 Color Sample L11
  10. 1 2 3 4 David Bomford and Ashok Roy, A Closer look: Colour. p. 41.
  11. Philip Ball, Bright Earth, Art and the Invention of Colour
  12. Lara Broecke, Cennino Cennini's Il Libro dell'Arte a New English Translation and Commentary with Italian Transcription, Archetype 2015, p. 64.
  13. Gettens, Rutherford J.; Stout, George L. (1966). Painting Materials: A Short Encyclopedia. Courier Dover Publications. p. 171. ISBN   0-486-21597-0.
  14. Lara Broecke, Cennino Cennini's Il Libro dell'Arte: a New English Translation and Commentary with Italian Transcription, Archetype 2015, p. 64.
  15. url =
  16. Spring, M., Grout, R. (2002). "The Blackening of Vermilion: An Analytical Study of the Process in Paintings" (PDF). National Gallery Technical Bulletin. 23: 50–61. Retrieved 13 January 2014.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. section on uses and risks of vermilion pigment
  18. "Which Ancient People Used Mercury as a Dye?". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 2018-02-04.
  19. Daniel V. Thompson, The Materials and Techniques of Medieval Painting, p. 103.
  20. 1 2 Anne Varichon, Couleurs : Pigments et teintures dans les mains des peuples, p. 112
  21., archeology of ancient pigments (retrieved August 2, 2013)
  22. Lara Broecke, Cennino Cennini's Il Libro dell' Arte: a new English Translation and Commentary with Italian Transcription, Archetype 2015, pp. 63–4.
  23. Garner, H., "Technical Studies of Oriental Lacquer"; Studies in Conservation (8), (1963) pp. 84–97.
  24. Ken Johnson, "Cinnabar: Zen once came in a shade of red," New York Times, August 20, 2009.
  25. Yan Chunling, Chinese Red, Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, (2008).
  26. Eastaugh, p. 387
  27. David Bamford and Ashok Roy, A Closer Look: Colour (2009), National Gallery Company Limited ( ISBN   978 1 85709 442 8)
  29. Use Net History
  31. Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #FF5349 (Red-Orange):
  32. Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #FF4500 (Orange-red):
  33. Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #D9603B (Medium Vermilion):
  34. Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #AA381E (Chinese Red):
  35. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 192; Color Sample of Chinese Red: Page 29 Plate 3 Color Sample J12