Brown

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Brown
 
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Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #964B00
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(150, 75, 0)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 50, 100, 41)
HSV     (h, s, v)(30°, 100%, 59%)
Source[Unsourced]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Brown is a composite color. In the CMYK color model used in printing or painting, brown is made by combining red, black, and yellow, [1] [2] or red, yellow, and blue. [3] In the RGB color model used to project colors onto television screens and computer monitors, brown is made by combining red and green, in specific proportions. In painting, brown is generally made by adding black to orange.

Contents

The brown color is seen widely in nature, in wood, soil, human hair color, eye color and skin pigmentation. Brown is the color of dark wood or rich soil. [4] According to public opinion surveys in Europe and the United States, brown is the least favorite color of the public; the color is most often associated with plainness, the rustic and poverty. [5]

In nature and culture

Etymology

The term is from Old English brún, in origin for any dusky or dark shade of color. The first recorded use of brown as a color name in English was in 1000. [10] [11] The Common Germanic adjective *brûnoz, *brûnâ meant both dark colors and a glistening or shining quality, whence burnish . The current meaning developed in Middle English from the 14th century. [12]

Words for the color brown around the world often come from foods or beverages; in the eastern Mediterranean, the word for brown often comes from the color of coffee: in Turkish, the word for brown is kahve rengi; in Greek, kafé. In Southeast Asia, the color name often comes from chocolate: coklat in Malay; tsokolate in Filipino. In Japan, the word chairo means the color of tea. [13]

History and art

Ancient history

Brown has been used in art since prehistoric times. Paintings using umber, a natural clay pigment composed of iron oxide and manganese oxide, have been dated to 40,000 BC. [14] Paintings of brown horses and other animals have been found on the walls of the Lascaux cave dating back about 17,300 years. The female figures in ancient Egyptian tomb paintings have brown skin, painted with umber. Light tan was often used on painted Greek amphorae and vases, either as a background for black figures, or the reverse.

The Ancient Greeks and Romans produced a fine reddish-brown ink, of a color called sepia, made from the ink of a variety of cuttlefish. This ink was used by Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and other artists during the Renaissance, and by artists up until the present time.

In Ancient Rome, brown clothing was associated with the lower classes or barbarians. The term for the plebeians, or urban poor, was "pullati", which meant literally "those dressed in brown". [15]

Post-classical history

In the Middle Ages brown robes were worn by monks of the Franciscan order, as a sign of their humility and poverty. Each social class was expected to wear a color suitable to their station; and grey and brown were the colors of the poor. Russet was a coarse homespun cloth made of wool and dyed with woad and madder to give it a subdued grey or brown shade. By the statute of 1363, poor English people were required to wear russet. The medieval poem Piers Plowman describes the virtuous Christian: [16]

And is gladde of a goune of a graye russet
As of a tunicle of Tarse or of trye scarlet.

In the Middle Ages dark brown pigments were rarely used in art; painters and book illuminators artists of that period preferred bright, distinct colors such as red, blue and green, rather than dark colors. The umbers were not widely used in Europe before the end of the fifteenth century; The Renaissance painter and writer Giorgio Vasari (1511–1574) described them as being rather new in his time. [17]

Artists began using far greater use of browns when oil painting arrived in the late fifteenth century. During the Renaissance, artists generally used four different browns; raw umber, the dark brown clay mined from the earth around Umbria, in Italy; raw sienna, a reddish-brown earth mined near Siena, in Tuscany; burnt umber, the Umbrian clay heated until it turned a darker shade, and burnt sienna, heated until it turned a dark reddish brown. In Northern Europe, Jan van Eyck featured rich earth browns in his portraits to set off the brighter colors.

Modern history

17th and 18th century

The 17th and 18th century saw the greatest use of brown. Caravaggio and Rembrandt Van Rijn used browns to create chiaroscuro effects, where the subject appeared out of the darkness. Rembrandt also added umber to the ground layers of his paintings because it promoted faster drying. Rembrandt also began to use new brown pigment, called Cassel earth or Cologne earth. This was a natural earth color composed of over ninety percent organic matter, such as soil and peat. It was used by Rubens and Anthony van Dyck, and later became commonly known as Van Dyck brown.

19th and 20th century

Brown was generally hated by the French impressionists, who preferred bright, pure colors. The exception among French 19th-century artists was Paul Gauguin, who created luminous brown portraits of the people and landscapes of French Polynesia.

In the late 20th century, brown became a common symbol in western culture for simple, inexpensive, natural and healthy. Bag lunches were carried in plain brown paper bags; packages were wrapped in plain brown paper. Brown bread and brown sugar were viewed as more natural and healthy than white bread and white sugar.

Brown in science and nature

Optics

Brown is a composite color, made by combining red, yellow and black. [18] . It can be thought of as dark orange, but it can also be made in other ways. In the RGB color model, which uses red, green and blue light in various combinations to make all the colors on computer and television screens, it is made by mixing red and green light.

In terms of the visible spectrum, "brown" refers to long wavelength hues, yellow, orange, or red, in combination with low luminance or saturation. [19] Since brown may cover a wide range of the visible spectrum, composite adjectives are used such as red brown, yellowish brown, dark brown or light brown.

As a color of low intensity, brown is a tertiary color: a mix of the three subtractive primary colors is brown if the cyan content is low. Brown exists as a color perception only in the presence of a brighter color contrast. [20] Yellow, orange, red, or rose objects are still perceived as such if the general illumination level is low, despite reflecting the same amount of red or orange light as a brown object would in normal lighting conditions.

Brown pigments, dyes and inks

Brown eyes

In humans, brown eyes result from a relatively high concentration of melanin in the stroma of the iris, which causes light of both shorter and longer wavelengths to be absorbed [27] [28] and in many parts of the world, it is nearly the only iris color present. [29] Dark pigment of brown eyes is most common in East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, West Asia, Oceania, Africa, Americas, etc. as well as parts of Eastern Europe and Southern Europe. [30] The majority of people in the world overall have dark brown eyes. Light or medium-pigmented brown eyes are common in Europe, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Northern India, as well as some parts of the Middle East. (See eye color).

Brown hair

Brown is the second most common color of human hair, after black. It is caused by higher levels of the natural dark pigment eumelanin, and lower levels of the pale pigment pheomelanin. Brown eumelanin is more common among Europeans, while black eumelanin is more often found in the hair on non-Europeans. A small amount of black eumelanin, in the absence of other pigments, results in grey hair. A small amount of brown eumelanin in the absence of other pigments results in blond hair.

Brown skin

A majority of people in the world have skin that is a shade of brown, from a very light honey brown or a golden brown, to a copper or bronze color, to a coffee color or a dark chocolate brown. Skin color and race are not the same; many people classified as "white" or "black" actually have skin that is a shade of brown. Brown skin is caused by melanin, a natural pigment which is produced within the skin in cells called melanocytes. Skin pigmentation in humans evolved to primarily regulate the amount of ultraviolet radiation penetrating the skin, controlling its biochemical effects. [31]

Natural skin color can darken as a result of tanning due to exposure to sunlight. The leading theory is that skin color adapts to intense sunlight irradiation to provide partial protection against the ultraviolet fraction that produces damage and thus mutations in the DNA of the skin cells. [32] There is a correlation between the geographic distribution of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and the distribution of indigenous skin pigmentation around the world. Darker-skinned populations are found in the regions with the most ultraviolet, closer to the equator, while lighter skinned populations live closer to the poles, with less UVR, though immigration has changed these patterns. [33]

While white and black are commonly used to describe racial groups, brown is rarely used, because it crosses all racial lines. In Brazil, the Portuguese word pardo , which can mean different shades of brown, is used to refer to multiracial people. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) asks people to identify themselves as branco (white), pardo (brown), negro (black), or amarelo (yellow). In 2008 43.8 percent of the population identified themselves as pardo. [34] (See Human skin color)

Soil

The thin top layer of the Earth's crust on land is largely made up of soil colored different shades of brown. [35] Good soil is composed of about forty-five percent minerals, twenty-five percent water, twenty-five percent air, and five percent organic material, living and dead. Half the color of soil comes from minerals it contains; soils containing iron turn yellowish or reddish as the iron oxidizes. Manganese, nitrogen and sulfur turn brownish or blackish as they decay naturally.

Rich and fertile soils tend to be darker in color; the deeper brown color of fertile soil comes from the decomposing of the organic matter. Dead leaves and roots become black or brown as they decay. Poorer soils are usually paler brown in color, and contain less water or organic matter.

Mammals and birds

A large number of mammals and predatory birds have a brown coloration. This sometimes changes seasonally, and sometimes remains the same year-round. This color is likely related to camouflage, since the backdrop of some environments, such as the forest floor, is often brown, and especially in the spring and summertime when animals like the snowshoe hare get brown fur.

Biology

Brown in culture

Surveys in Europe and the United States showed that brown was the least popular color among respondents. It was the favorite color of only one percent of respondents, ranked below white and pink, and the least-favorite color of twenty-percent of people, even less popular than pink, gray and violet. [36]

Brown uniforms

Brown has been a popular color for military uniforms since the late 18th century, largely because of its wide availability and low visibility. When the Continental Army was established in 1775 at the outbreak of the American Revolution, the first Continental Congress declared that the official uniform color would be brown, but this was not popular with many militias, whose officers were already wearing blue. In 1778 the Congress asked George Washington to design a new uniform, and in 1779 Washington made the official color of all uniforms blue and buff. [37]

In 1846 the Indian soldiers of the Corps of Guides in British India began to wear a yellowish shade of tan, which became known as khaki from the Urdu word for dust-colored, taken from an earlier Persian word for soil. The color made an excellent natural camouflage, and was adopted by the British Army for their Abyssian Campaign in 1867–1868, and later in the Boer War. It was adopted by the United States Army during the Spanish–American War (1896), and afterwards by the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps.

In the 1920s, brown became the uniform color of the Nazi Party in Germany. The Nazi paramilitary organization the Sturmabteilung (SA) wore brown uniforms and were known as the brownshirts. The color brown was used to represent the Nazi vote on maps of electoral districts in Germany. If someone voted for the Nazis, they were said to be "voting brown". The national headquarters of the Nazi party, in Munich, was called the Brown House . The Nazi seizure of power in 1933 was called the Brown Revolution . [38] At Adolf Hitler's Obersalzberg home, the Berghof, he slept in a "bed which was usually covered by a brown quilt embroidered with a huge swastika.

The swastika also appeared on Hitler's brown satin pajamas, embroidered in black against a red background on the pocket. He had a matching brown silk robe." [39] Brown had originally been chosen as a Party color largely for convenience; large numbers of war-surplus brown uniforms from Germany's former colonial forces in Africa were cheaply available in the 1920s. It also suited the working-class and military images that the Party wished to convey.

From the 1930s onwards, the Party's brown uniforms were mass-produced by German clothing firms such as Hugo Boss. [40] [41]

Business

The color brown is said to represent ruggedness when used in advertising. [42] Pullman Brown [43] is the color of the United Parcel Service (UPS) delivery company with their trademark brown trucks and uniforms; it was earlier the color of Pullman rail cars of the Pullman Company, and was adopted by UPS both because brown is easy to keep clean, and due to favorable associations of luxury that Pullman brown evoked. UPS has filed two trademarks on the color brown to prevent other shipping companies (and possibly other companies in general) from using the color if it creates "market confusion". In its advertising, UPS refers to itself as "Brown" ("What can Brown do for you?").

Idioms and expressions

Sports

See also

Related Research Articles

Sienna is an earth pigment containing iron oxide and manganese oxide. In its natural state, it is yellowish brown and is called raw sienna. When heated, it becomes a reddish brown and is called burnt sienna. It takes its name from the city-state of Siena, where it was produced during the Renaissance. Along with ochre and umber, it was one of the first pigments to be used by humans, and is found in many cave paintings. Since the Renaissance, it has been one of the brown pigments most widely used by artists.

Pigment material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light

A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light. Most materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light. Materials that humans have chosen and developed for use as pigments usually have special properties that make them useful for coloring other materials. A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials it colors. It must be stable in solid form at ambient temperatures.

Melanin Group of natural pigments found in most organisms

Melanin is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms. Melanin is produced through a multistage chemical process known as melanogenesis, where the oxidation of the amino acid tyrosine is followed by polymerization. The melanin pigments are produced in a specialized group of cells known as melanocytes.

Human hair color pigmentation of hair color

Hair color is the pigmentation of hair follicles due to two types of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. Generally, if more eumelanin is present, the color of the hair is darker; if less eumelanin is present, the hair is lighter. Levels of melanin can vary over time causing a person's hair color to change, and it is possible to have hair follicles of more than one color on the same person. Particular hair colors are often associated with ethnic groups, while gray or white hair is associated with age.

Ochre Earth pigment of characteristic colour

Ochre or ocher is a natural clay earth pigment which is a mixture of ferric oxide and varying amounts of clay and sand. It ranges in colour from yellow to deep orange or brown. It is also the name of the colours produced by this pigment, especially a light brownish-yellow. A variant of ochre containing a large amount of hematite, or dehydrated iron oxide, has a reddish tint known as "red ochre".

Brown hair Human hair color

Brown hair is the second most common human hair color, after black hair. It varies from light brown to almost black hair. It is characterized by higher levels of the dark pigment eumelanin and lower levels of the pale pigment pheomelanin. People with brown hair are often referred to as brunette, which in French is the feminine form of brunet, the diminutive of brun.

Umber brown or reddish-brown earth pigment

Umber is a natural brown or reddish-brown earth pigment that contains iron oxide and manganese oxide. Umber is darker than the other similar earth pigments, ochre and sienna.

Grey Intermediate color between black and white; color of a cloud-covered sky, ash and lead

Grey or gray is an intermediate color between black and white. It is a neutral color or achromatic color, meaning literally that it is a color "without color," because it can be composed of black and white. It is the color of a cloud-covered sky, of ash and of lead.

Bay (horse) hair coat color of horses

Bay is a hair coat color of horses, characterized by a reddish-brown or brown body color with a black point coloration of the mane, tail, ear edges, and lower legs. Bay is one of the most common coat colors in many horse breeds.

At right is displayed the color traditionally called liver.

Silver dapple gene also known as the "Z" gene, that dilutes the black base coat color in horses

The silver or silver dapple (Z) gene is a dilution gene that affects the black base coat color and is associated with Multiple Congenital Ocular Abnormalities. It will typically dilute a black mane and tail to flaxen, and a black body to a shade of brown or chocolate. It is responsible for a group of coat colors in horses called "silver dapple" in the west, or "taffy" in Australia. The most common colors in this category are black silver and bay silver, referring to the respective underlying coat color.

Equine coat color genetics

Equine coat color genetics determine a horse's coat color. Many colors are possible, but all variations are produced by changes in only a few genes. Extension and agouti are particularly well-known genes with dramatic effects. Differences at the agouti gene determine whether a horse is bay or black, and a change to the extension gene can make a horse chestnut instead. Most domestic horses have a variant of the dun gene which saturates the coat with color so that they are bay, black, or chestnut instead of dun, grullo, or red dun. A mutation called cream is responsible for palomino, buckskin, and cremello horses. Pearl, champagne and silver dapple also lighten the coat, and sometimes the skin and eyes as well. Genes that affect the distribution of melanocytes create patterns of white such as in roan, pinto, leopard, white, and even white markings. Finally, the gray gene causes premature graying, slowly adding white hairs over the course of several years until the horse looks white. Some of these patterns have complex interactions.

Auburn hair reddish-brown hair color

Auburn hair is a variety of red hair, most commonly described as reddish-brown in color or dark ginger. Auburn hair ranges in shades from medium to dark. It can be found with a wide array of skin tones and eye colors, but as is the case with most red hair, it is commonly associated with light skin features. The chemical pigments that cause the coloration of auburn hair are frequently pheomelanin with high levels of eumelanin; however, the auburn hair is due to a mutated melanocortin 1 receptor gene in the people of Northwestern European descent and by a mutated TYRP1 gene in the Melanesians and Austronesians, both genes that reduce the melanin production of the hair cells.

Chestnut (horse color) Horse coat color

Chestnut is a hair coat color of horses consisting of a reddish-to-brown coat with a mane and tail the same or lighter in color than the coat. Chestnut is characterized by the absolute absence of true black hairs. It is one of the most common horse coat colors, seen in almost every breed of horse.

Earth tone is a color scheme with multiple meanings. In its narrowest sense, it refers to "any color containing some brown" – the color of ground or soil (earth). It can also refer to "natural colors" such as brown soil, green leaf, cloudy sky, as well as the red sun. These palettes can create a warm, nature-friendly atmosphere.

Equine coat color Horse coat colors and markings

Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings. A specialized vocabulary has evolved to describe them.

Biological pigment substance produced by living organisms that has a color resulting from selective color absorption

Biological pigments, also known simply as pigments or biochromes, are substances produced by living organisms that have a color resulting from selective color absorption. Biological pigments include plant pigments and flower pigments. Many biological structures, such as skin, eyes, feathers, fur and hair contain pigments such as melanin in specialized cells called chromatophores. In some species, pigments accrue over very long periods during an individual's lifespan.

Seal brown (horse) hair coat color of horses

Seal brown is a hair coat color of horses characterized by a near-black body color; with black points, the mane, tail and legs; but also reddish or tan areas around the eyes, muzzle, behind the elbow and in front of the stifle. The term is not to be confused with "brown", which is used by some breed registries to refer to either a seal brown horse or to a dark bay without the additional characteristics of seal brown genetics.

Shades of brown varieties of the color brown

Shades of brown can be produced by combining red, yellow, and black pigments, or by a combination of orange and black—as can be seen in the color box at right. In the RGB color model used to create all the colors on computer and television screens, brown is made by combining red and green light at different intensities. Brown color names are often not very precise, and some shades, such as beige, can refer to a wide variety of colors, including shades of yellow or red. Browns are usually described as light or dark, reddish, yellowish, or gray-brown. There are no standardized names for shades of brown; the same shade may have different names on different color lists, and sometimes the one name can refer to several very different colors. The X11 color list of web colors lists seventeen different shades of brown, but the complete list of browns is much longer.

References

Notes and citations

  1. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, (2002), Oxford University Press.
  2. Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language: "A combination of red, blue, and yellow."
  3. Oxford English Dictionaries On-LIne: "Of a colour produced by mixing red, yellow, and blue, as of dark wood or rich soil"
  4. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary; "of a colour produced by mixing red, yellow, and blue, as of dark wood or rich soil"
  5. Heller, Eva, Psychologie de la couleur' -effets et symboliiques, (2009), p. 212-223.
  6. Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language, College Edition, 1964
  7. Oxford English Dictionary
  8. "Brun rouge assez foncé." Le Petit Robert (1988).
  9. Oxford English Dictionary
  10. first attested in The Metres of Boethius 26. 58, ca. AD 1000: stunede sio brune yd wid odre "One dark wave dashed against the other".
  11. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 191
  12. His hare [was] like to the nute brun, quen it for ripnes fals dun "his hair was like the nut brown, when for ripeness it falls down", Cursor M. 18833, ca. AD 1300, cited after OED.
  13. Omniglot- words for colors in different languages.
  14. Varichon, Couleurs – pigments et teintures dans les mains des peuples. p. 254.
  15. Eva Heller, Psychologie de la couleur: Effets et symboliques. p. 219
  16. R. H. Britnell (1986). Growth and decline in Colchester, 1300–1525 . Cambridge University Press. pp.  55–77. ISBN   978-0-521-30572-3 {{inconsistent citations}}
  17. Daniel V. Thompson, (1956), The Materials and Techniques of Medieval Painting, p. 88-89
  18. Shorter Oxford Dictionary, (2002).
  19. "Some Experiments on Color", Nature111, 1871, in John William Strutt (Lord Rayleigh) (1899). Scientific Papers. University Press.
  20. "Color Vision", in Richard Feynman (1964). The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Addison Wesley Longman.
  21. G. M. Johnson and M. D. Fairchild, "Visual psychophysics and color appearance," (chapter) in CRC Digital Color Imaging Handbook, 115–171 (2003).
  22. 1 2 3 4 Isabellle Roelofs and Fabien Petillion, La Couleur explquée aux artistes, p. 30.
  23. Eveleth, Rose. "Ground Up Mummies Were Once an Ingredient in Paint". Smithsonian. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
  24. Isabellle Roelofs and Fabien Petillion, La Couleur explquée aux artistes, p. 148.
  25. Anne Varichon, Couleurs- pigments et teintures dans les mains des peuples, pp. 264–265
  26. Anne Varichon, Couleurs- pigments et teintures dans les mains des peuples, pp. 262–263
  27. Fox, Denis Llewellyn (1979). Biochromy: Natural Coloration of Living Things. University of California Press. p. 9. ISBN   0-520-03699-9.
  28. Eiberg H, Mohr J (1996). "Assignment of genes coding for brown eye colour (BEY2) and brown hair colour (HCL3) on chromosome 15q". Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 4 (4): 237–41. doi:10.1159/000472205. PMID   8875191.
  29. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) SKIN/HAIR/EYE PIGMENTATION, VARIATION IN, 1; SHEP1 -227220
  30. Sulem, Patrick; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Stacey, Simon N; Helgason, Agnar; Rafnar, Thorunn; Magnusson, Kristinn P; Manolescu, Andrei; Karason, Ari; et al. (2007). "Genetic determinants of hair, eye and skin pigmentation in Europeans". Nat. Genet. 39 (12): 1443–52. doi:10.1038/ng.2007.13. PMID   17952075.
  31. Muehlenbein, Michael (2010). Human Evolutionary Biology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 192–213.
  32. Jablonski, N. G.; Chaplin, G. (2010). "Colloquium Paper: Human skin pigmentation as an adaptation to UV radiation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107: 8962–8. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107.8962J. doi:10.1073/pnas.0914628107. PMC   3024016 . PMID   20445093.
  33. Webb, A.R. (2006). "Who, what, where, and when: influences on cutaneous vitamin D synthesis". Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. 92 (1): 17–25. doi:10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2006.02.004. PMID   16766240.
  34. IBGE. 2008 PNAD. População residente por cor ou raça, situação e sexo.
  35. Birkeland, Peter W. Soils and Geomorphology. 3rd edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
  36. Eva Heller, Psychologie de la couleur; effets et symboliques. p. 4
  37. "Army Dress Uniform". Archived from the original on 2014-11-19. Retrieved 2013-04-02.
  38. Toland, John Hitler: The Pictorial Documentary of his Life Garden City, New York:1978 Doubleday & Sons Chapter 5 "The Brown Revolution" Pages 42–60
  39. Infield, Glenn B. Eva and Adolf New York:1974--Grosset and Dunlap Page 142 (The author compiled this book by interviewing Albert Speer and others who had been in Hitler's inner circle, such as SS men, secretaries, and housekeepers. The author also consulted the Musmanno Archives, a record of post-war interviews with over 200 people who had been close to Adolph Hitler or Eva Braun.)
  40. "Hugo Boss Acknowledges Link to Nazi Regime". The New York Times. August 14, 1997. Retrieved September 29, 2008.
  41. White, Constance C. R (August 19, 1997). "Patterns: The Fallout on Hugo Boss". The New York Times. Retrieved January 1, 2011.
  42. Labrecque, Lauren I.; Milne, George R. (2012). "Exciting Red and Competent Blue: The Importance of Color in Marketing". Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 40 (5): 711–727. doi:10.1007/s11747-010-0245-y.
  43. "They started out being Pullman brown," said Peter Fredo, U.P.S.'s vice president for advertising and public relations [...] The trucks have been brown since 1916 [...] "it was the epitome of luxury and class at the time.", in Jacobs, Karrie (1998-04-20). "Learning to Love Brown". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-02.
  44. "Glossary of Terms for Brownfields" (PDF). HSRC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-03-25. Retrieved 2006-05-25.