Shades of purple

Last updated

Purple
 
Color icon purple v2.svg
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #800080
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(128, 0, 128)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 100, 0, 50)
HSV     (h, s, v)(300°, 100%, 50%)
Source HTML
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

There are numerous variations of the color purple, a sampling of which are shown below.

Purple Range of colors with the hues between blue and red

Purple is a color intermediate between blue and red. It is similar to violet, but unlike violet, which is a spectral color with its own wavelength on the visible spectrum of light, purple is a secondary color made by combining red and blue. The complementary color of purple in the RYB color model is yellow.

Contents

In common English usage, purple is a range of hues of color occurring between red and blue. [1]

English language West Germanic language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca. It is named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to the area of Great Britain that later took their name, as England. Both names derive from Anglia, a peninsula in the Baltic Sea. The language is closely related to Frisian and Low Saxon, and its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse, and to a greater extent by Latin and French.

Color Characteristic of human visual perception

Color, or colour, is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple. This perception of color derives from the stimulation of cone cells in the human eye by electromagnetic radiation in the visible spectrum. Color categories and physical specifications of color are associated with objects through the wavelength of the light that is reflected from them. This reflection is governed by the object's physical properties such as light absorption, emission spectra, etc.

Red Color

Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet. It has a dominant wavelength of approximately 625–740 nanometres. It is a primary color in the RGB color model and the CMYK color model, and is the complementary color of cyan. Reds range from the brilliant yellow-tinged scarlet and vermillion to bluish-red crimson, and vary in shade from the pale red pink to the dark red burgundy. The red sky at sunset results from Rayleigh scattering, while the red color of the Grand Canyon and other geological features is caused by hematite or red ochre, both forms of iron oxide. Iron oxide also gives the red color to the planet Mars. The red color of blood comes from protein hemoglobin, while ripe strawberries, red apples and reddish autumn leaves are colored by anthocyanins.

In color theory, purple colors are any colors on the line of purples on the CIE chromaticity diagram (or colors that can be derived from colors on the line of purples), i.e., any color between red and violet, not including either red or violet themselves. [2] [3]

In the visual arts, color theory or colour theory is a body of practical guidance to color mixing and the visual effects of a specific color combination. There are also definitions of colors based on the color wheel: primary color, secondary color, and tertiary color. Although color theory principles first appeared in the writings of Leone Battista Alberti and the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci, a tradition of "colory theory" began in the 18th century, initially within a partisan controversy over Isaac Newton's theory of color and the nature of primary colors. From there it developed as an independent artistic tradition with only superficial reference to colorimetry and vision science.

Line of purples

In color theory, the line of purples or purple boundary is the locus on the edge of the chromaticity diagram formed between extreme spectral red and violet. Except for these endpoints of the line, colors on the line are non-spectral. Rather, every color on the line is a unique mixture in a ratio of fully saturated red and fully saturated violet, the two spectral color endpoints of visibility on the spectrum of pure hues. Colors on the line and spectral colors are the only ones that are fully saturated in the sense that, for any point on the line, no other possible color being a mixture of red and violet is more saturated than it.

Violet (color) color

Violet is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light between blue and the invisible ultraviolet. Violet color has a dominant wavelength of approximately 380–450 nanometers. Light with a shorter wavelength than violet but longer than X-rays and gamma rays is called ultraviolet. In the color wheel historically used by painters, it is located between blue and purple. On the screens of computer monitors and television sets, a color which looks similar to violet is made, with the RGB color model, by mixing red and blue light, with the blue twice as bright as the red. This is not true violet, for it does not match the color of a single wavelength shorter than that of blue light.

The first recorded use of purple as a color name in English was in 975 AD. [4]

Historical development of purple

Tyrian purple: Classical antiquity

See also under Purple#In art and history the section "In prehistory and the ancient world: Tyrian purple"

Byzantine Emperor Justinian I clad in Tyrian purple; 6th-century mosaic in the Basilica of San Vitale Justinian.jpg
Byzantine Emperor Justinian I clad in Tyrian purple; 6th-century mosaic in the Basilica of San Vitale
Tyrian Purple
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #66023C
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(102, 2, 60)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(45, 100, 47, 42)
HSV     (h, s, v)(325°, 98%, 40 [5] %)
Source Green-Lion.net
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

"Tyrian purple" is the contemporary English name of the color that in Latin is denominated "purpura". Other contemporary English names for purpura are "imperial purple" and "royal purple". The English name "purple" itself originally denominated the specific color purpura. Purpura is the color of a dye extracted from a mollusk found on the shores of the city of Tyre in ancient Phoenicia (contemporarily in Lebanon), which color in classical antiquity was a symbol of royalty and political authority because only the very wealthy could afford it, including the Roman Emperors. Therefore, Tyrian purple was also denominated "imperial purple".

Tyre, Lebanon City in Lebanon

Tyre, sometimes romanized as Sour, is one of the oldest continually inhabited cities in the world. It is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon. There were approximately 117,000 inhabitants in 2003. However, the government of Lebanon has released only rough estimates of population numbers since 1932, so an accurate statistical accounting is not possible.

Phoenicia Ancient Semitic civilization

Phoenicia was a thalassocratic, ancient Semitic-speaking Mediterranean civilization that originated in the Levant, specifically Lebanon, in the west of the Fertile Crescent. Scholars generally agree that it was centered on the coastal areas of modern day Lebanon and included parts of what are now northern Israel and southern Syria reaching as far north as Arwad, but there is some dispute as to how far south it went, the furthest suggested area being Ashkelon. Its colonies later reached the Western Mediterranean, such as Carthage in North Africa, and even the Atlantic Ocean, such as Cádiz in Spain. The civilization spread across the Mediterranean between 1500 BC and 300 BC.

Lebanon Arabic country in Western Asia

Lebanon, officially known as the Lebanese Republic, is an Arab country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized sovereign state on the mainland Asian continent.

Tyrian purple may have been discovered as early as during the Minoan civilization. Alexander the Great, when giving imperial audiences as the Emperor of Macedonia; the Emperor of the Seleucid Empire; and the Kings of Ptolemaic Egypt all wore Tyrian purple. The imperial robes of Roman emperors were of Tyrian purple trimmed in metallic gold thread. The badge of office of a Roman Senator was a stripe of Tyrian purple on his white toga. [6] Tyrian purple was continued in use by the Emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire until its final collapse in 1453.

The tone of Tyrian purple displayed above is that tone of Tyrian purple which was the color of "clotted blood", which was considered the tone having the most prestige in ancient Greece and Rome, as recorded by Pliny the Elder. However, the actual tone varied depending on how the dye was formulated. Lesser royal houses that wanted to economize could mix Tyrian purple dye with the much less expensive indigo to create a color closer to violet.

Han purple: Ancient China

Han purple and Han blue were synthetic colors made by artisans in China during the Han dynasty (206 BC to 220 AD) or even earlier. Eastern Han Luoyang Mural of Liubo players.jpg
Han purple and Han blue were synthetic colors made by artisans in China during the Han dynasty (206 BC to 220 AD) or even earlier.

Han purple is a type of artificial pigment found in China between 500 BC and AD 220. It was used in the decoration of the Terracotta Army.

Royal purple: 17th century

Royal Purple
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #7851A9
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(120, 81, 169)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(29, 52, 0, 34)
HSV     (h, s, v)(267°, 52%, 66 [7] %)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color royal purple is shown at right. This tone of purple is bluer than the ancient Tyrian purple.

The first recorded use of royal purple as a color name in English was in 1661. [8]

In 1990, royal purple was formulated as one of the Crayola crayon colors.

Mauveine: 1860s–1890s

Professor Charles Rees--wearing bow tie dyed with original sample of mauveine--holding RSC journal named after Perkin Charles Rees (in mauveine-dyed bowtie).jpg
Professor Charles Rees—wearing bow tie dyed with original sample of mauveine—holding RSC journal named after Perkin

Mauveine was first named in 1856. Chemist Sir William Henry Perkin, then eighteen, was attempting to create artificial quinine. An unexpected residue caught his eye, which turned out to be the first aniline dye—specifically, Perkin's mauve or mauveine is sometimes called aniline purple. Perkin was so successful in recommending his discovery to the dyestuffs industry that his biography by Simon Garfield is titled Mauve. [9] As mauveine faded easily, our contemporary understanding of mauve is as a lighter, less saturated color than it was originally known. [10]

"Mauveine" was named after the mauve colored mallow flower, even though it is a much deeper tone of purple than mauve. The term "Mauve" in the late 19th century could refer to either the deep, rich color of the dye or the light color of the flower. Mauve (meaning Mauveine) came into great vogue when in 1862 Queen Victoria appeared at the Royal Exhibition in a mauve silk gown—dyed with mauveine. By 1890, this color had become so pervasive in fashion that author Thomas Beer used it in the title of his book about the 1890s, The Mauve Decade. [11]

Artists' pigment purple (red-violet): 1930s

Red-Violet
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #C71585
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(199, 21, 133)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 89, 33, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(322°, 89%, 78%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

'Royal purple' (shown above) or the dark violet color known as generic purple is the common layman's idea of purple, but professional artists,[ citation needed ] following Munsell color system (introduced in 1905 and widely accepted by 1930), regard purple as being synonymous with the red-violet color shown at right, represented by the web color medium violet red, in order to clearly distinguish purple from violet and thus have access to a larger palette of colors[ citation needed ]. This red-violet color, called artist's purple by artists, is the pigment color that would be on a pigment color color wheel between pigment violet and pigment (process) magenta. In the Munsell color system, this color at its maximum chroma of 12 is called Red-Purple, or more specifically Munsell 5RP.

Artists' pigments and colored pencils labeled as purple are typically colored the red-violet color shown at right. On an RYB color wheel, red-violet is the color between red and violet.

Electric purple: 2000s

Electric Purple
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #BF00FF
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(191, 0, 255)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(25.1, 100, 0, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(285°, 100%, 100%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

This color, electric purple, is precisely halfway between violet and magenta and thus fits the artistic definition of purple. [12]

Using additive colors such as those on computer screens, it is possible to create a much brighter purple than with pigments where the mixing subtracts frequencies from the component primary colors. The equivalent color on a computer to the pigment color red-violet shown above would be this electric purple, i.e. the much brighter purple you can see reproduced on the screen of a computer. This color is pure purple conceived as computer artists conceive it, as the color on the color wheel halfway between color wheel violet and electric magenta. Thus, electric purple is the purest and brightest purple that it is possible to display on a computer screen. Its RGB code is (191, 0, 255).

An old name for this color, used by Robert Ridgway in his 1912 book on color nomenclature, Color Standards and Color Nomenclature, is true purple. [13]

Computer web color purples

Purple (HTML/CSS color) (patriarch)

Purple (HTML/CSS color)
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #800080
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(128, 0, 128)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(66, 87, 0, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(300°, 100%, 50.2%)
Source HTML/CSS [14]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

This purple used in HTML and CSS actually is deeper and has a more reddish hue (#800080) than the X11 color purple shown below as purple (X11 color) (#A020F0), which is bluer and brighter.

This color may be called HTML/CSS purple. It seems likely that this color was chosen as the web color purple because its hue is exactly halfway between red and blue and its value is exactly halfway between white and black.

A traditional name sometimes used for this tone of purple is patriarch. The first recorded use of patriarch as a color name in English was in 1925. [15]

Purple (X11 color) (veronica)

Purple (X11 color)
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #A020F0
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(160, 32, 240)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(9, 94, 0, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(276.92°, 86.67%, 94.12%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color purple, as defined in the X11 color, which is a lot brighter and bluer than the HTML purple shown above.

See the chart Color names that clash between X11 and HTML/CSS in the X11 color names article to see those colors which are different in HTML and X11.

This color can be called X11 purple.

Veronica prostrata, for which the color veronica is named Veronica prostrata subsp. scheereri (habitus).jpg
Veronica prostrata , for which the color veronica is named

The traditional name for this tone of purple is veronica. The first recorded use of veronica as a color name in English was in 1919. [16]

Medium purple (X11)

Medium Purple
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #9370DB
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(147, 112, 219)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(56, 58, 0, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(270°, 68%, 72%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the web color medium purple.

This color is a medium shade of the bright X11 purple shown above.

Additional definition of purple

Purple (Munsell)

Purple (Munsell)
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #9F00C5
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(159, 0, 197)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(19, 100, 0, 23)
HSV     (h, s, v)(288°, 100%, 77 [17] %)
Source Munsell Color Wheel
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
The hues of the Munsell color system, at varying values, and maximum chroma to stay in the sRGB gamut. MunsellColorWheel.svg
The hues of the Munsell color system, at varying values, and maximum chroma to stay in the sRGB gamut.

The color defined as purple in the Munsell color system (Munsell 5P) is shown at right. The Munsell color system is a color space that specifies colors based on three color dimensions: hue, value (lightness), and chroma (color purity), spaced uniformly in three dimensions in the elongated oval at an angle shaped Munsell color solid according to the logarithmic scale which governs human perception. In order for all the colors to be spaced uniformly, it was found necessary to use a color wheel with five primary colors—red, yellow, green, blue, and purple.

The Munsell colors displayed are only approximate as they have been adjusted to fit into the sRGB gamut.

Additional variations

Pale purple

Pale Purple
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FAE6FA
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(250, 230, 250)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 8, 0, 2)
HSV     (h, s, v)(300°, 8%, 98%)
Source Pantone TPX
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Pale purple is the pale tint of purple.

Mauve

Mallow wildflower Wilde Malve.JPG
Mallow wildflower
Mauve (Mallow)
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #E0B0FF
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(224, 176, 255)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(12, 31, 0, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(276°, 31%, 100%)
SourceMaerz and Paul [18]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Mauve /ˈmv/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ) [19] (rhymes with "grove"; from the French form of Malva "mallow") is a pale purple. Mauve is named after the mallow flower. Another name for the color is mallow [20] with the first recorded use of mallow as a color name in English in 1611. [21]

Thistle

Milk thistle flowerhead Milk thistle flowerhead.jpg
Milk thistle flowerhead
Thistle
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #D8BFD8
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(216, 191, 216)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(18, 27, 2, 1)
HSV     (h, s, v)(300°, 12%, 85%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Thistle is a light purple resembling the thistle plant.

The first recorded use of Thistle as a color name in English was in 1892. [22]

The color thistle is associated with Scotland because the thistle is the national flower of Scotland and Scotland's highest state decoration is the Order of the Thistle.

Orchid

Cattleya labiata Labiata.jpg
Cattleya labiata
Orchid
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #DA70D6
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(218, 112, 214)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 49, 2, 15)
HSV     (h, s, v)(302°, 49%, 85%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color orchid is a bright rich purple. The name 'orchid' originates from the flowers of some species of the vast orchid flower family, such as Laelia furfuracea and Ascocentrum pusillum, which have petals of this color.

The first recorded use of orchid as a color name in English was in 1915. [23]

Heliotrope

Heliotropium peruvianum Heliotropium peruvianum.jpg
Heliotropium peruvianum
Heliotrope
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #DF73FF
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(223, 115, 255)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(13, 55, 0, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(286°, 55%, 100%)
SourceMaerz and Paul [24]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color heliotrope is a brilliant tone of purple; it is a pink-purple tint that is a representation of the color of the heliotrope flower.

The first recorded use of heliotrope as a color name in English was in 1882. [25]

Psychedelic purple (phlox)

Garden Phlox (Phlox paniculata) Phlox Paniculata.jpg
Garden Phlox (Phlox paniculata)
Phlox
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #DF00FF
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(223, 0, 255)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(13, 100, 0, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(292°, 100%, 100 [26] %)
SourceMaerz and Paul [27]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The pure essence of purple was approximated in pigment in the late 1960s by mixing fluorescent magenta and fluorescent blue pigments together to make fluorescent purple to use in psychedelic black light paintings. This tone of purple was very popular among hippies and was the favorite color of Jimi Hendrix. Thus it is called psychedelic purple. Psychedelic purple is the color halfway between electric purple and magenta.

In the 1980s there was a Jimi Hendrix Museum in a Victorian house on the east side of Central Avenue one half block south of Haight Street in the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco which was painted this color.

Another name for this color is phlox, as it is the color of the phlox flower. The first recorded use of phlox as a color name in English was in 1918. [28]

Purple pizzazz

Purple Pizzazz
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FE4EDA
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(254, 78, 218)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 69, 14, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(312°, 69%, 100 [29] %)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color purple pizzazz.

This color was formulated by Crayola in 1990.

Liseran purple

Liseran Purple
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #DE6FA1
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(223, 111, 161)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 50, 28, 13)
HSV     (h, s, v)(333°, 50%, 87%)
Source ISCC-NBS [30]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color liseran purple.

The first recorded use of liseran purple as a color name in English was in 1912. [31]

The source of this color is: ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names (1955)--Color Sample of Liseran Purple (color sample #248)

Mulberry

Mulberry
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #C54B8C
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(197, 75, 140)
HSV     (h, s, v)(285°, 67%, 70%)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
Mulberry fruits WhiteMulberry.JPG
Mulberry fruits

The color mulberry is displayed at right. This color is a representation of the color of mulberry jam or pie. This was a Crayola crayon color from 1958 to 2003.

The first recorded use of mulberry as a color name in English was in 1776. [32]

Pearly purple

Pearly Purple
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #B768A2
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(183, 104, 162)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 43, 12, 28)
HSV     (h, s, v)(316°, 43%, 72 [33] %)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color pearly purple.

Pearly purple is one of the colors in the special set of metallic colored Crayola crayons called Silver Swirls, the colors of which were formulated by Crayola in 1990.

Purpureus

Purpureus
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #9A4EAE
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(154, 78, 174)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(12, 55, 0, 32)
HSV     (h, s, v)(288°, 55%, 68%)
Source ISCC-NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color purpureus is displayed at right. Another name for this color is purpura.

The first recorded use of purpura as a color name in English was in 1382. [4]

Northwestern Purple

Northwestern Purple
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #4E2A84
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(78, 48, 132)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(84, 100, 0, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(261°, 64%, 52%)
Source Brand Guide
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Northwestern Purple is the official color of Northwestern University, as shown at the right. Additionally, there are shades and tints that are variations of the base color. Northwestern Purple is a custom ink color and can no longer be referenced by a Pantone number.

KSU Purple

KSU Purple
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #512888
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(81, 40, 136)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(82, 100, 0, 12)
HSV     (h, s, v)(266°, 71%, 53%)
Source Brand Guide
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

For printed material, purple (Pantone #268+) [34] is the official school color of Kansas State University, as shown at the right. Traditionally, the school has referred to this darker and bluer shade as Royal Purple. [35] [compare with Royal purple: 17th century]

For the web, #512888 is the official color, even though that hex triplet is not a direct conversion from Pantone 268+. [34]

Pomp and Power

Pomp and Power
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #86608E
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(134, 96, 142)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(56, 32, 0, 44)
HSV     (h, s, v)(290°, 32%, 56%)
Source ISCC-NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color pomp and power is displayed at right.

The color pomp and power is not found in the 1930 first edition of the Dictionary of Color by Maerz and Paul, but it is found in the second edition of 1950. [36]

Mardi Gras

Mardi Gras
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #880085
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(136, 0, 133)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 100, 0, 0)
HSV     (h, s, v)(301°, 100%, 53 [37] %)
Source Xona.com Color List [38]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color Mardi Gras is displayed at right.

The color name Mardi Gras has been in use since 2001 when the Xona.com Color List was first promulgated.

Eminence

Eminence
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #6C3082
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(108, 48, 130)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(17, 63, 0, 49)
HSV     (h, s, v)(284°, 63%, 51 [39] %)
Source Xona.com Color List
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color eminence is displayed at right.

The color name eminence, used since the 1800s, [40] has been in modern use for this color since 2001 when the Xona.com Color List was first promulgated.

Byzantium

Byzantium
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #702963
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(112, 41, 99)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 63, 12, 56)
HSV     (h, s, v)(311°, 63%, 44%)
Source ISCC-NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color Byzantium, a dark tone of purple, is displayed at right.

The first recorded use of byzantium as a color name in English was in 1926. [41]

Pansy purple

Pansy Purple
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #78184A
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(120, 24, 74)
HSV     (h, s, v)(287°, 36%, 27%)
Source ISCC-NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
Purple Pansy Purple Pansy.jpg
Purple Pansy

The pansy flower has varieties that exhibit three different colors: pansy (a color between indigo and violet), pansy pink, and pansy purple.

The first recorded use of pansy purple as a color name in English was in 1814. [42]

Palatinate

Palatinate Purple #72246C (as associated with the University of Durham)
#72246C

Palatinate
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #72246C
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(114, 36, 108)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(0, 68, 5, 55)
HSV     (h, s, v)(305°, 68%, 45%)
SourceDurham University [43] [44]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Palatinate is a color (a pale shade of violet) associated with the University of Durham (and with Newcastle University Medical School, this being the former medical school of Durham University.) A separate color, 'Palatinate Blue', is derived from the Coat of Arms of the County of Durham. The name 'Palatinate' in both instances alludes to the historic status of Durham as a County Palatine.

Dark purple

Dark Purple
 
Gtk-dialog-info.svg    Color coordinates
Hex triplet #301934
sRGB B  (r,  g,  b)(48, 25, 52)
CMYK H  (c, m, y, k)(8, 52, 0, 80)
HSV     (h, s, v)(291°, 51%, 20%)
Source ISCC-NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Dark purple is the dark tone of purple.

The source of this color is: ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names (1955)--Color sample of Dark purple (color sample #225).

Wrapping the spectrum into a color wheel

If the visible spectrum is wrapped to form a color wheel, purple appears midway between magenta and violet:

Linear visible spectrum.svg
Visible spectrum wrapped to join violet and magenta in an additive mixture of purple Blended colour wheel.svg
Visible spectrum wrapped to join violet and magenta in an additive mixture of purple

See also

Related Research Articles

Mauve mauve colour

Mauve is a pale purple color named after the mallow flower. The first use of the word mauve as a color was in 1796–98 according to the Oxford English Dictionary, but its use seems to have been rare before 1859. Another name for the color is mallow, with the first recorded use of mallow as a color name in English in 1611.

Beige brown color with a cream colored tone; pale yellowish brown color

Beige is variously described as a pale sandy fawn color, a grayish tan, a light-grayish yellowish brown, or a pale to grayish yellow. It takes its name from French, where the word originally meant natural wool that has been neither bleached nor dyed, and hence also the color of natural wool. It has come to be used to describe a variety of light tints chosen for their neutral or pale warm appearance.

Fuchsia (color) Color

Fuchsia is a vivid purplish red color, named after the color of the flower of the fuchsia plant, which took its name from the 16th century German botanist Leonhart Fuchs.

Lavender (color) color shade of violet

Lavender is a light purple. It applies particularly to the color of the flower of the same name. The web color called lavender is displayed at right—it matches the color of the very palest part of the lavender flower; however, the more saturated color shown below as floral lavender more closely matches the average color of the lavender flower as shown in the picture and is the tone of lavender historically and traditionally considered lavender by the average person as opposed to those who are web site designers. The color lavender might be described as a medium purple or a light pinkish purple. The term lavender may be used in general to apply to a wide range of pale, light or greyish purples but only on the pink side. Lilac is pale purple on the blue side. In paints, the colour lavender is made by mixing purple and white paint.

Red-violet color

Red-violet is a rich color of high medium saturation about 3/4 of the way between red and magenta, closer to magenta than to red. It is classified in color theory as one of the purple colors—a non-spectral color between red and violet that is a deep version of a color on the line of purples on the CIE chromaticity diagram. Both its saturation and brightness falling short of 100%, red-violet is not a pure chroma. There is a color of similar hue that, however, comes close to being a pure chroma: process magenta. The pure chroma color composed of equal parts of magenta and red is called rose.

Burgundy (color) Dark red color

Burgundy is a dark red or purple, or a dark red-ish purple tending towards brown. It takes its name from colour of Burgundy wine. The French call this shade of red after a different wine region, Bordeaux; though in Quebec French, it is Bourgogne. When referring to the color, "burgundy" is usually not capitalized.

Spring green is a color included on the color wheel that is precisely halfway between cyan and green. When plotted on the CIE chromaticity diagram it corresponds to a visual stimulus of 505 nanometers on the visible spectrum. Spring green is a pure chroma on the color wheel. In HSV color space, the expression of which is known as the RGB color wheel, spring green has a hue of 150°. Spring green is one of the tertiary colors on the RGB color wheel. It is also sometimes referred to as mint green.

Blue-green color

Blue-green is a color that is a representation of the color that is between green and blue on a typical traditional old-fashioned RYB color wheel.

Taupe is a dark brown color between brown and gray. The word derives from the French noun taupe meaning "mole". The name originally referred only to the average color of the French mole, but beginning in the 1940s, its usage expanded to encompass a wider range of shades.

Rose (color) color halfway between red and magenta on the HSV color wheel

Rose is the color halfway between red and magenta on the HSV color wheel, also known as the RGB color wheel, on which it is at hue angle of 330 degrees.

Amaranth (color) color

Amaranth is a reddish-rose color that is a representation of the color of the flower of the amaranth plant. The color shown is the color of the red amaranth flower, but there are other varieties of amaranth that have other colors of amaranth flowers; these colors are also shown below.

Shades of orange Varieties of the color orange

In optics, orange has a wavelength between approximately 585 and 620 nm and a hue of 30° in HSV color space. In the RGB color space it is a secondary color numerically halfway between gamma-compressed red and yellow, as can be seen in the RGB color wheel. The complementary color of orange is azure. Orange pigments are largely in the ochre or cadmium families, and absorb mostly blue light.

Shades of red Colors that are variations of red

Varieties of the color red may differ in hue, chroma or lightness, or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are also called tints and shades, a tint being a red or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below.

Shades of magenta

The color magenta has notable tints and shades. These various colors are shown below.

The color Byzantium is a particular dark tone of purple. It originates in modern times, and, despite its name, it should not be confused with Tyrian purple, the color historically used by Roman and Byzantine emperors. The latter, often also referred to as "Tyrian red", is more reddish in hue, and is in fact often depicted as closer to crimson than purple. The first recorded use of byzantium as a color name in English was in 1926.

Blue-grey is a medium bluish-gray color. Another name for this color is livid; this color name comes from the Latin color term lividus meaning "'a dull leaden-blue color', and also used to describe the color of contused flesh, leading to the English expression 'black and blue'".

Shades of yellow

Varieties of the color yellow may differ in hue, chroma or lightness, or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are also called tints and shades, a tint being a yellow or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below.

Shades of blue Variety of the color blue

Varieties of the color blue may differ in hue, chroma, or lightness, or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are also called tints and shades, a tint being a blue or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below.

Shades of violet Varieties of the color violet

There are numerous variations of the color violet, a sampling of which are shown below.

Shades of black Colours that differ only slightly from pure black

Shades of black are colors that differ only slightly from pure black. These colors have a low lightness. From photometric point of view, a color which differs slightly from black always has low relative luminance. Variations of black include what are commonly termed off-black colors, which may be considered part of a neutral color scheme, usually in interior design as a part of a background for brighter colors. Black and dark gray colors are powerful accent colors that suggest weight, dignity, formality, and solemnity.

References

  1. Mish, Frederic C., Editor in Chief Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A.:1984--Merriam-Webster Page 957
  2. Charles A. Poynton (2003). Digital video and HDTV. Morgan Kaufmann. ISBN   1-55860-792-7.
  3. John Dakin and Robert G. W. Brown (2006). Handbook of Optoelectronics. CRC Press. ISBN   0-7503-0646-7.
  4. 1 2 Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 202
  5. Forret, Peter. "RGB Color converter - toolstudio". web.forret.com. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  6. "Tyrian Purple in Ancient Rome:". Mmdtkw.org. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
  7. "web.Forrett.com Color Conversion Tool set to color #7851A9 (Royal Purple):". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
  8. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 203; Color Sample of Royal Purple: Page 109 Plate 43 Color Sample K11
  9. Garfield, S. (2000). Mauve: How One Man Invented a Colour That Changed the World. Faber and Faber, London, UK. ISBN   978-0-571-20197-6.
  10. "History of Dyes from 2600 BC to 20th Century - natural dyes, synthetic". www.straw.com. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  11. Thomas Beer: The mauve decade --American life at the end of the nineteenth century Archived 2013-06-13 at the Wayback Machine , 1926, at gaslight.mtroyal.ab.ca
  12. Graham, Lanier F. (editor) The Rainbow Book Berkeley, California:1976 Shambala Publishing and The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco (Handbook for the Summer 1976 exhibition The Rainbow Art Show which took place primarily at the De Young Museum but also at other museums) Portfolio of color wheels by famous theoreticians—see Rood color wheel (1879) Page 93 Purple is halfway between magenta and violet
  13. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Discussion of the color Purple, Page 175; Color Sample of True Purple: Page 125 Plate 51 Color Sample A12--True Purple is shown on the Purple end of the Purple-Magenta-Rose axis on the bottom and right of the plate.
  14. "W3C TR CSS3 Color Module, HTML4 color keywords". W3.org. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
  15. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 201; Color Sample of Patriarch: Page 109 Plate 43 Color Sample L9
  16. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 201; Color Sample of Veronica: Page 109 Plate 43 Color Sample H9
  17. "Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #9F00C5 (Purple (Munsell)):". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
  18. The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called mauve in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color "mallow" is displayed on Page 125, Plate 51, Color Sample I3 Note: It is stated in A Dictionary of Color that mallow and mauve are two different names used in English to refer to exactly the same color--the name mallow came into use in 1611 and mauve came into use as its synonym in 1856--see under the entry for each name on page 198 in the Index. See also discussion of the color Mallow (Mauve) on page 166.
  19. Brians, Paul. "Mauve". Common Errors in English. Washington State University. Archived from the original on 2000-05-21. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
  20. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 198
  21. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 198; Color Sample of Mallow: Page 125 Plate 51 Color Sample I3
  22. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 196; Color Sample of Thistle: Page 107 Plate 42 Color Sample J7
  23. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 200; Color Sample of Orchid: Page 105 Plate 41 Color Sample F5
  24. The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called heliotrope in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color heliotrope is displayed on page 131, Plate 54, Color Sample C10.
  25. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 196; Color Sample of Heliotrope: Page 131 Plate 54 Color Sample C10
  26. "Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #DF00FF (Psychedelic Purple (Phlox)):". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
  27. The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called phlox in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color phlox is displayed on page 131, Plate 54, Color Sample H12.
  28. A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill, Page 201; Color Sample of Phlox: Page 131 Plate 54 Color Sample H12—The color Phlox is shown lying halfway between magenta and purple.
  29. "Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #FE4EDA (Purple Pizzaz):". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
  30. The color displayed in the color box above is the color in the array of tones of liseran purple displayed on the ISCC-NBS color list letter L web page that most closely matches the color called liseran purple in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color liseran purple is displayed on page 123, Plate 50, Color Sample B9.
  31. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 198; Color Sample of Liseran Purple: Page 123 Plate 50 Color Sample B9
  32. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 199; Color Sample of Mulberry: Plate 48 Color Sample E9
  33. "web.forrett.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #B768A2 (Pearly Purple):". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
  34. 1 2 "Brand Guide" (PDF). Branding. Kansas State University Division of Communications and Marketing. Retrieved 2016-10-06.
  35. "Kansas State Traditions". K-State Athletics. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
  36. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1950 (2nd edition) McGraw-Hill
  37. "Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #880085 (Mardi Gras):". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
  38. Note: While for other Xona.com colors that have been entered into Wikipedia, the standard darker version of the two tones provided for each color has always been used, in this case the lighter version is used as this brighter and more saturated version seems more in tune with the spirit of Mardi Gras.
  39. "Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #6C3082 (Eminence):". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 2013-04-26.
  40. Painting and Decorating: A Journal (1893): The following item from a daily paper is but a sample of the fashion in color naming : "'Eminence,' or 'eminence purple,' as we more frequently call it, is really a bright violet tinge, verging on petunia, with a dash of red in it."
  41. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 191; Color Sample of Byzantium: Page 111 Plate 44 Color Sample K7
  42. Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 201; Color Sample of Pansy Purple: Page 131 Plate 54 Color Sample L8
  43. "Durham University - Colour palette" . Retrieved 26 May 2019.
  44. "Pantone 255 C" . Retrieved 26 May 2019.