|Pronunciation||US: / /, / / or UK: / / KWIN-een|
|Trade names||Qualaquin, Quinate, Quinbisul, others|
| Routes of|
|By mouth, intramuscular, intravenous, rectal|
|Metabolism||Liver (mostly CYP3A4 and CYP2C19-mediated)|
|Elimination half-life||8–14 hours (adults), 6–12 hours (children)|
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|ECHA InfoCard|| 100.004.550 |
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||324.424 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|Melting point||177 °C (351 °F)|
Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.This includes the treatment of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum that is resistant to chloroquine when artesunate is not available. While used for restless legs syndrome, it is not recommended for this purpose due to the risk of side effects. It can be taken by mouth or used intravenously. Malaria resistance to quinine occurs in certain areas of the world. Quinine is also the ingredient in tonic water that gives it its bitter taste.
Common side effects include headache, ringing in the ears, trouble seeing, and sweating.More severe side effects include deafness, low blood platelets, and an irregular heartbeat. Use can make one more prone to sunburn. While it is unclear if use during pregnancy causes harm to the baby, use to treat malaria during pregnancy is still recommended. Quinine is an alkaloid, a naturally occurring chemical compound. How it works as a medicine is not entirely clear.
Quinine was first isolated in 1820 from the bark of a cinchona tree.Bark extracts have been used to treat malaria since at least 1632. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale price in the developing world is about US$1.70 to $3.40 per course of treatment. In the United States a course of treatment is more than $200.
As of 2006, it is no longer recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a first-line treatment for malaria, and it should be used only when artemisinins are not available.Quinine is also used to treat lupus and arthritis.
Quinine was frequently prescribed as an off-label treatment for leg cramps at night, but this has become less common due to a warning from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that this practice is associated with life-threatening side effects.
Quinine is a basic amine and is usually provided as a salt. Various existing preparations include the hydrochloride, dihydrochloride, sulfate, bisulfate and gluconate. In the United States, quinine sulfate is commercially available in 324-mg tablets under the brand name Qualaquin.
All quinine salts may be given orally or intravenously (IV); quinine gluconate may also be given intramuscularly (IM) or rectally (PR).The main problem with the rectal route is that the dose can be expelled before it is completely absorbed; in practice, this is corrected by giving a further half dose. No injectable preparation of quinine is licensed in the US; quinidine is used instead.
|Name||Quinine base equivalence|
|Quinine base||100 mg|
|Quinine bisulfate||169 mg|
|Quinine dihydrochloride||122 mg|
|Quinine gluconate||160 mg|
|Quinine hydrochloride||111 mg|
|Quinine sulfate dihydrate [(quinine)2H2SO4∙2H2O]||121 mg|
Quinine is a flavor component of tonic water and bitter lemon drink mixers. On the soda gun behind many bars, tonic water is designated by the letter "Q" representing quinine.
According to tradition, the bitter taste of anti-malarial quinine tonic led British colonials in India to mix it with gin, thus creating the gin and tonic cocktail, which is still popular today.Nowadays, the amount of quinine in tonic is much lower and drinking it against malaria is ineffective. In the US, quinine is listed as an ingredient in some Diet Snapple flavors, including Cranberry-Raspberry.
In France, quinine is an ingredient of an apéritif known as quinquina , or "Cap Corse," and the wine-based apéritif Dubonnet. In Spain, quinine ("Peruvian bark") is sometimes blended into sweet Malaga wine, which is then called "Malaga Quina". In Italy, the traditional flavoured wine Barolo Chinato is infused with quinine and local herbs and is served as a digestif . In Canada and Italy, quinine is an ingredient in the carbonated chinotto beverages Brio and San Pellegrino. In Scotland, the company A.G. Barr uses quinine as an ingredient in the carbonated and caffeinated beverage Irn-Bru. In Uruguay and Argentina, quinine is an ingredient of a PepsiCo tonic water named Paso de los Toros. In Denmark, it is used as an ingredient in the carbonated sports drink Faxe Kondi made by Royal Unibrew.
As a flavoring agent in beverages, quinine is limited to less than 83 parts per million in the United States, and 100mg⁄l in the European Union.
Quinine (and quinidine) are used as the chiral moiety for the ligands used in Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation as well as for numerous other chiral catalyst backbones. Because of its relatively constant and well-known fluorescence quantum yield, quinine is used in photochemistry as a common fluorescence standard.
Because of the narrow difference between its therapeutic and toxic effects, quinine is a common cause of drug-induced disorders, including thrombocytopenia and thrombotic microangiopathy. [ citation needed ]Even from minor levels occurring in common beverages, quinine can have severe adverse effects involving multiple organ systems, among which are immune system effects and fever, hypotension, hemolytic anemia, acute kidney injury, liver toxicity, and blindness. In people with atrial fibrillation, conduction defects, or heart block, quinine can cause heart arrhythmias, and should be avoided.
Quinine can cause hemolysis in G6PD deficiency (an inherited deficiency), but this risk is small and the physician should not hesitate to use quinine in people with G6PD deficiency when there is no alternative.
Quinine can cause unpredictable serious and life-threatening blood and cardiovascular reactions including low platelet count and hemolytic-uremic syndrome/thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (HUS/TTP), long QT syndrome and other serious cardiac arrhythmias including torsades de pointes, blackwater fever, disseminated intravascular coagulation, leukopenia, and neutropenia. Some people who have developed TTP due to quinine have gone on to develop kidney failure.It can also cause serious hypersensitivity reactions include anaphylactic shock, urticaria, serious skin rashes, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, angioedema, facial edema, bronchospasm, granulomatous hepatitis, and itchiness.
The most common adverse effects involve a group of symptoms called cinchonism, which can include headache, vasodilation and sweating, nausea, tinnitus, hearing impairment, vertigo or dizziness, blurred vision, and disturbance in color perception.More severe cinchonism includes vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, deafness, blindness, and disturbances in heart rhythms. Cinchonism is much less common when quinine is given by mouth, but oral quinine is not well tolerated (quinine is exceedingly bitter and many patients will vomit after ingesting quinine tablets): Other drugs, such as Fansidar (sulfadoxine with pyrimethamine) or Malarone (proguanil with atovaquone), are often used when oral therapy is required. Quinine ethyl carbonate is tasteless and odourless, but is available commercially only in Japan. Blood glucose, electrolyte and cardiac monitoring are not necessary when quinine is given by mouth.
Quinine is theorized to be toxic to the malarial pathogen, Plasmodium falciparum , by interfering with the parasite's ability to dissolve and metabolize hemoglobin. [ medical citation needed ] The most widely accepted hypothesis of its action is based on the well-studied and closely related quinoline drug, chloroquine. This model involves the inhibition of hemozoin biocrystallization in Heme Detoxification pathway, which facilitates the aggregation of cytotoxic heme. Free cytotoxic heme accumulates in the parasites, causing their deaths. Quinine may target malaria's purine nucleoside phosphorylase enzyme.As with other quinoline antimalarial drugs, the mechanism of action of quinine has not been fully resolved.
The UV absorption of quinine peaks around 350 nm (in UVA). Fluorescent emission peaks at around 460 nm (bright blue/cyan hue). Quinine is highly fluorescent (quantum yield ~0.58) in 0.1 M sulfuric acid solution.
Cinchona trees remain the only economically practical source of quinine. However, under wartime pressure, research towards its synthetic production was undertaken. A formal chemical synthesis was accomplished in 1944 by American chemists R.B. Woodward and W.E. Doering.Since then, several more efficient quinine total syntheses have been achieved, but none of them can compete in economic terms with isolation of the alkaloid from natural sources. The first synthetic organic dye, mauveine, was discovered by William Henry Perkin in 1856 while he was attempting to synthesize quinine.
In the first step of quinine biosynthesis, the enzyme strictosidine synthase catalyzes a stereoselective Pictet–Spengler reaction between tryptamine and secologanin to yield strictosidine.Suitable modification of strictosidine leads to an aldehyde. Hydrolysis and decarboxylation would initially remove one carbon from the iridoid portion and produce corynantheal. Then the tryptamine side-chain were cleaved adjacent to the nitrogen, and this nitrogen was then bonded to the acetaldehyde function to yield cinchonaminal. Ring opening in the indole heterocyclic ring could generate new amine and keto functions. The new quinoline heterocycle would then be formed by combining this amine with the aldehyde produced in the tryptamine side-chain cleavage, giving cinchonidinone. For the last step, hydroxylation and methylation gives quinine.
Quinine was used as a muscle relaxant by the Quechua, who are indigenous to Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador, to halt shivering due to low temperatures.The Quechuas would mix the ground bark of cinchona trees with sweetened water to offset the bark's bitter taste, thus producing something similar to tonic water.
The Jesuit were the first to bring cinchona to Europe. The Spanish were aware of the medicinal properties of cinchona bark by the 1570s or earlier: Nicolás Monardes (1571) and Juan Fragoso (1572) both described a tree that was subsequently identified as the cinchona tree and whose bark was used to produce a drink to treat diarrhea.Quinine has been used in unextracted form by Europeans since at least the early 17th century. It was first used to treat malaria in Rome in 1631. A popular story of how it was brought to Europe by the Countess of Chinchon was debunked by medical historian Alec Haggis around 1941. During the 17th century, malaria was endemic to the swamps and marshes surrounding the city of Rome. Malaria was responsible for the deaths of several popes, many cardinals and countless common Roman citizens. Most of the priests trained in Rome had seen malaria victims and were familiar with the shivering brought on by the febrile phase of the disease. The Jesuit brother Agostino Salumbrino (1564–1642), an apothecary by training who lived in Lima, observed the Quechua using the bark of the cinchona tree for that purpose. While its effect in treating malaria (and malaria-induced shivering) was unrelated to its effect in controlling shivering from rigors, it was a successful medicine against malaria. At the first opportunity, Salumbrino sent a small quantity to Rome for testing as a malaria treatment. In the years that followed, cinchona bark, known as Jesuit's bark or Peruvian bark, became one of the most valuable commodities shipped from Peru to Europe. When King Charles II was cured of malaria at the end of the 17th Century with quinine, it became popular in London. It remained the antimalarial drug of choice until the 1940s, when other drugs took over.
The form of quinine most effective in treating malaria was found by Charles Marie de La Condamine in 1737.In 1820, French researchers Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaimé Caventou first isolated quinine from the bark of a tree in the genus Cinchona – probably Cinchona officinalis – and subsequently named the substance. The name was derived from the original Quechua (Inca) word for the cinchona tree bark, quina or quina-quina, which means "bark of bark" or "holy bark". Prior to 1820, the bark was first dried, ground to a fine powder, and then mixed into a liquid (commonly wine) which was then drunk. Large-scale use of quinine as a malaria prophylaxis started around 1850. In 1853 Paul Briquet published a brief history and discussion of the literature on "quinquina".
Quinine played a significant role in the colonization of Africa by Europeans. Quinine had been said to be the prime reason Africa ceased to be known as the "white man's grave". A historian has stated, "it was quinine's efficacy that gave colonists fresh opportunities to swarm into the Gold Coast, Nigeria and other parts of west Africa".
To maintain their monopoly on cinchona bark, Peru and surrounding countries began outlawing the export of cinchona seeds and saplings in the early 19th century. The Dutch government persisted in its attempts to smuggle the seeds, and in the late 19th century the Dutch grew the plants in Indonesian plantations. Soon they became the main suppliers of the plant, and in 1913 they set up the Kina Bureau, a cartel of cinchona producers charged with controlling price and production.By the 1930s Dutch plantations in Java were producing 22 million pounds of cinchona bark, or 97% of the world's quinine production. U.S. attempts to prosecute the Kina Bureau proved unsuccessful. During World War II, Allied powers were cut off from their supply of quinine when Germany conquered the Netherlands, and Japan controlled the Philippines and Indonesia. The US had obtained four million cinchona seeds from the Philippines and began operating cinchona plantations in Costa Rica. Additionally, they began harvesting wild cinchona bark during the Cinchona Missions. Such supplies came too late. Tens of thousands of US troops in Africa and the South Pacific died due to the lack of quinine. Despite controlling the supply, the Japanese did not make effective use of quinine, and thousands of Japanese troops in the southwest Pacific died as a result. Quinine remained the antimalarial drug of choice until after World War II, when other drugs, such as chloroquine, that have fewer side effects largely replaced it.
Bromo Quinine were brand name cold tablets containing quinine, manufactured by Grove Laboratories. They were first marketed in 1889 and available until at least the 1960s.
The bark of Remijia contains 0.5–2% of quinine. The bark is cheaper than bark of Cinchona . As it has an intense taste, it is used for making tonic water.
From 1969, to 1992, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) received 157 reports of health problems related to quinine use, including 23 which had resulted in death. [ citation needed ]. Doctors may still prescribe quinine, but the FDA has ordered firms to stop marketing unapproved drug products containing quinine. The FDA is also cautioning consumers about off-label use of quinine to treat leg cramps. Quinine is approved for treatment of malaria, but was also commonly prescribed to treat leg cramps and similar conditions. Because malaria is life-threatening, the risks associated with quinine use are considered acceptable when used to treat that affliction.In 1994, the FDA banned the marketing of over-the-counter quinine as a treatment for nocturnal leg cramps. Pfizer Pharmaceuticals had been selling the brand name Legatrin for this purpose. Also sold as a Softgel (by SmithKlineBeecham) as Q-vel
Though Legatrin was banned by the FDA for the treatment of leg cramps, the drug manufacturer URL Mutual has branded a quinine-containing drug named Qualaquin. It is marketed as a treatment for malaria and is sold in the United States only by prescription. In 2004, the CDC reported only 1,347 confirmed cases of malaria in the United States.
Quinine is sometimes detected as a cutting agent in street drugs such as cocaine and heroin.
Quinine is used as a treatment for Cryptocaryon irritans (commonly referred to as white spot, crypto or marine ich) infection of marine aquarium fish.
Cinchona is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae containing at least 23 species of trees and shrubs. All are native to the tropical Andean forests of western South America. A few species are reportedly naturalized in Central America, Jamaica, French Polynesia, Sulawesi, Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, and São Tomé and Príncipe off the coast of tropical Africa, and others have been cultivated in India and Java, where they have formed hybrids.
Tonic water is a carbonated soft drink in which quinine is dissolved. Originally used as a prophylactic against malaria, tonic water usually now has a significantly lower quinine content and is consumed for its distinctive bitter flavor, though it is nowadays also often sweetened. It is often used in mixed drinks, particularly in gin and tonic.
Mefloquine, sold under the brand names Lariam among others, is a medication used to prevent or treat malaria. When used for prevention it is typically started before potential exposure and continued for several weeks after potential exposure. It can be used to treat mild or moderate malaria but is not recommended for severe malaria. It is taken by mouth.
Antimalarial medications, also known as antimalarials, are designed to prevent or cure malaria. Such drugs may be used for some or all of the following:
Cinchonism is a pathological condition caused by an overdose of quinine or their natural source, cinchona bark. Quinine and its derivatives are used medically to treat malaria and Lupus erythematosus. In much smaller amounts, quinine is an ingredient of tonic drinks, acting as a bittering agent. Cinchonism can occur from therapeutic doses of quinine, either from one or several large doses. Quinidine can also cause cinchonism symptoms to develop with as little as a single dose.
Quinidine is a medication that acts as a class I antiarrhythmic agent (Ia) in the heart. It is a stereoisomer of quinine, originally derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. The drug causes increased action potential duration, as well as a prolonged QT interval.
Quinquina, an aromatised wine, is a variety of apéritif wine. Traditionally quinquinas contain cinchona bark, which provides quinine. Quinine was used in treating malaria.
Artesunate (AS) is a medication used to treat malaria. The intravenous form is preferred to quinidine for severe malaria. Often it is used as part of combination therapy, such as artesunate plus mefloquine. It is not used for the prevention of malaria. Artesunate can be given by injection into a vein, injection into a muscle, by mouth, and by rectum.
Chloroquine is a medication used to prevent and to treat malaria in areas where malaria is known to be sensitive to its effects. Certain types of malaria, resistant strains, and complicated cases typically require different or additional medication. Occasionally it is used for amebiasis that is occurring outside the intestines, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus erythematosus. It is taken by mouth. It is also being used experimentally to treat COVID-19 as of 2020.
Primaquine is a medication used to treat and prevent malaria and to treat Pneumocystis pneumonia. Specifically it is used for malaria due to Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale along with other medications and for prevention if other options cannot be used. It is an alternative treatment for Pneumocystis pneumonia together with clindamycin. It is taken by mouth.
Quinic acid is a cyclitol, a cyclic polyol, and a cyclohexanecarboxylic acid. It is a colorless solid that can be extracted from plant sources. Quinic acid is implicated in the perceived acidity of coffee.
per se ; the National Coat of arms, or National Shield ; the Great Seal of the State ; and the Naval Coat of arms (Escudo de la Marina de Guerra
Cinchona officinalis is a South American tree in the family Rubiaceae. It is native to wet montane forests in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, between 1600–2700 meters above sea level.
Malaria prophylaxis is the preventive treatment of malaria. Several malaria vaccines are under development.
Cinchona pubescens, also known as red cinchona and quina (Quechua), is native to Central and South America. It is known as a medicinal plant for its bark's high quinine content- and has similar uses to Cinchona officinalis in the production of quinine, most famously used for treatment of malaria.
The history of malaria stretches from its prehistoric origin as a zoonotic disease in the primates of Africa through to the 21st century. A widespread and potentially lethal human infectious disease, at its peak malaria infested every continent, except Antarctica. Its prevention and treatment have been targeted in science and medicine for hundreds of years. Since the discovery of the parasites which cause it, research attention has focused on their biology, as well as that of the mosquitoes which transmit the parasites.
John S. Sappington (1776-1856) was an American physician known for creating a quinine pill to treat malaria in the Missouri area. He also wrote "The Theory and Treatment of Fevers," the first medical treatise published west of the Mississippi River.
The Schedula Romana was a pharmaceutical handbill published in 1649. Generally assumed to have been designed after the knowledge of the cinchona bark properties brought from South America by Spanish Jesuit Juan de Lugo, the Schedula Romana is considered to be an early example of an efficient antimalarial recipe. The Schedula gives instructions on proper dosages and application of the cinchona bark. The doses recommended are likely to have been established by trial and error, and they are assumed to be relied on results obtained using the various recipes proposed by Roman apothecaries.
The Therapeutice Specialis ad Febres Periodicas Perniciosas is a book published in 1712 and written by Italian physician Francesco Torti (1658–1741), professor of medicine at Modena. The book illustrates an elaborate taxonomy of fevers in order to explain which ones could be cured by the use of the cinchona bark. The Therapeutice Specialis is considered the first systematic study of the action of cinchona in different types of fever.
Água de Inglaterra was an example of the 'secret remedies' that were in vogue in Portugal during the 18th Century. The name was used for various pharmaceutical preparations produced by several manufacturers from the end of the 17th Century to the beginning of the 19th. In addition to the name, these preparations had in common the fact that the major therapeutic ingredient was the bark of the cinchona tree, from which quinine is obtained. Reference to the drug can be found in all Portuguese Pharmacopeia between 1681 and 1821.