Fragaria vesca

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Woodland strawberry
Illustration Fragaria vesca0.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Fragaria
Species:
F. vesca
Binomial name
Fragaria vesca

Fragaria vesca, commonly called wild strawberry, woodland strawberry, Alpine strawberry, Carpathian strawberry, European strawberry, or fraisier des bois, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the rose family that grows naturally throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere, and that produces edible fruits. [2] [3]

Contents

Description

Five to eleven soft, hairy white flowers are borne on a green, soft fresh-hairy 3–15 centimetres (1.2–5.9 in) stalk that usually lifts them above the leaves. The light-green leaves are trifoliate (in threes) with toothed margins. The plant spreads mostly by means of runners (stolons), but the seeds are viable and establish new populations. [4] [5] [6]

Taxonomy

Vilmorin-Andrieux (1885) makes a distinction between wild or wood strawberries (Fragaria vesca) and alpine strawberries (Fragaria alpina), [7] a distinction which is not made by most seed companies or nurseries, which usually sell Fragaria vesca as "alpine strawberry".

Under wild or wood strawberry, Vilmorin says:

It has seldom been seen in gardens since the introduction of the Red Alpine Strawberry. ... Wood Strawberry possesses a quite particular perfume and delicacy of flavour. 2,500 seeds to the gramme.

Under alpine strawberry, Vilmorin says:

A very different plant to the Wood Strawberry, and distinguished by the greater size of all its parts — the fruit in particular — and especially by the property (which is particular to it) of producing flowers and fruit continuously all through the summer. ... The fruit has nearly the same appearance and flavour as that of the Wood Strawberry, but is generally larger, longer, and more pointed in shape. The seed is also perceptibly larger and longer. A gramme contains only about 1,500 seeds.

Subspecies

As of November 2020, Plants of the World Online accepts two subspecies in addition to the autonym, Fragaria vesca ssp. vesca: [1]

Ecology

Wild strawberry collected in the forest in the Middle Urals Zemlianika lesnaia (Fragaria vesca) f001.jpg
Wild strawberry collected in the forest in the Middle Urals
Fragaria vesca, fruiting plant Fragaria vesca LC0389.jpg
Fragaria vesca, fruiting plant
Wild strawberry in Estonia, Pakri Peninsula. Fragaria vesca - metsmaasikas.jpg
Wild strawberry in Estonia, Pakri Peninsula.

Typical habitat is along trails and roadsides, embankments, hillsides, stone- and gravel-laid paths and roads, meadows, young woodlands, sparse forest, woodland edges, and clearings. Often plants can be found where they do not get sufficient light to form fruit. In the southern part of its range, it can grow only in shady areas; further north it tolerates more sun. [8] It is tolerant of a variety of moisture levels (except very wet or dry conditions). [8] It can survive mild fires and/or establish itself after fires. [8]

Although F. vesca primarily propagates via runners, viable seeds are also found in soil seed banks and seem to germinate when the soil is disturbed (away from existing populations of F. vesca). [8]

Its leaves serve as significant food source for a variety of ungulates, such as mule deer and elk, and the fruit are eaten by a variety of mammals and birds that also help to distribute the seeds in their droppings. [8]

It is a larval host to the two-banded checkered skipper. [9]

Genomics

Genomic information
NCBI genome ID 3314
Ploidy diploid
Number of chromosomes 14
Year of completion 2010

The wild strawberry is used as an indicator plant for diseases that affect the garden strawberry. It is also used as a genetic model plant for garden strawberry and the family Rosaceae in general, due to its:

The genome of Fragaria vesca was sequenced in 2010. [10]

All strawberry (Fragaria) species have a base haploid count of seven chromosomes; Fragaria vesca is diploid, having two pairs of these chromosomes for a total of 14.

Flower close-up Fragaria vesca Jahodnik obecny 1.jpg
Flower close-up
Leaf close-up Fragaria vesca 5044.JPG
Leaf close-up
Fruit close-up Walderdbeere Frucht-20210617-RM-124006.jpg
Fruit close-up

History, cultivation and uses

Evidence from archaeological excavations suggests that Fragaria vesca has been consumed by humans since the Stone Age. [11]

Woodland strawberry fruit is strongly flavored, and is still collected and grown for domestic use and on a small scale commercially for the use of gourmets and as an ingredient for commercial jam, sauces, liqueurs, cosmetics and alternative medicine. In Turkey, hundreds of tons of wild fruit are harvested annually, mainly for export. [12]

Most of the cultivated varieties have a long flowering period (and have been considered by botanists as belonging to Fragaria vesca var. vesca ssp. semperflorens). They are usually called alpine strawberries. They either form runners or multiple crowns in a cluster, fruit over a very long period with larger fruit than the common wood strawberry, and are usually propagated by seeds or division of the plants. The type in cultivation is usually everbearing and produces few runners. Plants tend to lose vigour after a few years due to their abundant fruiting and flowering with final decline caused by viral diseases. [13] Large-fruiting forms are known since the 18th century and were called "Fressant" in France. [14] Some cultivars have fruit that are white or yellow when fully ripe, instead of the normal red.

Cultivars that form stolons are often used as groundcover, while cultivars that do not may be used as border plants. Some cultivars are bred for their ornamental value. Hybrids, Fragaria × vescana, have been created from crosses between woodland strawberry and garden strawberry. Hybrids between the woodland strawberry and the European species Fragaria viridis were in cultivation until around 1850, but are now lost. [15]

Alpine strawberry has an undeserved reputation among home gardeners as hard to grow from seed, often with rumors of long and sporadic germination times, cold pre-chilling requirements, etc.[ citation needed ] In reality, with proper handling of the very small seeds (which can easily be washed away with rough watering), 80% germination rates at 70 °F (21 °C) 1–2 weeks are easily achievable.[ citation needed ]

Alpine strawberries are sometimes included as edging plants in herbaceous borders. [16]

Garden varieties currently in cultivation

[17] [18] [19]

Seed-propagated
Cultivars

Forms with runners are still found in old gardens.

Curious mutations have arisen and are sometimes grown by plantsmen and other connoisseurs of the unusual:

Chemistry

F. vesca contains the ellagitannin agrimoniin which is an isomer of sanguiin H-6. [21]

See also

Related Research Articles

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A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit. Typically, berries are juicy, rounded, brightly colored, sweet, sour or tart, and do not have a stone or pit, although many pips or seeds may be present. Common examples are strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, red currants, white currants and blackcurrants. In Britain, soft fruit is a horticultural term for such fruits.

<i>Fragaria</i> Genus of strawberry plants

Fragaria is a genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, commonly known as strawberries for their edible fruits. There are more than 20 described species and many hybrids and cultivars. The most common strawberries grown commercially are cultivars of the garden strawberry, a hybrid known as Fragaria × ananassa. Strawberries have a taste that varies by cultivar, and ranges from quite sweet to rather tart. Strawberries are an important commercial fruit crop, widely grown in all temperate regions of the world.

<i>Potentilla</i> Genus of flowering plants in the rose family Rosaceae

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Agriculture in Mesoamerica

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<i>Arbutus unedo</i> Species of flowering plant in the heather family Ericaceae

Arbutus unedo, the strawberry tree, is an evergreen shrub or small tree in the flowering plant family Ericaceae, native to the Mediterranean region and western Europe north to western France and Ireland. Due to its presence in southwest and northwest Ireland, it is known as either "Irish strawberry tree", or cain or cane apple, or sometimes Killarney strawberry tree.

Strawberry Edible fruit

The garden strawberry is a widely grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries, which are cultivated worldwide for their fruit. The fruit is widely appreciated for its characteristic aroma, bright red color, juicy texture, and sweetness. It is consumed in large quantities, either fresh or in such prepared foods as jam, juice, pies, ice cream, milkshakes, and chocolates. Artificial strawberry flavorings and aromas are also widely used in products such as candy, soap, lip gloss, perfume, and many others.

<i>Fragaria virginiana</i> Species of strawberry

Fragaria virginiana, known as Virginia strawberry, wild strawberry, common strawberry, or mountain strawberry, is a North American strawberry that grows across much of the United States and southern Canada. It is one of the two species of wild strawberry that were hybridized to create the modern domesticated garden strawberry.

Musk strawberry Species of fruit and plant

The musk strawberry or hautbois strawberry, is a species of strawberry native to Europe. Its French name hautbois strawberry may be anglicised as hautboy strawberry. The plants are hardy and can survive in many weather conditions. They are cultivated commercially on a small scale, particularly in Italy. The fruit are small and round; they are used in the gourmet community for their intense aroma and flavour, which has been compared to a mixture of regular strawberry, raspberry and pineapple. Popular cultivated varieties include 'Capron' and 'Profumata di Tortona'.

<i>Fragaria × vescana</i> Hybrid strawberry

Fragaria × vescana is a hybrid strawberry cultivar that was created in an effort to combine the best traits of the garden strawberry, which has large berries and vigorous plants, with the woodland strawberry, which has an exquisite flavour, but small berries.

<i>Fragaria chiloensis</i> Species of plant

Fragaria chiloensis, the beach strawberry, Chilean strawberry, or coastal strawberry, is one of two species of wild strawberry that were hybridized to create the modern garden strawberry. It is noted for its large berries. Its natural range is the Pacific Ocean coasts of North and South America, and also Hawaii. Migratory birds are thought to have dispersed F. chiloensis from the Pacific coast of North America to the mountains of Hawaii, Chile, and Argentina.

<i>Potentilla sterilis</i> Species of flowering plant in the rose family Rosaceae

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Eastern Agricultural Complex

The Eastern Agricultural Complex was one of about 10 independent centers of plant domestication in the pre-historic world. By about 1800 BCE the Native Americans of North America were cultivating several species of plants, thus transitioning from a hunter-gatherer economy to agriculture. After 200 BCE when maize from Mexico was introduced to the Eastern Woodlands, the Native Americans of the present-day United States and Canada slowly changed from growing local indigenous plants to a maize-based agricultural economy. The cultivation of local indigenous plants other than squash declined and was eventually abandoned. The formerly domesticated plants, except for squash, returned to their wild forms.

<i>Narcissus pseudonarcissus</i> Species of plant

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<i>Cucurbita maxima</i> Species of squash

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Pineberry Strawberry cultivar

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The breeding of strawberries started with the selection and cultivation of European strawberry species in western Europe in the 15th century while a similar discovery and cultivation occurred in Chile. The most commonly consumed strawberry species in modern times is the garden strawberry, a species derived from hybridization of two other species, with the scientific name Fragaria × ananassa, but there are many species of strawberries, several others of which are cultivated to some extent. The strawberry species fall into several different genetic types, based on their number of chromosomes. Strawberry growers have employed many breeding techniques, starting with traditional plant breeding and then moving on to molecular breeding and genetic engineering in the 20th century.

Fragaria orientalis is a diploid species of wild strawberry native to E. Asia – Eastern Siberia. It is occasionally cultivated as a novelty edible. It is written as 东方草莓 in Simplified Chinese and called in Mandarin.

References

  1. 1 2 "Fragaria vesca L." Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2020-11-12.
  2. Sullivan, Steven. K. (2015). "Fragaria vesca". Wildflower Search. Retrieved 2015-06-16.
  3. "Fragaria vesca". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA . Retrieved 2015-06-16.
  4. Klinkenberg, Brian, ed. (2014). "Fragaria vesca". E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Retrieved 2015-06-16.
  5. Giblin, David, ed. (2015). "Fragaria vesca". WTU Herbarium Image Collection. Burke Museum, University of Washington. Retrieved 2015-06-16.
  6. "Fragaria vesca". Jepson eFlora: Taxon page. Jepson Herbarium; University of California, Berkeley. 2015. Retrieved 2015-06-16.
  7. 1 2 Vilmorin-Andrieux et cie (1885). The Vegetable Garden. London: J. Murray. pp. 538–539.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 Munger, Gregory T. (2006). "Fragaria vesca". Fire Effects Information System (FEIS). US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service (USFS), Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. Retrieved 2008-08-06 via https://www.feis-crs.org/feis/.
  9. The Xerces Society (2016), Gardening for Butterflies: How You Can Attract and Protect Beautiful, Beneficial Insects, Timber Press.
  10. Shulaev, Vladimir; et al. (December 2010). "The genome of woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca)". Nature . 43 (2): 109–116. doi:10.1038/ng.740. PMC   3326587 . PMID   21186353.
  11. "Internet Archaeol 1. Tomlinson & Hall. 7". intarch.ac.uk. Retrieved 2017-08-28.
  12. Ece Turhan and Sevgi Paydas Kargi (June 2007), "Strawberry Production in Turkey" (PDF), Chronica Horticulturae , 47 (2): 18–20, ISSN   0578-039X
  13. "Fragaria vesca 'Semperflorens'". Plants for a Future . Retrieved 2017-08-20.
  14. Staudt, Günter (2003), Les dessins d'A. N. Duchesne pour son Histoire naturelle des fraisiers, Paris: Muséum Nat. d'histoire Naturelle
  15. Staudt, Günter; Dimeglio, Laura M.; Davis, Thomas M.; Gerstberger, Pedro (December 2003), "Fragaria × bifera Duch.: Origin and taxonomy", Botanische Jahrbücher, 125 (1): 53–72, doi:10.1127/0006-8152/2003/0125-0053
  16. "BBC - Gardening: Plant Finder - Alpine strawberry".
  17. Wachsmuth, Brigitte (April 2009), "Von Monats-, Wald- und Moschuserdbeeren", Gartenpraxis, 35 (4): 20–28
  18. Wachsmuth, Brigitte (December 2010), "Wild, alpine and musk strawberries", The Plantsman, 9 (part 4): 245–249
  19. Wachsmuth, Brigitte (March 2014). "Annotated List of Alpine, Wild, and Musk Strawberry Varieties Currently in Cultivation". www.ipke.de. Retrieved 2017-08-20.
  20. Chest of Books: William Curtis, The Botanical Magazine, or, Flower-Garden Displayed, Vol. 1
  21. Vrhovsek, Urska; Guella, Graziano; Gasperotti, Mattia; Pojer, Elisa; Zancato, Mirella; Mattivi, Fulvio (2012), "Clarifying the Identity of the Main Ellagitannin in the Fruit of the Strawberry, Fragaria vesca and Fragaria ananassa Duch.", J. Agric. Food Chem., 60 (10): 2507–2516, doi:10.1021/jf2052256, PMID   22339338