Mule deer

Last updated

Mule deer
Mule buck doe elk creek r myatt (5489811074).jpg
Doe (left) and buck (right) in Elk Creek, Oregon[ which? ]
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Capreolinae
Genus: Odocoileus
Species:
O. hemionus
Binomial name
Odocoileus hemionus
Rafinesque, 1817 [2]
Subspecies

10, but some disputed (see text)

Odocoileus hemionus map.svg
Distribution map of subspecies:
  Sitka black-tailed deer (O. h. sitkensis)
  Columbian black-tailed deer (O. h. columbianus)
  California mule deer (O. h. californicus)
  southern mule deer (O. h. fuliginatus)
  peninsular mule deer (O. h. peninsulae)
  desert mule deer (O. h. eremicus)
  Rocky Mountain mule deer (O. h. hemionus)
Synonyms [3] [4]
  • Cervus hemionusRafinesque, 1817
  • Cervus auritusWarden, 1820
  • Cervus macrotisSay, 1823
  • Cervus lewisiiPeale, 1848
  • Cariacus punctulatusGray, 1852
  • Cervus richardsoniAudubon & Bahman, 1848
  • Eucervus pusillaGray, 1873
  • Dorcelaphus crookiMearns, 1897
  • Cariacus virgultusHallock, 1899

The mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) is a deer indigenous to western North America; it is named for its ears, which are large like those of the mule. Two subspecies of mule deer are grouped into the black-tailed deer. [1] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]

Contents

Unlike the related white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), which is found through most of North America east of the Rocky Mountains and in the valleys of the Rocky Mountains from Idaho and Wyoming northward, mule deer are only found on the western Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, the southwest United States, and on the west coast of North America. Mule deer have also been introduced to Argentina and Kauai, Hawaii. [5]

Description

Small herd of mule deer in the Sulphur Springs Valley of southern Arizona Mule Deer Sulphur Springs Valley Arizona 2014.jpg
Small herd of mule deer in the Sulphur Springs Valley of southern Arizona
Stotting mule deer Stotting mule deer.jpg
Stotting mule deer
Female desert/burro mule deer (O. h. eremicus) in Truth or Consequences, New Mexico Mule Deer Trotting.jpg
Female desert/burro mule deer (O. h. eremicus) in Truth or Consequences, New Mexico

The most noticeable differences between white-tailed and mule deer are ear size, tail color, and antler configuration. In many cases, body size is also a key difference. The mule deer's tail is black-tipped, whereas the white-tailed deer's is not. Mule deer antlers are bifurcated; they "fork" as they grow, rather than branching from a single main beam, as is the case with white-taileds.

Each spring, a buck's antlers start to regrow almost immediately after the old antlers are shed. Shedding typically takes place in mid-February, with variations occurring by locale.

Although capable of running, mule deer are often seen stotting (also called pronking), with all four feet coming down together.

The mule deer is the larger of the two Odocoileus species on average, with a height of 80–106 cm (31–42 in) at the shoulders and a nose-to-tail length ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 m (3.9 to 6.9 ft). Of this, the tail may comprise 11.6 to 23 cm (4.6 to 9.1 in). Adult bucks normally weigh 55–150 kg (121–331 lb), averaging around 92 kg (203 lb), although trophy specimens may weigh up to 210 kg (460 lb). Does (female deer) are smaller and typically weigh from 43 to 90 kg (95 to 198 lb), with an average of around 68 kg (150 lb). [10] [11] [12] [13]

Unlike the white-tailed, the mule deer does not generally show marked size variation across its range, although environmental conditions can cause considerable weight fluctuations in any given population. An exception to this is the Sitka deer subspecies (O. h. sitkensis). This race is markedly smaller than other mule deer, with an average weight of 54.5 kg (120 lb) and 36 kg (79 lb) in males and females, respectively. [14]

Seasonal behaviors

In addition to movements related to available shelter and food, the breeding cycle is important in understanding deer behavior. The "rut" or mating season usually begins in the fall as does go into estrus for a period of a few days and males become more aggressive, competing for mates. Does may mate with more than one buck and go back into estrus within a month if they did not become pregnant. The gestation period is about 190–200 days, with fawns born in the spring. [15] The survival rate of the fawns during labor is about 50%. [16] Fawns stay with their mothers during the summer and are weaned in the fall after about 60–75 days. Mule deer females usually give birth to two fawns, although if it is their first time having a fawn, they often have just one. [15]

A buck's antlers fall off during the winter, then grow again in preparation for the next season's rut. The annual cycle of antler growth is regulated by changes in the length of the day. [15] [17]

The size of mule deer groups follows a marked seasonal pattern. Groups are smallest during fawning season (June and July in Saskatchewan and Alberta) and largest in early gestation (winter; February and March in Saskatchewan and Alberta). [17]

Besides humans, the three leading predators of mule deer are coyotes, wolves, and cougars. Bobcats, Canada lynx, wolverines, American black bears, and grizzly bears may prey upon adult deer, but most often only attack fawns or infirm specimens, or eat a deer after it has died naturally. Bears and smaller-sized carnivores are typically opportunistic feeders, and pose little threat to a strong, healthy mule deer. [11]

Diet and foraging behaviors

Mule deer foraging on a late winter morning at Okanagan Mountain Provincial Park

In 99 studies of mule deer diets, some 788 species of plants were eaten by mule deer, and their diets vary greatly depending on the season, geographic region, year, and elevation. [18] The studies [19] gave these data for Rocky Mountain mule deer diets: [20]

Shrubs and trees Forbs Grasses and grass-like plants
Winter74%15%11% (varies 0–53%)
Spring49%25%26% (varies 4–64%)
Summer49%46% (varies 3–77%)3% (varies 0–22%)
Fall60%30% (varies 2–78%)9% (varies 0–24%)

The diets of mule deer are very similar to those of white-tailed deer in areas where they coexist. [21] [18] Mule deer are intermediate feeders rather than pure browsers or grazers; they predominantly browse, but also eat forb vegetation, small amounts of grass, and where available, tree or shrub fruits such as beans, pods, nuts (including acorns), and berries. [18] [20]

Mule deer readily adapt to agricultural products and landscape plantings. [22] [23] In the Sierra Nevada range, mule deer depend on the lichen Bryoria fremontii as a winter food source. [24]

The most common plant species consumed by mule deer are:

Mule deer have also been known to eat ricegrass, gramagrass, and needlegrass, as well as bearberry, bitter cherry, black oak, California buckeye, ceanothus, cedar, cliffrose, cottonwood, creek dogwood, creeping barberry, dogwood, Douglas fir, elderberry, Fendlera species, goldeneye, holly-leaf buckthorn, jack pine, knotweed, Kohleria species, manzanita, mesquite, pine, rabbitbrush, ragweed, redberry, scrub oak, serviceberry (including Pacific serviceberry), Sierra juniper, silktassel, snowberry, stonecrop, sunflower, tesota, thimbleberry, turbinella oak, velvet elder, western chokecherry, wild cherry, and wild oats. [25] Where available, mule deer also eat a variety of wild mushrooms, which are most abundant in late summer and fall in the southern Rocky Mountains; mushrooms provide moisture, protein, phosphorus, and potassium. [18] [25]

Male Rocky Mountain mule deer (O. h. hemionus) in Zion National Park Mule Deer in Zion Canyon.jpeg
Male Rocky Mountain mule deer (O. h. hemionus) in Zion National Park
Male O. h. hemionus near Leavenworth, Washington Muledeerleavenworth.jpg
Male O. h. hemionus near Leavenworth, Washington
Female Columbian black-tailed deer (O. h. columbianus) in Olympic National Park Odocoileus hemionus 5432.JPG
Female Columbian black-tailed deer (O. h. columbianus) in Olympic National Park

Humans sometimes engage in supplemental feeding efforts in severe winters in an attempt to avoid mule deer starvation. Wildlife agencies discourage most such efforts, which may cause harm to mule deer populations by spreading disease (such as tuberculosis and chronic wasting disease) when deer congregate for feed, disrupting migratory patterns, and causing overpopulation of local mule deer populations and overbrowsing of shrubs and forbs. [26] Supplemental feeding efforts are appropriate when carefully conducted under limited circumstances, but to be successful, the feeding must begin early in the severe winter (before poor range conditions and severe weather cause malnourishment or starvation) and must be continued until range conditions can support the herd. [26]

Mule deer are variably gregarious, with a large proportion of solitary individuals (35 to 64%) and small groups (groups with ≤5 deer, 50 to 78%). [27] [28] Reported mean group size measurements are three to five and typical group size (i.e. crowding) is about seven. [17] [29]

Nutrition

Mule deer are ruminants, meaning they employ a nutrient acquisition strategy of fermenting plant material before digesting it. Deer consuming high-fiber, low-starch diets require less food than those consuming high-starch, low-fiber diets. Rumination time also increases when deer consume high-fiber, low-starch diets, which allows for increased nutrient acquisition due to greater length of fermentation. [30] Because some of the subspecies of mule deer are migratory, they encounter variable habitats and forage quality throughout the year. [31] Forages consumed in the summer are higher in digestible components (i.e. proteins, starches, sugars, and hemicellulose) than those consumed in the winter. The average gross energy content of the consumed forage material is 4.5 kcal/g. [32] Due to fluctuations in forage quality and availability, mule deer fat storage varies throughout the year, with the most fat stored in October, which is depleted throughout the winter to the lowest levels of fat storage in March. Changes in hormone levels are indications of physiological adjustments to the changes in the habitat. Total body fat is a measure of the individual's energy reserves, while thyroid hormone concentrations are a metric to determine the deer's ability to use the fat reserves. Triiodothyronine (T3) hormone is directly involved with basal metabolic rate and thermoregulation. [33]

Taxonomy

Mule deer can be divided into two main groups: the mule deer ( sensu stricto ) and the black-tailed deer. The first group includes all subspecies, except O. h. columbianus and O. h. sitkensis , which are in the black-tailed deer group. [5] The two main groups have been treated as separate species, but they hybridize, and virtually all recent authorities treat the mule deer and black-tailed deer as conspecific. [1] [5] [6] [7] [9] [34] Mule deer apparently evolved from the black-tailed deer. [9] Despite this, the mtDNA of the white-tailed deer and mule deer is similar, but differs from that of the black-tailed deer. [9] This may be the result of introgression, although hybrids between the mule deer and white-tailed deer are rare in the wild (apparently more common locally in West Texas), and the hybrid survival rate is low even in captivity. [8] [9] Many claims of observations of wild hybrids are not legitimate, as identification based on external features is complicated. [8]

Subspecies

Some authorities have recognized O. h. crooki as a senior synonym of O. h. eremicus, but the type specimen of the former is a hybrid between the mule deer and white-tailed deer, so the name O. h. crooki is invalid. [5] [35] Additionally, the validity of O. h. inyoensis has been questioned, and the two insular O. h. cerrosensis and O. h. sheldoni may be synonyms of O. h. eremicus or O. h. peninsulae. [34]

The 10 valid subspecies, based on the third edition of Mammal Species of the World , are: [5]

Related Research Articles

Deer A family of mammals belonging to even-toed ungulates

Deer or true deer are hoofed ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups of deer are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the elk (wapiti), the red deer, the fallow deer, and the chital; and the Capreolinae, including the reindeer (caribou), the roe deer, the mule deer, and the moose. Female reindeer, and male deer of all species except the Chinese water deer, grow and shed new antlers each year. In this they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are part of a different family (Bovidae) within the same order of even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla).

Fallow deer A genus of deer consisting of the [[fallow deer]] and [[Persian fallow deer]]

The fallow deer is a species of ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. It is native to Europe, but has been introduced around the world.

Sika deer Species of deer native to much of East Asia

The sika deer also known as the spotted deer or the Japanese deer, is a species of deer native to much of East Asia, and introduced to various other parts of the world. Previously found from northern Vietnam in the south to the Russian Far East in the north, it is now uncommon in these areas, excluding Japan, where the species is overabundant.

White-tailed deer Species of mammal

The white-tailed deer, also known as the whitetail or Virginia deer, is a medium-sized deer native to North America, Central America, Ecuador, and South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia. It has also been introduced to New Zealand, all the Greater Antilles in the Caribbean, and some countries in Europe, such as Czechia, Finland, Romania, Serbia, Germany, and France. In the Americas, it is the most widely distributed wild ungulate.

Black-tailed deer

Two forms of black-tailed deer or blacktail deer that occupy coastal woodlands in the Pacific Northwest of North America are subspecies of the mule deer. They have sometimes been treated as a species, but virtually all recent authorities maintain they are subspecies. The Columbian black-tailed deer is found in western North America, from Northern California into the Pacific Northwest of the United States and coastal British Columbia in Canada. The Sitka deer is found coastally in British Columbia, southeast Alaska, and southcentral Alaska.

Sitka deer

The Sitka deer or Sitka black-tailed deer, is a subspecies of mule deer, similar to the Columbian black-tailed subspecies. Their name originates from Sitka, Alaska, and it is not to be confused with the similarly named sika deer. Weighing in on average between 48 and 90 kg, Sitka deer are characteristically smaller than other subspecies of mule deer. Reddish-brown in the summer, their coats darken to a gray-brown in mid- to late August. They are also good swimmers, and can occasionally be seen crossing deep channels between islands. Their average lifespan is about 10 years, but a few are known to have attained an age of 15.

Key deer

The Key deer is an endangered deer that lives only in the Florida Keys. It is a subspecies of the white-tailed deer. It is the smallest North American deer.

Pampas deer A species of mammals belonging to the deer, muntjac, roe deer, reindeer, and moose family of ruminants

The Pampas deer is a species of deer that live in the grasslands of South America at low elevations. They are known as venado or gama in Spanish and as veado-campeiro in Portuguese. Their habitat includes water and hills, often with winter drought, and grass that is high enough to cover a standing deer. Many of them live on the Pantanal wetlands, where there are ongoing conservation efforts, and other areas of annual flooding cycles. Human activity has changed much of the original landscape. They are known to live up to 12 years in the wild, longer if captive, but are threatened due to over-hunting and habitat loss. Many people are concerned over this loss, because a healthy deer population means a healthy grassland, and a healthy grassland is home to many species, some also threatened. Many North American birds migrate south to these areas, and if the Pampas deer habitat is lost, they are afraid these bird species will also decline. There are approximately 80,000 Pampas deer total, with the majority of them living in Brazil.

Columbian white-tailed deer

The Columbian white-tailed deer is one of the several subspecies of white-tailed deer in North America. It is a member of the Cervidae (deer) family, which includes mule deer, elk, moose, caribou, and the black-tailed deer that live nearby.

Elk Large antlered species of deer from North America and east Asia

The elk or wapiti is one of the largest species within the deer family, Cervidae, and one of the largest terrestrial mammals in North America and Northeast Asia. This animal should not be confused with the still larger moose of North America, alternatively known as "elk" in British English and related names in other European languages, in reference to populations in Eurasia. Elk range in forest and forest-edge habitat, feeding on grasses, plants, leaves, and bark. Male elk have large antlers which are shed each year. Males also engage in ritualized mating behaviors during the rut, including posturing, antler wrestling (sparring), and bugling, a loud series of vocalizations that establishes dominance over other males and attracts females.

California mule deer

The California mule deer is a subspecies of mule deer whose range covers much of the state of California.

Taruca

The taruca, or north Andean deer, is a species of deer native to South America.

American mountain deer

Odocoileus lucasi, known commonly as the American mountain deer, is an extinct species of North American deer.

The Cedros Island mule deer is a subspecies of mule deer found only on Cedros Island off the coast of Baja California. Only about 50 individuals remain, with no captive population. Its behavior is similar to that of other subspecies of mule deer. The subspecies is threatened by feral dogs and poaching.

Mammals of Glacier National Park (U.S.)

There are at least 14 large mammal and 50 small mammal species known to occur in Glacier National Park.

Alberta Mountain forests Temperate coniferous forest ecoregion in Alberta and British Columbia

The Alberta Mountain forests are a temperate coniferous forests ecoregion of Canada.

Mammals of Olympic National Park

There are at least 9 large terrestrial mammal, 50 small mammal and 14 marine mammal species known to occur in Olympic National Park.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Sanchez Rojas, G. & Gallina Tessaro, S. (2008). "Odocoileus hemionus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2008. Retrieved 8 April 2009.Cite uses deprecated parameter |last-author-amp= (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of least concern.
  2. "Odocoileus hemionus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System . Retrieved 23 March 2006.
  3. Anderson, Allen E.; Wallmo, Olof C. (27 April 1984). "Odocoileus hemionus". Mammalian Species (219): 1–9. doi: 10.2307/3504024 . JSTOR   3504024.
  4. Rafinesque, Constantine Samuel (1817). "Extracts from the Journal of Mr. Charles Le Raye, relating to some new Quadrupeds of the Missouri Region, with Notes". The American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review. 1 (6): 436. hdl:2027/mdp.39015073310313.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. (2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN   978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC   62265494.
  6. 1 2 Nowak, Ronald M. (7 April 1999). Walker's Mammals of the World . JHU Press. ISBN   978-0-8018-5789-8 via Internet Archive.
  7. 1 2 Reid, Fiona A. (15 November 2006). Peterson Field Guide to Mammals of North America (4th ed.). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN   0-547-34553-4.
  8. 1 2 3 Heffelfinger, J. (March 2011). "Tails with a Dark Side: The truth about whitetail–mule deer hybrids". Coues Whitetail. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 Geist, Valerius (January 1998). Deer of the World: Their Evolution, Behaviour, and Ecology. Stackpole Books. ISBN   978-0-8117-0496-0.
  10. Petersen, David (1 November 1985). "North American Deer: Mule, Whitetail and Coastal Blacktail Deer". Mother Earth News . Ogden Publications. Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  11. 1 2 Misuraca, Michael (1999). "Odocoileus hemionus mule deer". Animal Diversity Web . University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020.
  12. Burnie, David (1 September 2011). Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. Dorling Kindersley Limited. ISBN   978-1-4053-6233-7.
  13. Timm, Robert M.; Slade, Norman A.; Pisani, George R. "Mule Deer Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque)". Mammals of Kansas. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
  14. "Sitka Black-tailed Deer Hunting Information". Alaska Department of Fish and Game. 2014. Archived from the original on 23 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
  15. 1 2 3 "Animal Fact Sheet: Mule Deer". Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. 2008. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
  16. Anderson, Mike (5 March 2019). "DWR Biologists Use Helicopter Rides, Ultrasound, To Check on Deer Pregnancies". KSL-TV . Cache County, UT: Bonneville International. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  17. 1 2 3 Mejía Salazar, María Fernanda; Waldner, Cheryl; Stookey, Joseph; Bollinger, Trent K. (23 March 2016). "Infectious Disease and Grouping Patterns in Mule Deer". PLOS One . 11 (3): e0150830. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1150830M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0150830. ISSN   1932-6203. PMC   4805189 . PMID   27007808.
  18. 1 2 3 4 Heffelfinger, Jim (September 2006). Deer of the Southwest: A Complete Guide to the Natural History, Biology, and Management of Southwestern Mule Deer and White-tailed Deer. Texas A&M University Press. pp. 97–111. ISBN   1585445150.
  19. Kufeld, Roland C.; Wallmo, O. C.; Feddema, Charles (July 1973). Foods of the Rocky Mountain Mule Deer (Report). USDA Forest Service. OL   14738499M via Internet Archive.
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 Colorado Natural Resources Conservation Service (March 2000). "Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus) Fact Sheet" (PDF). USDA. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 September 2020.
  21. Anthony, Robert G.; Smith, Norman S. (February 1977). "Ecological Relationships between Mule Deer and White‐Tailed Deer in Southeastern Arizona". Ecological Monographs . 47 (3): 255–277. doi:10.2307/1942517. hdl:10150/287962. JSTOR   1942517.
  22. Armstrong, David M. (19 June 2012). "Species Profile: Deer". Colorado Division of Wildlife. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
  23. Martin, Alexander Campbell; Zim, Herbert Spencer; Nelson, Arnold L. (1961). American Wildlife & Plants: A Guide to Wildlife Food Habits: The Use of Trees, Shrubs, Weeds, and Herbs by Birds and Mammals of the United States . Dover Publications. ISBN   978-0-486-20793-3 via Internet Archive.
  24. McCune, Bruce; Grenon, Jill; Mutch, Linda S.; Martin, Erin P. (2007). "Lichens in relation to management issues in the Sierra Nevada national parks". North American Fungi. 2: 2, 4. doi:10.2509/pnwf.2007.002.003.
  25. 1 2 Rue, Leonard Lee, III (October 1997). The Deer of North America. Lyons Press. pp. 499–502. ISBN   1558215778.
  26. 1 2 Mule Deer: Changing Landscapes, Changing Perspectives: Supplemental Feeding—Just Say No (PDF) (Report). Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies Mule Deer Working Group. pp. 25–26. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 May 2020 via Utah Division of Wildlife Resources.
  27. Kucera, Thomas E. (21 August 1978). "Social Behavior and Breeding System of the Desert Mule Deer". Journal of Mammalogy . 59 (3): 463–476. doi:10.2307/1380224. ISSN   0022-2372. JSTOR   1380224.
  28. Bowyer, R. Terry; McCullough, Dale R.; Belovsky, G. E. "Causes and consequences of sociality in mule deer" (PDF). Alces . 37 (2): 371–402. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 September 2020.
  29. Reiczigel, Jenő; Mejia Salazar, María Fernanda; Bollinger, Trent K.; Rózsa, Lajos (1 December 2015). "Comparing radio-tracking and visual detection methods to quantify group size measures". European Journal of Ecology . 1 (2): 1–4. doi:10.1515/eje-2015-0011. S2CID   52990318.
  30. McCusker, S.; Shipley, L. A.; Tollefson, T. N.; Griffin, M.; Koutsos, E. A. (3 July 2011). "Effects of starch and fibre in pelleted diets on nutritional status of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) fawns". Journal of Animal Nutrition. 95 (4): 489–498. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0396.2010.01076.x. PMID   21091543.
  31. deCalesta, David S.; Nagy, Julius G.; Bailey, James A. (October 1975). "Starving and Refeeding Mule Deer". The Journal of Wildlife Management . 39 (4): 663. doi:10.2307/3800224. JSTOR   3800224.
  32. Wallmo, O. C.; Carpenter, L. H.; Regelin, W. L.; Gill, R. B.; Baker, D. L. (March 1977). "Evaluation of Deer Habitat on a Nutritional Basis". Journal of Range Management. 30 (2): 122. doi:10.2307/3897753. JSTOR   3897753.
  33. Bergman, Eric J.; Doherty, Paul F.; Bishop, Chad J.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Banulis, Bradley A.; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard (3 September 2014). "Herbivore Body Condition Response in Altered Environments: Mule Deer and Habitat Management". PLOS One . 9 (9): e106374. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...9j6374B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0106374. PMC   4153590 . PMID   25184410.
  34. 1 2 Feldhamer, George A.; Thompson, Bruce C.; Chapman, Joseph A. (19 November 2003). Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation. JHU Press. ISBN   978-0-8018-7416-1.
  35. Heffelfinger, J. (11 April 2000). "Status of the name Odocoileus hemionus crooki (Mammalia: Cervidae)" (PDF). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington . 113 (1): 319–333. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 September 2020.

Further reading