The Bali cattle (Bos domesticus), also known as Balinese cattle, domestic banteng or Bali banteng,  are a domesticated species of bovine which originated from the banteng (Bos javanicus). Bali cattle are an important source of meat and are used for plowing. They are thought to have originated in Bali.
The Bali cattle are one of the few species of true cattle that did not descend from the extinct aurochs.  Their domestication occurred around 3500 BC, originating from banteng. 
Bali cattle have been introduced to East Timor, Java, Malaysia and Australia as livestock, and account for about one fourth of the total cattle population of Indonesia.  In eastern islands, they account for up to four-fifths of the cattle.  In the Northern Territory of Australia, they have escaped from captivity and roam in large herds damaging crops.
Bali cattle have a hump, a white rump patch, white stockings, and white extending under the belly.   Females are reddish-yellow, and males are reddish brown, turning to a dark brown with maturity. Compared to banteng, Bali cattle are smaller, demonstrate less obvious sexual dimorphism, have smaller horns, and have less developed withers.  Body weights of males average from 335 to 363 kilograms, while females average from 211 kilograms to 242 kilograms. 
Bali cattle are noted for their remarkable ability to grow on low-quality fodder and their high fertility. 
The temperament of the Bali cattle is timid and deer-like, making them suitable for plowing rice paddy fields, but their hooves are too soft to pull cargo on paved roads.   Mechanization and urbanization are making the cattle redundant as draft animals, however. 
Meat from young Bali cattle is noted for being exceptionally tender. 
Problems with the livestock include small birth and weaning weights, high calf mortality rates, a slow growth rates, and low milk production. 
Artificial insemination was first introduced to Bali cattle in southern Sulawesi and Timor in 1975 and 1976. It has been performed in Bali since the 1980s with semen from the National Artificial Insemination Centre of Singosari, and semen has been produced and distributed by the Artificial Insemination Centre of the Bali Province since 2001. 
Domestic banteng are noted for their high resistance to most diseases. However, they are susceptible to malignant catarrhal.  The cattle are also very susceptible to Jembrana disease,  which was first described in the cattle in 1964. 
The population of Bali cattle has been declining in most places, due to greater consumption of the cattle than local capacity to supply.  In recent years, there have been calls to increase the population of domestic banteng. Ronny Rachman Noor from Bogor Agricultural Institute has charged that the Indonesian government has undervalued the cattle simply because they were local, and that national policies must be enacted to optimally preserve the cattle. 
The Indonesian government has understood the need to explore new strategies to improve the low productivity of Bali banteng and address concerns relating to husbandry and nutrition, but this adoption has been historically slow. 
The Belgian Blue is a breed of beef cattle from Belgium. It may also be known as the Race de la Moyenne et Haute Belgique, or dikbil. Alternative names for this breed include Belgian Blue-White; Belgian White and Blue Pied; Belgian White Blue; Blue; and Blue Belgian. The Belgian Blue's extremely lean, hyper-sculpted, ultra-muscular physique is termed "double-muscling". The double-muscling phenotype is a heritable condition resulting in an increased number of muscle fibres (hyperplasia), instead of the (normal) enlargement of individual muscle fibres (hypertrophy).
The zebu, sometimes known in the plural as indicine cattle or humped cattle, is a species or subspecies of domestic cattle originating in the Indian sub-continent. Zebu are characterised by a fatty hump on their shoulders, a large dewlap, and sometimes drooping ears. They are well adapted to withstanding high temperatures, and are farmed throughout the tropical countries, both as pure zebu and as hybrids with taurine cattle, the other main type of domestic cattle. Zebu are used as draught and riding animals, dairy cattle, and beef cattle, as well as for byproducts such as hides and dung for fuel and manure. Some small breeds such as the miniature zebu are also kept as pets. In 1999, researchers at Texas A&M University successfully cloned a zebu.
Bos is the genus of wild and domestic cattle. Bos is often divided into four subgenera: Bos, Bibos, Novibos, and Poephagus, but including these last three divisions within the genus Bos without including Bison in the genus is believed to be polyphyletic by many workers on the classification of the genus since the 1980s. The genus as traditionally defined has five extant species but this rises to eight when the domesticated varieties are counted as separate species, and ten when the closely related genus Bison is also included. Most but not all modern breeds of domesticated cattle are believed to have originated from the extinct aurochs. Many ancient breeds are thought to have originated from other species. Zebus and taurine cattle are thought to descend from ancient Indian and Middle Eastern aurochs, respectively.
Artificial insemination is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female's cervix or uterine cavity for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than sexual intercourse or in vitro fertilisation. It is a fertility treatment for humans, and is common practice in animal breeding, including dairy cattle and pigs.
The domestic yak, also known as the Tartary ox, grunting ox or hairy cattle, is a species of long-haired domesticated cattle found throughout the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern Myanmar, Yunnan, Sichuan Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan and as far north as Mongolia and Siberia. It is descended from the wild yak.
Purebreds are "cultivated varieties" of an animal species achieved through the process of selective breeding. When the lineage of a purebred animal is recorded, that animal is said to be "pedigreed". Purebreds breed true-to-type which means the progeny of like-to-like purebred parents will carry the same phenotype, or observable characteristics of the parents. A group of purebreds is called a pure-breeding line or strain.
Insemination is the introduction of sperm into a female’s reproductive system for the purpose of impregnating, also called fertilizing, the female for sexual reproduction. The sperm is introduced into the uterus of a mammal or the oviduct of an oviparous (egg-laying) animal. In mammals, insemination normally occurs during sexual intercourse or copulation, but insemination can take place in other ways, such as by artificial insemination.
The banteng, also known as tembadau, is a species of cattle found in Southeast Asia. The head-and-body length is between 1.9 and 3.68 m. Wild banteng are typically larger and heavier than their domesticated counterparts, but are otherwise similar in appearance. The banteng shows extensive sexual dimorphism; adult bulls are generally dark brown to black, larger and more sturdily built than adult cows, which are thinner and usually pale brown or chestnut red. There is a big white patch on the rump. Horns are present on both sexes, and are typically 60 to 95 cm long. Three subspecies are generally recognised.
Dairy cattle are cattle bred for the ability to produce large quantities of milk, from which dairy products are made. Dairy cattle generally are of the species Bos taurus.
The Australian Charbray is an Australian breed of cattle derived from a cross between the French Charolais cattle and American Brahman cattle. The charbray breed was first conceived in the United States of America in the 1930s and later introduced into Australia in 1969. In Australia, Australian charbray breeders are concentrated in the tropical Northern regions of Queensland. As of 1977, the official breeder society of Charbray cattle in Australia and New Zealand is the Charbray Society of Australia Limited, responsible for recording Charbray cattle in herd books, fostering improvement, enhancement and sales of Charbray cattle.
The Armoricaine or Armorican is an endangered French breed of domestic cattle. It originated in Brittany in the nineteenth century. It has a red coat with white markings, and has short horns.
The tribe Bovini, or wild cattle, are medium to massive bovines that are native to North America, Eurasia, and Africa. These include the enigmatic, antelope-like saola, the African and Asiatic buffalos, and a clade that consists of bison and the wild cattle of the genus Bos. Not only are they the largest members of the subfamily Bovinae, they are the largest species of their family Bovidae. The largest species is the gaur, weighing up to 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
In Sri Lanka many farmers depend on animal husbandry for their livelihood, but not a large proportion. Therefore, many livestock products have to be imported. The main livestock products in Sri Lanka are milk, meat and eggs. Hides, wools and other products are still not produced within the country. Animal power formerly used in the cultivation of rice and vegetables have been replaced by modern technology to farmlands. However animal husbandry plays an important role in the rural economy for improving the living conditions of farmers in the country.
Cattle are large, domesticated, cloven-hooved, herbivores. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae and the most widespread species of the genus Bos. Adult females are referred to as cows and adult males are referred to as bulls.
The Krishna Valley is an Indian breed of draught cattle. It originated in the areas drained by the Krishna, Ghataprabha and Malaprabha rivers. It is a recently-created breed, bred in the late nineteenth century as a draught animal for agricultural purposes.
Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources is a strategy wherein samples of animal genetic materials are preserved cryogenically.
The Bohuskulla is an endangered Swedish breed of hornless mountain cattle. It originates from the area of the Kynnefjäll plateau in northern Bohuslän and Dalsland, in western Sweden. It is a traditional domestic Swedish breed, and derives from a group of cattle discovered in the 1990s in Skepplanda, in Västergötland, close to the border with Bohuslän. Microsatellite analysis has shown it to be closely related to the Fjällko mountain cattle of Sweden.
The Swiss Holstein is the Swiss variant of the international Holstein-Friesian breed of dairy cattle. It results from systematic cross-breeding, through artificial insemination between 1966 and 1973, of the traditional dual-purpose black-pied Fribourgeoise from the Canton of Fribourg in western Switzerland with Canadian Holstein stock.
The Dutch Improved Red Pied, Dutch: Verbeterd Roodbont, is a recently-developed Dutch breed of beef cattle. It derives from the dual-purpose Meuse-Rhine-Issel breed, and is characterised by a high incidence of the double-muscling gene. A breed association was started in 1988.