Temporal range: Late Miocene to recent
|Père David's Deer (Elaphurus davidianus)|
|Subfamily:|| Cervinae |
The Cervinae or the Old World deer (denoting their place of origin, not their current distribution), are a subfamily of deer. Alternatively, they are known as the plesiometacarpal deer, due to their ankle structure being different from the telemetacarpal deer of the Capreolinae.
The following species are recognised in extant genera:
Deer or true deer are hoofed ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups of deer are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the elk (wapiti), the red deer, and the fallow deer; and the Capreolinae, including the reindeer (caribou), white-tailed deer, the roe deer, and the moose. Male deer of all species as well as female reindeer, grow and shed new antlers each year. In this they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are part of a different family (Bovidae) within the same order of even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla).
The red deer is one of the largest deer species. A male red deer is called a stag or hart, and a female is called a hind. The red deer inhabits most of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains region, Anatolia, Iran, and parts of western Asia. It also inhabits the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and Tunisia, being the only species of deer to inhabit Africa. Red deer have been introduced to other areas, including Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Canada, Peru, Uruguay, Chile and Argentina. In many parts of the world, the meat (venison) from red deer is used as a food source.
Megaloceros is an extinct genus of deer whose members lived throughout Eurasia from the early Pleistocene to the beginning of the Holocene and were important herbivores during the Ice Ages. The largest species, Megaloceros giganteus, vernacularly known as the "Irish elk" or "Giant elk", is also the best known. Fallow deer are thought to be their closest living relatives. Megaloceros is part of the deer family which includes moose, elk, reindeer, and other cervids.
The sambar is a large deer native to the Indian subcontinent, South China, and Southeast Asia that is listed as a vulnerable species on the IUCN Red List since 2008. Populations have declined substantially due to severe hunting, local insurgency, and industrial exploitation of habitat.
The chital, also known as spotted deer, chital deer, and axis deer, is a deer species native to the Indian subcontinent. It was first described by German naturalist Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben in 1777. A moderate-sized deer, male chital reach nearly 90 cm (35 in) and females 70 cm (28 in) at the shoulder. While males weigh 30–75 kg (66–165 lb), the lighter females weigh 25–45 kg (55–99 lb). It is sexually dimorphic; males are larger than females, and antlers are present only on males. The upper parts are golden to rufous, completely covered in white spots. The abdomen, rump, throat, insides of legs, ears, and tail are all white. The antlers, three-pronged, are nearly 1 m long.
Cervus is a genus of deer that primarily are native to Eurasia, although one species occurs in northern Africa and another in North America. In addition to the species presently placed in this genus, it has included a whole range of other species now commonly placed in other genera. Additionally, the species-level taxonomy is in a state of flux.
The Kashmir stag, also called hangul, is a subspecies of Central Asian red deer endemic to Kashmir, India. It is found in dense riverine forests in the high valleys and mountains of the Kashmir Valley and northern Chamba district in Himachal Pradesh. In Kashmir, it is found in the Dachigam National Park where it receives protection but elsewhere it is more at risk. In the 1941s, the population was between 3000 and 5000 individuals, but since then habitat destruction, over-grazing by domestic livestock and poaching have reduced population dramatically. Earlier believed to be a subspecies of red deer, a number of mitochondrial DNA genetic studies later had the hangul as a part of the Asian clade of the elk. The IUCN and American Society of Mammalogists, however, includes it in the new grouping of Central Asian red deer, with the Kashmir stag being the type subspecies. According to the census in 2019, there were only 237 hanguls.
The Central Asian red deer is a deer species with a sparse distribution in Central Asia. It is considered possibly extirpated from Pakistan. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. It was first described in the mid-19th century.
The Philippine deer, also known as the Philippine sambar or Philippine brown deer, is a vulnerable deer species endemic to the Philippines. It was first described from introduced populations in Guam and the Marianas Islands, hence the specific name.
The Calamian deer, also known as Calamian hog deer, is an endangered species of deer found only in the Calamian Islands of Palawan province in the Philippines. It is one of three species of deer native to the Philippines, the other being the Philippine sambar, and Visayan spotted deer.
The Capreolinae, Odocoileinae, or the New World deer are a subfamily of deer. Alternatively, they are known as the telemetacarpal deer, due to their bone structure being different from the plesiometacarpal deer subfamily Cervinae. The telemetacarpal deer maintain their distal lateral metacarpals, while the plesiometacarpal deer maintain only their proximal lateral metacarpals. The Capreolinae are believed to have originated in the Middle Miocene, between 7.7 and 11.5 million years ago, in central Asia.
The Persian fallow deer is a deer species once native to all of the Middle East, but currently only living in Iran and Israel. It was reintroduced in Israel. It has been listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List since 2008. After a captive breeding program, the population has rebounded from only a handful of deer in the 1960s to over a thousand individuals.
Rucervus is a genus of deer from India, Nepal, Indochina, and the Chinese island of Hainan. The only extant representatives, the barasingha and Eld's deer, are threatened by habitat loss and hunting, and another species became extinct in 1938. The species of the genus Rucervus are characterized by a specific antler structure: its basal ramification is often supplemented with an additional small prong, the middle tine is never present, while the crown tines are inserted on the posterior side of the beam and may be bifurcated or fused into a small palmation.
Rusa is a genus of deer from southern Asia. They have traditionally been included in Cervus, and genetic evidence suggests this may be more appropriate than their present placement in a separate genus.
The Indian hog deer is a small deer native to the Indo-Gangetic Plain in Pakistan, northern India, Nepal, Bangladesh to mainland Southeast Asia. It also occurs in western Thailand and southwestern Yunnan Province in China. Introduced populations exist in Australia.
Echimyinae is a subfamily of rodents belonging to the spiny rats family Echimyidae. It contains 14 arboreal genera—all the members of the tribe Echimyini, plus Callistomys—a few terrestrial genera, and a subaquatic genus (Myocastor).
The Cyclocorinae are a subfamily of lamprophiid snakes endemic to the Philippines. It was erected in 2017 to house four enigmatic, endemic genera containing seven species and one undescribed lineage that are more closely related to one another than to members of the subfamilies Atractaspidinae and Aparallactinae or to other subfamilies of the Lamprophiidae. Previously placed within the Colubridae, a 2017 study by Weinell et al. found strong support the monophyly of Cyclocorinae within Lamprophiidae, but its position relative to the other subfamilies of Lamprophiidae is not resolved. Cyclocorinae was found to be a possible sister group to the Atractaspidinae. Despite high support for a close relationship from DNA, no unambiguous morphological characteristics unite these four genera. A fifth genus, Levitonius, was described in 2020.
Sinomegaceros is an extinct genus of deer known from the Early to Late Pleistocene of East Asia. It is considered to be part of the group of "giant deer", with a probable close relationship to Megaloceros. Many members of the genus are noted for their distinctive palmate antler brow tines.