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Temporal range: Early Miocene–recent
Pronghorn antelope.jpg
Pronghorns in Fort Keogh, Montana
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Superfamily: Giraffoidea
Family: Antilocapridae
J. E. Gray, 1866
Subfossil genera

For fossil genera, see text.


The Antilocapridae are a family of artiodactyls endemic to North America. Their closest extant relatives are the giraffids [1] with which they comprise the superfamily Giraffoidea. Only one species, the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), is living today; all other members of the family are extinct. The living pronghorn is a small ruminant mammal resembling an antelope.


In most respects, antilocaprids resemble other ruminants. They have a complex, four-chambered stomach for digesting tough plant matter, cloven hooves, and small, forked horns. Their horns resemble those of the bovids, in that they have a true horny sheath, but, uniquely, they are shed outside the breeding season, and subsequently regrown. Their lateral toes are even further diminished than in bovids, with the digits themselves being entirely lost, and only the cannon bones remaining. Antilocaprids have the same dental formula as most other ruminants:


The antilocaprids are ruminants of the clade Pecora. Other extant pecorans are the families Giraffidae (giraffes), Cervidae (deer), Moschidae (musk deer), and Bovidae (cattle, goats and sheep, wildebeests and allies, and antelopes). The exact interrelationships among the pecorans have been debated, mainly focusing on the placement of Giraffidae, but a recent large-scale ruminant genome sequencing study suggests Antilocapridae are the sister taxon to Giraffidae, as shown in the cladogram below. [2]


Tragulidae Tragulus napu - 1818-1842 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam - (white background).jpg


Antilocapridae Antilocapra white background.jpg

Giraffidae Giraffa camelopardalis Brockhaus white background.jpg

Cervidae The deer of all lands (1898) Hangul white background.png

Bovidae Birds and nature (1901) (14562088237) white background.jpg

Moschidae Moschus chrysogaster white background.jpg


The ancestors of pronghorn diverged from the giraffids in the Early Miocene. [2] This was in part of a relatively late mammal diversification following a climate change that transformed subtropical woodlands into open savannah grasslands. [2]

The antilocaprids evolved in North America, where they filled a niche similar to that of the bovids that evolved in the Old World. During the Miocene and Pliocene, they were a diverse and successful group, with many different species. Some had horns with bizarre shapes, or had four, or even six, horns. Examples include Osbornoceros , with smooth, slightly curved horns, Paracosoryx, with flattened horns that widened to forked tips, Ramoceros , with fan-shaped horns, and Hayoceros , with four horns. [3] [4]


Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ungulate</span> Group of animals that use the tips of their toes or hooves to walk on

Ungulates are members of the diverse clade Ungulata which primarily consists of large mammals with hooves. These include odd-toed ungulates such as horses, rhinoceroses, and tapirs; and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, sheep, deer, and hippopotamuses. Cetaceans such as whales, dolphins, and porpoises are also classified as even-toed ungulates, although they do not have hooves. Most terrestrial ungulates use the hoofed tips of their toes to support their body weight while standing or moving.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Even-toed ungulate</span> Order of mammals

The even-toed ungulates are ungulates—hoofed animals—which bear weight equally on two of their five toes: the third and fourth. The other three toes are either present, absent, vestigial, or pointing posteriorly. By contrast, odd-toed ungulates bear weight on an odd number of the five toes. Another difference between the two is that many other even-toed ungulates digest plant cellulose in one or more stomach chambers rather than in their intestine as the odd-toed ungulates do.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ruminant</span> Hoofed herbivorous grazing or browsing mammals

Ruminants are hoofed herbivorous grazing or browsing mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions. The process, which takes place in the front part of the digestive system and therefore is called foregut fermentation, typically requires the fermented ingesta to be regurgitated and chewed again. The process of rechewing the cud to further break down plant matter and stimulate digestion is called rumination. The word "ruminant" comes from the Latin ruminare, which means "to chew over again".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Giraffidae</span> Family of mammals belonging to even-toed ungulates

The Giraffidae are a family of ruminant artiodactyl mammals that share a common ancestor with deer and bovids. This family, once a diverse group spread throughout Eurasia and Africa, presently comprises only two extant genera, the giraffe and the okapi. Both are confined to sub-Saharan Africa: the giraffe to the open savannas, and the okapi to the dense rainforest of the Congo. The two genera look very different on first sight, but share a number of common features, including a long, dark-coloured tongue, lobed canine teeth, and horns covered in skin, called ossicones.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Horn (anatomy)</span> Animal anatomy of hornlike growths

A horn is a permanent pointed projection on the head of various animals that consists of a covering of keratin and other proteins surrounding a core of live bone. Horns are distinct from antlers, which are not permanent. In mammals, true horns are found mainly among the ruminant artiodactyls, in the families Antilocapridae (pronghorn) and Bovidae. Cattle horns arise from subcutaneous connective tissue and later fuse to the underlying frontal bone.

<i>Antilocapra</i> Genus of mammals

Antilocapra is a genus of the family antilocapridae, which contains only a single living species, the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana). Another species, the Pacific pronghorn, lived in California during the Late Pleistocene and survived as recently as 12,000 BP. The name means "antelope-goat".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pecora</span> Infraorder of mammals

Pecora is an infraorder of even-toed hoofed mammals with ruminant digestion. Most members of Pecora have cranial appendages projecting from their frontal bones; only two extant genera lack them, Hydropotes and Moschus. The name “Pecora” comes from the Latin word pecus, which means “horned livestock”. Although most pecorans have cranial appendages, only some of these are properly called “horns”, and many scientists agree that these appendages did not arise from a common ancestor, but instead evolved independently on at least two occasions. Likewise, while Pecora as a group is supported by both molecular and morphological studies, morphological support for interrelationships between pecoran families is disputed.

<i>Hayoceros</i> Extinct genus of mammals

Hayoceros is an extinct genus of the artiodactyl family Antilocapridae, endemic to North America during the Pleistocene epoch, existing for about 1.5 million years.

<i>Sivatherium</i> Extinct genus of mammals

Sivatherium is an extinct genus of giraffids that ranged throughout Africa to the Indian subcontinent. The species Sivatherium giganteum is, by weight, one of the largest giraffid known, and also one of the largest ruminants of all time.

<i>Osbornoceros</i> Extinct genus of mammals

Osbornoceros is an extinct artiodactyl genus of the family Antilocapridae. All antilocaprid species are extinct except for the pronghorn. Osbornoceros osborni is the only known species of the genus Osbornoceros. Osbornoceros lived during the Late Miocene around 7 to 6 million years ago in what is now North America. It is well represented in fossil discoveries, with nearly a dozen specimens having been found to date. All come from the Chamita Formation in a quarry near Lyden, New Mexico, the site of numerous other finds such as that of Chamitataxus, a prehistoric badger that lived at the same time. The holotype specimen of Osbornoceros was discovered in 1937 and many more were found nearby during further expeditions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Palaeomerycidae</span> Extinct family of deer

The Palaeomerycidae are an extinct family of ruminants in the order Artiodactyla. Palaeomerycids lived in North America, Europe, Africa and Asia from 33 to 4.9 million years ago, existing for about 28 million years; one species was also reported from South America, but its identity as a palaeomerycid was subsequently disputed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pronghorn</span> Species of North American hoofed mammal

The pronghorn is a species of artiodactyl mammal indigenous to interior western and central North America. Though not an antelope, it is known colloquially in North America as the American antelope, prong buck, pronghorn antelope and prairie antelope, because it closely resembles the antelopes of the Old World and fills a similar ecological niche due to parallel evolution. It is the only surviving member of the family Antilocapridae.

<i>Ramoceros</i> Extinct genus of mammals

Ramoceros is an extinct genus of the artiodactyl family Antilocapridae endemic to Middle Miocene (Clarendonian) North America.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Giraffoidea</span> Superfamily of mammals

Giraffoidea is a superfamily that includes the families Climacoceratidae, Antilocapridae, and Giraffidae. The only extant members in the superfamily are the pronghorn, giraffe, and okapi. The Climacoceratidae are also placed in the superfamily, but were originally placed within the family Palaeomerycidae.

<i>Merycodus</i> Extinct genus of mammals

Merycodus is an extinct genus of the artiodactyl family Antilocapridae. Fossils of this genus have been found in the Santa Fe Group of New Mexico.

<i>Stockoceros</i> Extinct genus of mammals

Stockoceros is an extinct genus of the North American artiodactyl family Antilocapridae (pronghorns), known from Mexico and the southwestern United States. Its horns are each divided near their base into two prongs of roughly equal length.

<i>Tetrameryx</i> Extinct genus of mammals

Tetrameryx is an extinct genus of the North American artiodactyl family Antilocapridae, known from Mexico, the western United States, and Saskatchewan. The name means "four [horned] ruminant", referring to the division of each horn near its base into two prongs; in T. shuleri, the rear prong is much longer.

<i>Merriamoceros</i> Extinct genus of mammals

Merriamoceros is an extinct genus of pronghorn. It is known from a single species, which is also the type species, M. coronatus.

<i>Capromeryx</i> Extinct genus of mammals

Capromeryx was a genus of dwarf pronghorns (Antilocapridae) that originated in North America during the Pliocene about 5 million years ago. The closest living relative and only surviving member of the family is the North American pronghorn.


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